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Gendered Worlds

Third Edition

Judy Root Aulette and Judith Wittner

Publication Date - July 2014

ISBN: 9780199335619

592 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $79.95

The most global, intersectional gender text on the market


In Gendered Worlds, Third Edition, authors Judy Root Aulette and Judith Wittner use the sociological imagination to explore gender relations throughout the world. They look at how concrete forms of gender, race, class, and sexual inequality operate transnationally; examine the impact of globalization on local and everyday life experiences; and identify how local actors re-imagine social possibilities, resist injustice, and work toward change. Integrating theory with empirical studies that are of particular interest to college students--including research on violence, sports, and sexuality--the authors make gender concepts genuinely interesting and accessible. They also demonstrate how students can think critically about gender, both within and beyond the classroom.

New to this Edition

  • Media and Sports now separated into two distinct chapters
  • Critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter
  • Key terms and a glossary
  • Updated statistics and legal changes throughout
  • Additional photos throughout
  • New content on such current topics as the cult of the virgin, the intersection of gender and sexuality in media, the benefits of sports for women, women in combat, sexual assault in the military, gender politics in rural China, lesbian parents, and images of motherhood in recent political campaigns

About the Author(s)

Judy Root Aulette is Professor in the Department of Sociology and the Women's and Gender Studies Program at UNC-Charlotte. She is author of Changing American Families, Third Edition (2010), and coauthor, with Anna Aulette-Root and Floretta Boonzaier, of South African Women Living with HIV: Global Lessons from Local Voices (2013).

Judith Wittner is Professor in the Department of Sociology at Loyola University Chicago. She is coeditor, with R. Stephen Warner, of Gatherings In Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration (1998).

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    A Few More Inconvenient Truths
    Some Ground Rules for Studying Gender
    Social Life Is Socially Based and Politically Structured
    Gender Is Part of a Network of Social Inequalities
    Scholarship Is Political

    The Overarching Theory of Intersectionality
    Hegemonic Masculinities and Emphasized Femininities
    Making History
    Feminist Scholars Seeking Answers
    Feminism in the Universities
    Women's Movements: A Broad Look
    Chapter 2: Bodies and Genders
    The Standard Story
    The Interplay of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
    Chromosomes, Hormones, and Genes
    Sexed Bodies in Other Times and Other Places
    Metaphors about Bodies in the New World
    How Many
    Genders Are There? The Evidence from Other Cultures
    Sexuality and Sexual Orientation: Gendering Desire
    The Basis of Sexuality Is Not "Either-Or" but "Both-And"
    Sexuality Is Socially Scripted
    Bodies Are Produced within Society
    Erotic Relations Are Historical Relations

    Sexuality Is Racialized, Race Is Sexualized
    Intersex and Transgender Bodies
    Intersexuality and Ambiguity
    Embodiment and Intersexuality
    A Brief History of Intersex
    Intersex as Lived Reality
    Intersex Activism
    The Umbrella of Transgender

    Gender Matters
    Chapter 3: Socialization and the Social Construction of Gender
    The Gender Lenses of Androcentrism, Gender Polarization, and Essentialism
    Individual-Level Theories: Social Roles and Social Learning
    Interactionist Theories: Doing Gender
    The Social Implications of Doing Gender
    Props and Resources for Doing Gender

    Structuralist Theories: Rosabeth Moss Kanter
    Opportunity Structures
    Power Structures
    Relative Numbers

    Gendered Organizations: Joan Acker
    Institutional Theories
    Integrating Socialization, Interaction, and Institutions
    Explaining Bad Boys in the Language of Socialization
    The Interactional Construction of Bad Boys and Disciplinarian Teachers
    Explaining How Institutions Create Bad Boys

    Gender Matters
    Chapter 4: Sexualities
    Comparing Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Around the Globe
    Changing Attitudes Toward Sexuality in the United States
    Calling, Dating, and Hooking Up
    The Cult of the
    Sexual Rights
    The Racial Subtext of the Sexual Double Standard
    Sexualized Images of Black Men
    Racialized Images of Women's Sexuality
    Social Class and Sexuality
    What Is Your Sexuality?
    Lesbian or Bisexual Chic
    Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Competing Perspectives on Gendered Sexuality
    Sexual Scripts

