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Foundations of Neural Development

S. Marc Breedlove

Publication Date - 01 February 2017

ISBN: 9781605355795

370 pages

In Stock

Helps students understand how a single microscopic cell, a human zygote, can develop into the most complex machine on earth, the brain


Foundations of Neural Development is a textbook written with a conversational writing style and topics appropriate for an undergraduate audience. Each chapter begins with a thought-provoking vignette, or a "real-life story," that the subsequent material illuminates. The "Researchers at Work" feature, available in every chapter, describes a classic study in detail, taking the reader through the hypothesis, test, result, and conclusion of an experiment. A marginal glossary, review questions, and bulleted summary are a few of the other features in the book. Chapters 1-7 unfold in the order of ontogeny, covering induction, the establishment of a body plan, neural migration, differentiation, axonal pathfinding, synapse formation, and apoptosis. Chapters 8-10 address activity-guided, experience-guided, and socially guided neural development--mechanisms that were crucial for the evolution of the human brain. Lively and engaging, with the finest illustrations, Foundations of Neural Development is the perfect book to help any undergraduate student understand how a single microscopic cell, a human zygote, can develop into the most complex machine on earth, the brain.

For the Student

Companion Website

The Foundations of Neural Development Companion Website contains a range of media and review resources to help students learn the material presented in each chapter of the textbook and to visualize some of the key processes discussed. The site includes the following resources:

* Chapter outlines
* Chapter summaries
* Animations: Detailed animations that cover some of the key processes presented in the textbook.
* Videos: Links to fascinating videos that demonstrate the processes and concepts of neural development.
* Flashcards: An easy way for students to learn and review the key terms introduced in each chapter.
* Glossary
* News Feed: A continuously-updated feed of links to science news articles relevant to neural developmental.

For Instructors (available to qualified adopters)

Instructor's Resource Library

The Foundations of Neural Development Instructor's Resource Library (available to qualified adopters) includes a variety of resources to aid you in the development of your course and the assessment of your students. The IRL includes the following.

* Textbook Figures & Tables: All of the figures (including photos) and tables from the textbook are provided as JPEGs, all optimized for use in presentations. Complex figures are provided in both whole and split versions.

* PowerPoint Presentations: A PowerPoint presentation containing all figures and tables, with titles and full captions, is provided for each chapter.

* Videos: A collection of fascinating segments from BBC programs that illustrate important concepts from the textbook.

* Test Bank: The Test Bank consists of a range of questions covering key facts and concepts in each chapter. Multiple-choice and short-answer questions are included, and all questions are ranked according to Bloom's Taxonomy and referenced to specific textbook sections.

* Computerized Test Bank: The Test Bank is provided in Blackboard's Diploma format (software included). Diploma makes it easy to assemble quizzes and exams from any combination of publisher-provided questions and instructor-created questions. In addition, quizzes and exams can be exported for import into many different course management systems, such as Blackboard and Moodle.

* Course Management System Support: The Test Bank is also provided in Blackboard format, for easy import into campus Blackboard systems. In addition, using the Computerized Test Bank, instructors can easily create and export quizzes and exams (or the entire test bank) for import into other course management systems, including Moodle, Canvas, and Desire2Learn/Brightspace.

About the Author(s)

S. Marc Breedlove, the Barnett Rosenberg Professor of Neuroscience at Michigan State University, has written over 130 scientific articles investigating the role of hormones in shaping the developing and adult nervous system, publishing in journals including Science, Nature, Nature Neuroscience, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. He is also passionate about teaching--in the classroom, and in the greater community through interviews with the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and Newsweek, as well as broadcast programs such as All Things Considered, Good Morning America, and Sixty Minutes. He has active grant support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Breedlove is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Association for Psychological Science.

Table of Contents

    PROLOGUE: The Rationalist Philosophers
    All I Know Is That I Know Nothing
    The Benefits of Having an Immortal Soul
    What Does All This Philosophy Stuff Have to Do with This Book?

