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Hard Road to Freedom Volume Two

The Story of Black America

Lois E. Horton and James Oliver Horton

Publication Date - 01 July 2021

ISBN: 9780197564851

352 pages

Hard Road to Freedom offers the most powerfully written story of the Black American experience


Hard Road to Freedom tells the story of Black Americans from its roots in Africa to the social and political upheavals of today. It narrates the story of Black people in America as an expression of one of the nation's fundamental principles, the pursuit of freedom. Interweaving the experiences of individual Black Americans, it brings together stories formerly told separately. In vividly written chapters, Lois E. Horton and James Oliver Horton depict African Americans' central part in the creation of American civilization. Meticulously researched, Hard Road to Freedom blends these diverse strands into a rich tapestry of African American struggle and achievement.


  • Shows that African American history is a critical part of American history and that African Americans have figured prominently in the creation of American culture.
  • Includes dramatic tales of the black experience-Gabriel Prosser's and Nat Turner's rebellion against slavery; the inventive and heroic escapes of William and Ellen Craft and Harriet Tubman; the accomplishments of Fredrick Douglass and Maggie Lena Walker; the bravery of Freedom Riders like John Lewis; and the sacrifice and determination of women like Fannie Lou Hamer.
  • Each chapter includes "Documenting Black America," that feature a wide range of primary sources, and "Profile," which offers a short biography of an individual whose life is central to the chapter's story.
  • Learning objectives and chapter review questions provide essential study aids.
  • Compelling full-color design with over 100 photographs and nearly 50 maps.
  • Available in combined and split volumes (Volume 1: Chapters 1-8; Volume 2: Chapters 8-17).
  • An enhanced eBook increases student engagement through quizzes, flashcards, and other digital learning tools.
  • Numerous digital teaching resources, including a course cartridge, are available to adopters at Oxford Learning Link https://learninglink.oup.com/

About the Author(s)

Lois E. Horton is Professor of History Emerita at George Mason University, where she taught Sociology, American Studies and History.

Table of Contents

    List of Maps
    List of Special Features
    About the Authors


    Chapter 8 - From Reconstruction to Jim Crow

    The War's End and Lincoln's Assassination
    Aid for Freed People
    Black Politics and Black Politicians
    Progress and White Terrorist Backlash
    Emigration from the South
    Legalized Racial Control
    Profile: Hiram Rhoades Revels
    Documenting Black America: The Reconstruction Amendments

    Chapter 9- Populism, Industrial Union, and the Politics of Race
    Black Labor, North and South
    The Populist Party
    Racial Ideology and White Violence
    Two Approaches: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois
    Hard-Won Progress
    The Great Migration
    World War I: The Fight Abroad and at Home
    Profile: Henry Ossian Flipper
    Documenting Black America: Excerpt from Booker T. Washington's speech at the Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition, September 18, 1895

    Chapter 10- The Harlem Renaissance between the Wars
    Politics, Black Nationalism, and Marcus Garvey
    Cultural Roads to Achievement
    Culture, Class Issues, and Color
    Northern Urban Segregation and Political Change
    Facing the New Klan
    Profile: Josephine Baker
    Documenting Black America: Ida B. Wells-Barnett, excerpt from Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases

    Chapter 11- Depression and War
    Facing Hard Times: Family, Church, and Labor Unions
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal
    Racism and the Coming of World War II
    African Americans Fighting Abroad and at Home
    Profile: Benjamin Oliver Davis, Sr.
    Documenting Black America: Angelo Herndon, "You Cannot Kill the Working Class"

    Chapter 12- The Postwar Civil Rights Movement
    The United Nations, the Cold War, and Race
    Speaking Out against Discrimination
    Progress in Sports and Music
    The NAACP Campaign
    Nonviolent Direct Action for Integration
    Organizing the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
    Freedom Riders
    Profile: Lorraine Vivian Hansberry
    Documenting Black America: James Baldwin, excerpt from Notes of a Native Son

    Chapter 13- From Civil Rights to Black Power
    Civil Rights Gains and the Violent Backlash
    The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    Expanding Demands and Growing Violence
    Black Power and the Black Panther Party
    Attacking Poverty and Opposing the Vietnam War
    The Disheartening Season of Assassinations
    Profile: Fannie Lou Hamer
    Documenting Black America: The Black Panther Party: Ten Point Platform & Program

    Chapter 14-Conservatism and Race in Multicultural America
    Militant Black Power, Black Manhood, and Black Feminism
    Struggles for Northern Integration and Black Political Power
    The Vietnam War's End and Aftermath
    Facing the Politics of White Racial Resentment
    Profile: Harold Washington
    Documenting Black America: Jesse Jackson's 1984 Democratic National Convention Address

    Chapter 15-Race-ing to the Millennium
    The Politics of Race and Republican Attacks on Black Progress
    Recession, War, and Rioting in Los Angeles
    A Democratic President, Change, and Racial Controversies
    Liberal Reforms Built on Conservative Assumptions
    Class and Black Culture
    Conversations on Race
    Profile: John Hope Franklin
    Documenting Black America: 1999 NAACP Emergency Resolution: Economic Sanctions for South Carolina

    Chapter 16- Crisis at Home and War Abroad
    Suppressing the Black Vote and the 1965 Voting Rights Act
    The Republican Approach to Race
    Crisis at Home
    War in Iraq
    Wartime Policy Changes at Home and Abroad
    Hurricane Katrina and the Plight of African Americans
    Questioning the War on Terror
    The War in Popular Culture
    Recession Exacerbates Racial Inequality
    Profile: Colin Powell
    Documenting Black America: Ta-Nehisi
    Coates, "The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration"

    Chapter 17- The Promise of a New Era
    A New Era in American History
    Remaking America in Troubled Times
    An Exemplary First Family
    The Economy and Healthcare
    Unrelenting Opposition and Increasing Racial Tensions
    A Black Cultural Renaissance
    Conflicts in the Middle East and the Road to Re-election
    Prison Reform and the Issue of Economic Inequality
    The Story of Black America in Historical Perspective
    Profile: Toni Morrison
    Documenting Black America: President Barack Obama, Fiftieth Anniversary Speech at Selma, Alabama

    Epilogue-The Legacies of the Past
    The Trump Administration
    The Global Pandemic
    Black Lives Matter
    Looking to the Future
    Documenting Black America: John Lewis, "Together, You Can Redeem the Soul of Our Nation"

    Appendix A: Historical Documents
    Appendix B: Historical Facts and Data

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