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Cover

Foundations of Criminal Justice

Third Edition

Stephen S. Owen, J.D., Ph.D. Henry F. Fradella, Tod W. Burke, and Jerry W. Joplin

Publication Date - July 2019

ISBN: 9780190855628

528 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 11 inches

Retail Price to Students: $94.99

This distinctive text provides students with the framework and intellectual tools to critically analyze and evaluate the criminal justice system

Description

What is law? What is deviance? What is justice? How is justice achieved through law, punishment, and criminal justice agencies? Now in its third edition, Foundations of Criminal Justice uses a unique approach that provides students with the framework and the intellectual tools that they will need in order to critically analyze and evaluate the nature, sources, scope, purposes, and practical limitations of the criminal justice system. This is the only introductory survey text that moves beyond a description of the criminal justice system, helping students understand the role of criminal justice in their lives as criminal justice practitioners and as active citizens.

New to this Edition

  • Simplified philosophical and theoretical concepts
  • Increased discussions of current topics--like pre-trial detention and its impacts, addiction and drug policy, law enforcement use of force, and police-community relations--engage students in high-profile, real-world applications of criminal justice
  • Updated statistics throughout using the latest Uniform Crime Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics, and public opinion polling data
  • Expanded instructor resources, including pre-built transition guides and sample class syllabi for easy implementation into courses of different lengths

About the Author(s)

Stephen S. Owen is Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University.

Henry F. Fradella is Professor and Associate Director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.

Tod W. Burke is a retired Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University and a former police officer.

Jerry W. Joplin is Professor Emeritus of Justice and Policy Studies at Guilford College and a former correctional counselor and administrator.

Reviews

"I finally found a textbook for the introductory criminal justice student that facilitates critical thinking, reflection, application of ideas, and philosophical inquiry."--Martha Earwood, University of Alabama at Birmingham

"This text provides the foundation for studying criminal justice, incorporating a critical, problem-solving approach with an underlying theme of morality and how that impacts the criminal justice system."--Sheryl L. Van Horne, Eastern University

"Foundations of Criminal Justice does an excellent job of applying analytics to practice and enhancing student interest in the field of criminal justice."--Benjamin Wright, Radford University

Table of Contents

    Contents
    Preface
    Photo Essay: Policing Intimate Partner Violence

    Chapter 1. Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice
    Case Study: How Would You Spend $50 Million
    Introducing Criminal Justice
    Perspectives on Criminal Justice
    --Is Criminal Justice a System?
    --Is Criminal Justice a Profession?
    --Is Criminal Justice a Bureaucracy?
    --Is Criminal Justice a Moral Agent?
    --Is Criminal Justice an Academic Discipline?
    --Applying the Five Perspectives: Police Use of Deadly Force
    Defining Crime
    --What Crime is
    --What Crime is Not
    The Extent of Crime
    --Official Crime Data
    --Other Sources of Crime Data
    --Crime Data: Trade-offs and Politics
    Looking Ahead
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: DNA Evidence
    Chapter 1 Appendix: The Criminal Justice System

    Unit I: Perspectives on Law
    Photo Essay: Morality and the Law

    Chapter 2. Criminal Justice, Society, and Morality
    Case Study: Justice on Lover's Lane
    Criminal Justice and Society
    --The Social Contract as a Metaphor for Criminal Justice Goals
    Choosing Strategies and Tactics
    --Strategies
    --Tactics
    Criminal Justice: Popular Conceptions versus Academic Scholarship
    Morality and Criminal Justice
    --Private Morality
    --Kohlberg's Moral Stages
    --Public Morality
    Idealism, Pragmatism, and Criminal Justice
    --Idealists and Idealism
    --Pragmatists and Pragmatism
    --Idealism, Pragmatism, and Policy Debates
    --Applying Philosophy and Morality to Criminal Justice
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Alcohol Policy

    Chapter 3. Criminal Justice and Legal Philosophy
    Case Study: Working the Corner
    Studying Approaches to the Law
    --Principles and Rules in Criminal Justice
    Analyzing the Law
    --The Six Concepts of Law
    --Summary of the Six Concepts of Law
    --Introducing the Hart-Devlin Debate
    Legal Moralism
    --Devlin and the Six Concepts of Law
    Legal Positivism
    --Hart and the Six Concepts of Law
    Other Legal Principles Illustrating Idealism
    --Legal Naturalism
    --Rights and Interpretive Jurisprudence
    --Critical Theories of Law
    --Legal Paternalism
    Other Legal Principles Illustrating Pragmatism
    --Legal Realism
    --Everyday Pragmatism
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Regulating Violent Video Games

    Unit II: Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
    Photo Essay: What Behaviors Are Deviant?