    CHAPTER 1. The Metazoans' Dilemma: Cell Differentiation and Neural Induction
    1.1. Metazoans Evolved the Ability to Produce Cells with Very Different Functions
    1.2. Preformationism Offered an Easy but Wrong Solution, While Epigenesis Seemed Incomprehensible
    1.3. The Rediscovery of Genes Set the Stage for Understanding Development
    1.4. Gene Expression Directs Cell Differentiation
    Researchers at Work: Do Differentiating Cells Dispose of Unused Genes?
    1.5. Scientists Domesticated a Simple Worm to Address the Questions of Cell Differentiation
    1.6. Mitotic Lineage Guides Cell Differentiation in Worms
    Box 1.1. Kerfuffles in Language: "Cell Fate" and "Commitment"
    1.7. Embryonic Development Begins by Forming Three Distinct Germ Layers
    1.8. The Vertebrate Nervous System Begins as a Simple Tube
    1.9. Many Embryos, Including All Vertebrates, Display "Self-Regulation"
    1.10. Self-Regulation Seems Incompatible with Mitotic Lineage-Directed Differentiation
    1.11. Experimental Embryology Revealed Inductive Processes Underlying Self-Regulation
    1.12. A Region of the Vertebrate Embryo Seems to "Organize" Development
    Researchers at Work: The Dorsal Lip of the Blastopore Can Organize a New Individual
    1.13. Long Abandoned, the Organizer Was Uncovered through Molecular Biological Techniques
    Researchers at Work: A Gene Is Discovered That Acts as an Organizer
    1.14. What Organizes the Organizer?
    1.15. In Insects, Epidermal Cells Compete to Become Neuroblasts

    CHAPTER 2. Coordinating Fates: Development of a Body Pattern
    2.1. Darwin Noted That Vertebrate Embryos Start Off Looking Alike
    Box 2.1. A Step Too Far
    2.2. Mother Knows Best: Maternal Factors Establish a Basic Polarity of the Body
    Researchers at Work?Two Heads Are Not Better Than One
    Box 2.2. Meet Drosophila melanogaster, the Well-Segmented Organism
    2.3. A Cascade of Gene Regulatory Proteins Organizes a Body Plan
    2.4. Some Mutations in Drosophila Transform Body Parts Whole
    2.5. Hox Genes Are Crucial for Vertebrate Development, Too
    2.6. Hox Genes Direct "Segmentation" in the Mammalian Brain
    Box 2.3. Kerfuffles in Language: "Segmentation"
    2.7. Hindbrain Rhombomere Fates Are Directed by Homeobox Genes
    2.8. Several Signals Designate the Caudal End of the Body and Nervous System
    2.9. Continued Gradients in BMP Signaling Establish the Dorsal-Ventral Axis in the Nervous System
    Researchers at Work: What Notochord Factor Induces the Floor Plate and Motor Neurons?
    2.10. Find Out Where You Are to Coordinate Your Fate with That of Your Neighbors

    CHAPTER 3. Upward Mobility: Neurogenesis and Migration
    3.1. The Same Gene May Play a Role in Many Different Developmental Events
    3.2. The Developing Brain Generates Neurons at a Tremendous Rate
    3.3. Shortly after Division, Neural Cells Diverge to Become Neurons or Glia
    Researchers at Work: Labeling of Dividing Cells Disputes the Idea That Lineage Determines Fate
    3.4. The Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex Form in Layers
    3.5. We Can Label Newly Synthesized DNA to Determine the Birthdates of Cells
    3.6. Newborn Cells Shinny Up Glial Poles
    Researchers at Work: The Cortex Develops in an Inside-Out Manner
    3.7. A Few Brain Regions Display Continuing Neurogenesis throughout Life
    Box 3.1. The Controversy of Neurogenesis in Adulthood
    3.8. Neural Crest Cells migrate to Positions throughout the Body
    3.9. Cell Adhesion Molecules Attract and Repel Migrating Cells
    3.10. Cerebellar Granule Cells Parachute Down from Above
    Researchers at Work: Weaver Neurons Fail to Grasp Glial Fibers
    3.11. Cells Crucial for Smell and Reproduction Migrate into the Embryonic Brain