    How to Be a Heterosexual
    Queer Theory
    Sex for Sale
    Gendered Porn
    The Feminist Censorship Debate
    Sex Workers
    Legal Prostitution
    The Feminist Prostitution Debate
    Globalization and Sex Trafficking
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 5: Education
    Gender in the K-12 Classroom
    What Difference Does Differential Treatment in Schools Make?
    Taming Warriors in the Kindergarten Classroom
    Medicalizing and Medicating Boys in Schools
    Teaching Materials

    High School
    Counting Gender Differences in High School
    Math and Science and Gender
    Vocational Education
    Title IX, No Child Left Behind, and Single-Sex Schools
    SAT Scores

    International Comparisons on Standardized Tests
    Higher Education and Gender
    Women and Higher Education in the United States
    What About the Boys?

    Global Issues in Education
    Unexpected Connections between Water and Education
    Gender and Teachers
    Evaluating Professors
    The Correspondence Principle
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 6: Gender and the Global Economy
    Paid Work
    Who Is In the Paid Workplace?
    Emotional Labor
    Equal Pay?
    Unequal Opportunity: The Glass Ceiling, the Glass Escalator, and the Sticky Floor
    Why Is There a Wage Gap between Women and Men?

    Human Capital
    Organization of Jobs
    Gender Segregation of the Labor Market
    Climbing the Ladder of Success
    Bringing Politics into the Picture
    How Can the Gender Gap in Promotion Be Closed?
    Comparable Worth Policies
    Success Stories
    Success Stories in Engineering
    When Work Disappears: Masculinity and Homeless Men
    The Feminization of Poverty
    Unpaid Work through the Life Cycle
    Why Is Women's Work Invisible?
    Children and Housework
    What's Behind the Way People Divide Up Housework?
    Socialization Theory
    Rational Choice Theory
    Feminist Theory
    Globalization and Gender
    WID, WAD, and GAD
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 7: Families
    Marriage as a Legal Contract and the Challenge of Gay Rights Activists
    History of Marriage in the United States
    Marriage Promotion in the United States
    Love and Marriage

    Parenting and Caregiving
    Motherhood Mystique
    Work and Family in Latino and African American Families
    Working Mothers and the Mommy Wars
    Welfare Mothers
    Temporary Aid to Needy Families
    Parenting by Fathers
    Men Balancing Work and Family
    The Fatherhood Responsibility Movement
    Biology and Parenting $
    Another Kind of Family Caregiving: Elder Care

    Gendered Styles of Care Work
    Grandparents and Care Work
    Balancing Work and Family
    International Comparisons of Family Support Programs
    The Gendered Economics of Divorce
    Challenges of Divorce for Men
    Variation in Divorce Laws in Different Nations

    South African Divorce Laws
    Repudiation in Muslim Nations
    Making Comparisons
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 8: Violence
    The Gendered Continuum of Violence
    Some Statistics on Violence
    Street Harassment: A Geography of Fear
    Men's Personal Safety and Gendered Violence
    Rape and Domestic Violence
    Recent Decline in Rape Statistics
    Accounting for Rape: Evolutionary Theory, Individual Psychology, and Inequality

    Evolutionary Theory
    Individual Psychology
    Power Inequality
    Ending Rape
    The Discovery of Domestic Violence
    Studies of Domestic Violence
    From Universality to Intersectionality
    Beyond Criminal Justice: Marginalized Battered Women at the Center

    State Violence against Men
    The Prison-Industrial Complex
    Sexual Violence in Men's Prisons

    Gendered Violence in Conflict Zones
    Guatemala: A Case Study
    What Is to Be Done? CEDAW, the International Criminal Court, and Security Council Resolution
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 9: Gender- and Race-Based Illness: Diseases of the Division of Labor
    Health and Illness as Social Issues
    Nation and Life Expectancy
    Gender and Life Expectancy
    Sex, Gender, and Health: The Gendered Division of Labor
    The Health Risks and Benefits of Women's Employment in the Global North
    Poor Women's Health Risks on the Job in the Global South
    Sexual and Reproductive Health
    Toxins and Reproductive Risk
    Gendered Illness: Believing Is Seeing