    CHAPTER 4. Seeking Identity: Neural Differentiation
    4.1. The Fruit Fly Retina Develops through an Orderly Progression of Gene Expression and Signaling
    Box 4.1. Transgenics, Knockouts, and Knockins
    4.2. Several Factors Influence Whether a Cell Will Become a Neuron or a Glia
    4.3. The Molecular Differentiation of Motor Neurons Is Orderly
    4.4. Neural Crest Cells Are Affected by Their Migration and Destination
    Researchers at Work: Neural Crest Cells Adopt New Fates after Transplantation
    4.5. The Neurotransmitter Phenotypes of Autonomic Neurons Are Guided by Their Targets
    Researchers at Work: Targets Can Regulate the Neurotransmitter Phenotype of Afferents
    4.6. The Fate of a Cortical Neuron Is Influenced Both Before and After Migration
    Researchers at Work: Cortical Neuron Fate Is Specified after the S Phase
    4.7. Later Events in Development Are More Evolutionarily Labile

    CHAPTER 5. Feeling One's Way: Axonal Pathfinding
    5.1. Ramón y Cajal Described Growth Cones and Discerned Their Significance
    5.2. In Vitro Approaches Reveal Principles of Axonal Growth and Adhesion
    Researchers at Work: Getting a Grip: The Role of Adhesion in Axonal Growth
    5.3. Guidance Cues May Be Attractive to One Type of Growth Cone and Repulsive to Others
    5.4. Families of Receptors Offer a Multitude of Guidance Cues
    5.5. Pioneer Neurons and Guidepost Cells Establish Pathways for Later Axons
    5.6. Many Axonal Growth Cones Have to Deal with Crossing the Midline
    Researchers at Work: What Makes the Floor Plate so Attractive
    5.7. Motor Neuronal Axons Must Find the Correct Target Muscles
    Researchers at Work: Can You Navigate Your Way Home?
    5.8. The Axons of Retinal Ganglion Cells Must Reach the Midbrain
    Researchers at Work: Rather Walk over Here
    5.9. The Corpus Callosum Is Directed across the Midline by a Glial Bridge
    Researchers at Work: Glia Can Help Axons Cross a Border

    CHAPTER 6. Making Connections: Synapse Formation and Maturation
    6.1. Calcium Regulators and Environmental Sensors Evolved to Mediate Synaptic Signaling
    6.2. We Can Divide Synapse Structure and Development into Three Parts
    6.3. A Synapse Begins with Adhesion
    Researchers at Work: Dendritic Spines Compete for Survival
    6.4. Fragile X Syndrome Suggests There Can Be Too Much of a Good Thing
    6.5. Pre- and Postsynaptic Partners Tightly Anchor One Another as a Synapse Develops
    Researchers at Work: Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Receptors Trigger Synaptic Development
    6.6. Neuromuscular Junctions Illustrate That Synapse Formation Is a Dance for Two (or More)
    6.7. Motor Neuronal Agrin Promotes the Aggregation of Acetylcholine Receptors
    6.8. Neuregulins Boost Local AChR Expression in Muscle and Maintain Terminal Schwann Cells
    6.9. Once Formed, the NMJ Leaves an Imprint in the Extracellular Matrix
    Researchers at Work: Neuromuscular Junctions Leave a Residue in the Basal Lamina
    6.10. Ion Channels Change Subunits, and Therefore Characteristics, during Development
    6.11. Embryonic Synapses Are Sluggish and Slow, Then Become Progressively Faster with Development
    6.12. Myelination Extends into Adulthood to Hasten Neuronal Communication
    6.13. Myelinating Glia May Prevent Regeneration in the Central Nervous System

    CHAPTER 7. Accepting Mortality: Apoptosis
    7.1. The Death of Many Cells Is a Normal Process in Development
    7.2. The Extent of Death among Developing Motor Neurons Is Regulated by the Size of the Target
    Researchers at Work: Adding to the Periphery Prevents Apoptosis of Motor Neurons
    7.3. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Is Discovered to Regulate Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons
    Researchers at Work: Screening for Nerve Growth Factor
    Box 7.1. The Controversy over the Nobel Prize for NGF
    7.4. NGF Has Both Tropic and Trophic Effects on Selective Neuronal Populations
    7.5. The Search for Relatives of NGF Reveals a Family of Neurotrophic Factors and Their Receptors
    7.6. Studies in C. Elegans Provide Crucial Information about the Process of Apoptosis
    Box 7.2. Kerfuffles in Language: Programmed Cell Death
    Researchers at Work: It Was Suicide, Not Murder
    7.7. Apoptosis Involves Active Self- Destruction through a Cascade of "Death Genes"
    7.8. Do Motor Neurons Die in ALS for Lack of Neurotrophic Factor(s)?
    7.9. Hormones Direct Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Body and Behavior
    Researchers at Work: Early Exposure to Androgens Organizes the Male Brain
    7.10. The Brain Is Also Sexually Dimorphic
    7.11. Hormones Can Regulate Apoptosis to Masculinize the Vertebrate Brain
    Researchers at Work: Sometimes the Tail Wags the Dog
    7.12. Sexual Differentiation in Flies Is a Cell-Autonomous Process
    Researchers at Work: Fruitless Mutants Pursue Unrequited Love
    7.13. The Controversy over Sexual Orientation in Flies, Rats, and People

    INTERLUDE: The Empiricists Strike Back
    The Tabula Rasa and the Importance of Experience through the Senses
    What Does All This Philosophy Stuff Have To Do with This Book?

    CHAPTER 8. Synaptic Plasticity: Activity-Guided Neural Development
    8.1. Motor Neuronal Death Is Gated by Neuronal Activity
    8.2. Developing Muscle Fibers Start Off with Polyneuronal Innervation
    8.3. Autonomic Neurons Refine Their Inputs and Outputs
    8.4. Donald Hebb Speculated about Neural Plasticity
    8.5. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) Confirms the Existence of Hebbian Synapses
    Researchers at Work: Cells That Fire Together Wire Together
    8.6. A Class of Glutamate Receptors Enforces Hebbian Rules
    Box 8.1. Does Hippocampal LTP Mediate Learning?
    8.7. The Brain Must Integrate Input from the Two Eyes
    8.8. Even Spontaneous, Apparently Random Activity Can Provide Order
    Researchers at Work: Spontaneous Waves of Retinal Activity Form Ocular Dominance Bands in the LGN
    8.9. The Gray Matter of Human Cortex Thins as We Mature

    CHAPTER 9. Fine-Tuning Sensory Systems: Experience-Guided Neural Development
    9.1. Humans Can Adapt to Seeing the World in a New Way
    9.2. Retinal Ganglion Cells in Adult Amphibians and Fish Can Reestablish Connections to the Tectum
    9.3. Various Permutations of Retinotectal Regeneration Refute a Strict Version of Chemoaffinity
    9.4. Visual Experience Fine-Tunes Frog Retinotectal Connections
    Researchers at Work: Three-Eyed Frogs Show Us the Way
    9.5. Mammals Require Visual Experience during a Sensitive Period to Develop Functional Vision
    9.6. Physiological Recordings Reveal How Visual Deprivation Impairs Sight
    Researchers at Work: Strabismus in Kittens Drastically Alters Visual System Connections
    9.7. Owls Can Use Visual Experience to Fine-Tune Their Auditory Maps
    9.8. Olfactory Receptor Maps Are Also Sculpted by Experience
    9.9. Tactile Experience Guides the Formation of Topographic Maps in Somatosensory Cortex

    CHAPTER 10. Maximizing Fitness: Socially Guided Neural Development
    10.1. The Terms Instinct and Innate Are So Vague That They Are Worthless
    10.2. Species with Parental Behavior Develop the Most Complex Brains and Behavior
    10.3. Maternal Behavior Can Regulate the Stress Response of Offspring
    Box 10.1. Kerfuffles in Language: Epigenetic
    10.4. Many Species Look to Their Parents to Recognize Mating Partners
    10.5. Observational Learning Can Transmit Behaviors across Generations
    10.6. Birdsong Is a Learned Behavior Where Young Males Model Their Father's Song
    Researchers at Work: Sparrows Are Predisposed to Learn Species-Specific Song Elements
    10.7. Humans Are Predisposed to Learn Language without Any Formal Training
    Researchers at Work: The Habituation Response Allows Us to Read Babies' Minds
    10.8. Primates Require Love to Develop Properly
    10.9. Postnatal Social Stimulation Continues to Affect Brain Development
    Researchers at Work: Social Stimulation Alters Neuregulin Signaling to Promote Myelination
    10.10. Intelligence Tests Demonstrate the Pervasive Effects of Culture
    10.11. The Controversial Issue of Racial Differences in Average IQ Performance
    Researchers at Work: Does Race Affect the IQ of German Offspring of American GIs?

    EPILOGUE: Immanuel Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason
    The a Priori Embodiment of Space and Time
    What Does All This Philosophy Stuff Have To Do with This Book?

    Author Index
    Subject Index

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