    Eating Disorders
    Men's Body Crises
    Masculinity as a Health Risk
    Masculinity and Heart Disease
    Stratification and Inequality in the Health Care System
    Care Work: The Paid or Unpaid, but Often Invisible, Foundation of Health Care
    Women's Health Movements
    Abortion in the United States
    Beyond Roe v. Wade: The Struggle Continues
    Women of Color and Sterilization Abuse
    The Racism and Classism of Sterilization
    Globalizing Sterilization
    Gender and the Global AIDS Pandemic
    Behavioral and Educational Approaches
    Structural Violence and the Women's Epidemic

    Reflections on Gender and Health: Fighting Back
    Around the World
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 10: Politics, Prison, and the Military
    Politics and the State
    Electoral Politics
    Voting Rights
    The Gender Gap in Voting
    Women Elected Officials

    What Difference Does It Make?
    Why So Few Women?
    Gender and Campaigns
    Three Models for Reform
    Meritocratic Remedies
    Affirmative Action Remedies
    Radical Remedies
    Political Institutions: The Courts and Prisons
    Young People in the Criminal Justice System
    The War on Drugs
    Why Are Men So Much More Likely to Be in Prison?

    Political Institutions: The Military
    Women in Combat
    Women and Men in the Military Today

    Gender Harassment in the Military
    Why the Hostility against Women in the Military?
    Masculinity and Heterosexuality in the Military
    Why Are Differences in the Treatment of Women in the Military Important?
    Be Careful What You Wish For
    Women and Peace
    What Is Political?
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 11: Popular Culture and Media
    Mass Media and Gender
    Gender on Television
    Reality TV and Gender
    LGBT on TV
    Missing Women in the Television Industry
    Symbolic Annihilation
    Gender in Advertising

    Advertising Masculinity
    Men and Beer
    Advertising Gender in Three Nations
    Gender in U.S. Advertising
    Gender in Turkish Advertising
    Gender in Japanese Advertising
    Gender in Film

    Children's Movies
    Sexualization of Girls and Women in Media
    Gender and the Internet
    Media Theory

    Resisting Media
    Music Videos
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 12: Sports
    Sports and Masculinity
    History of Sports and Manliness
    Gay Athletes
    Initiation Rites and Football
    Dangers of Masculinity
    Time for a Change?
    Mexican Baseball Players Challenge Hegemonic Masculinity in Sports

    Title IX
    International Efforts to Bring Women into Sports
    Barriers to Bringing Women into Sports
    Women Athletes, Homophobia, and Heterosexism

    Venus and Mars Play Sports
    Assimilation or Reform
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 13: Religion
    Religion as an Institution
    Importance of Religion across the Globe
    By the Numbers

    Religion and Gender: Contested Terrain
    Abrahamic Religions

    The Practice of Wearing a Hijab
    Women and the Hijab in the United States
    Perspectives on Islam in the United Kingdom
    Religion and Gender: Fundamentalism
    Muslim Fundamentalism
    Christian Fundamentalism

    Fundamentalist Views of Masculinity
    Fundamentalist Fathers
    Evangelical Feminists
    Hindu Fundamentalism
    Women in the Pulpit
    The Da Vinci Code and Ancient Religious Views of Women
    Religion as a Free Space in Oppressive Cultures
    Religion as a Base of Resistance
    Women Activists in Sri Lanka
    Religion in the American Civil Rights Movement

    Challenging Religion from Within
    What Difference Would More Gender-Equal Religions Make?
    Feminist Theoretical Models
    Classical Sociological Theory on Religion
    Gender Matters
    Chapter 14: Globalizing, Organizing, and Making the World a Better Place
    The Development Paradigm
    Beyond the Rural: Export Processing Zones
    Two More Global Economies
    Feminist Political Ecology: Beyond Production
    A Provisioning Economy
    Local Knowledge

    How Will We Change the World?