    Chapter 4. Theories of Deviance and Social Control
    Case Study: The Winchester Joker asks, "Why so serious?"
    An Overview of Deviance
    --Norms
    --Subcultural Norms
    --Socialization
    The Social Control of Deviance
    --Informal versus Formal Social Control
    --Agents of Social Control
    Crime, Sin, and Poor Taste as Forms of Deviance
    --The Role of Deviance in Society
    Styles of Social Control
    The Medicalization of Deviance
    --Medicalization and Criminal Responsibility
    --Consequences of Medicalization
    Therapeutic Social Control and Public Policy
    --Vindication and Putative Backlash
    --Other Consequences of Shifts in the Style of Social Control
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Gun Control and Mental Illness

    Chapter 5. Theories of Criminal Behavior
    Case Study: The Case of Carl Panzram
    Some Explanations of Criminal Deviance
    --Historical Perspectives on Criminology
    --Deviance in Society
    Some Explanations of Criminal Deviance
    --Historical Perspectives on Criminology
    --Modern Biological Perspectives on Crime and Criminality
    --The Classical School of Criminology
    Psychological Theories of Crime and Criminality
    --Psychodynamic Theories
    --Differential Association
    --Techniques of Neutralization
    --Personality and Crime
    Sociocultural Theories of Crime and Criminality
    --Social Disorganization Theory
    --Strain Theory
    --Delinquent Subcultures
    --Social Control Theory
    --Labeling Theory
    --Conflict Criminology
    The Study of Criminology in Criminal Justice
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Youth Gangs

    Unit III: Perspectives on Justice
    Photo Essay: Justice, Privacy, and Enforcement

    Chapter 6. Concepts of Justice
    Case Study: Sexting
    Justice: Fact or Fiction?
    The Justice in Criminal Justice
    --Vigilante Justice
    --Ideological Justice
    --Discourse Perspective Justice
    --Postmodern Justice
    A Focus on Distributive Justice
    --A Classic Approach: Aristotle's Commutative Justice
    --An Economic Approach: Bentham's Utilitarian Justice
    --A Belief in Punishment: Retributive Justice
    --Everyone Is Due Something: Restorative Justice
    --But Is It Fair? Rawls on Justice
    Individual and Community Interests in Distributive Justice
    --Mechanical Criminal Justice
    --Authoritarian Criminal Justice
    --Compassionate Criminal Justice
    --Participatory Criminal Justice
    --Toward Justice
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Justice Reinvestment

    Chapter 7. Concepts of Justice Policy
    Case Study: The Quagmire of State Marijuana Policy
    Criminal Justice and Civil Justice
    --Criminal Justice
    --Civil Justice
    Social Justice and American Values
    --Social Justice and Criminal Justice
    --American Political Culture
    The Development of Criminal Justice Policy
    --Stability and Change in Public Policy
    --Federalism
    --State and Federal Policy
    --Separation of Powers
    --American Criminal Justice Policy in Comparative Perspective
    --American Criminal Justice Policy in Historical Perspective
    Forces Shaping Criminal Justice Policy
    --Mass Media
    --Interest Groups
    --Politics and Politicians
    --Bureaucrats
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Drugs and Drug Policy

    Chapter 8. Concepts of Criminal Procedure
    Case Study: When Are Dog Sniffs "Searches"?
    Concepts of Procedural Justice
    --Three Philosophical Models of Procedural Justice
    --Social Psychological Factors
    Two Models of the Criminal Process
    Procedural Justice in the Original U.S. Constitution
    --Habeas Corpus
    --Bills of Attainder
    --Ex Post Facto Laws
    --Trial by Jury
    --Trial for Treason
    Procedural Justice in the Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
    --The Fourth Amendment
    --The Fifth Amendment
    --The Sixth Amendment
    --The Fourteenth Amendment
    --The Exclusionary Rule
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Surveillance and Technology

    Unit IV: Penal Social Control
    Photo Essay: Bullying

    Chapter 9. Criminal Law
    Case Study: Criminalizing Addiction
    The History of Criminal Law
    --Criminal Law in Ancient Civilizations
    --Criminal Law in Ancient Greece and Rome
    --Criminal Law Changes in Early Christendom
    --Criminal Law in Early England
    --From English Common Law to Modern Penal Laws
    Common Elements of Modern Criminal Law
    --Actus Reus
    --Mens Rea
    --Attendant Circumstances
    --Causation of Result
    Types of Crimes
    Defenses to Crimes
    Constitutional Limitations on Criminalization
    --The First Amendment
    --The Second Amendment
    --The Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process and Equal Protection Concerns
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Public Health Concerns Regarding the Overcriminalization and Decriminalization of STI Transmission

    Chapter 10. Criminal Punishment
    Case Study: Three Strikes Laws
    Conceptualizing Punishment
    Justifications for Criminal Punishment
    --Retribution
    --Deterrence
    --Incapacitation
    --Rehabilitation
    --Restitution and Restoration
    --Competing Philosophies
    The Politics of Whom We Punish
    Limitations on Criminal Punishment
    --Culpability: A Fairness Principle Requiring Blameworthiness
    --Notice and the Principle of Legality
    --Proportionality and the Eighth Amendment
    The Future of Punishment
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: The Death Penalty

    Unit V: Overview of Criminal Justice Institutions
    Photo Essay: Toward the Future of Criminal Justice

    Chapter 11. Core Concepts of U.S. Policing
    Case Study: Policing a Housing Development
    Philosophies of Policing
    --Policing in England
    --The Political Era (1830s-Early 1900s)
    --The Professional Era (1930s-1970s)
    --The Community Problem-Solving Era (1970s-Present)
    --The Police and Homeland Security: A New Era?
    --Developmental Theories of Policing
    The Culture of Policing
    --Wilson's Styles of Police Behavior
    --Police Officer Personalities
    The Structure of American Law Enforcement
    --Local Police Agencies
    --State Police Agencies
    --Federal Agencies
    Ethical Issues in Policing
    --Levels of Corruption
    --Ethical Questions in Policing
    --The Dirty Harry Problem
    --Controlling Unethical Behavior
    --The Police, the Public, and Promoting Legitimacy
    Policing Strategies
    --Myths About Policing
    --Team Policing
    --Community-Oriented Policing
    --Problem-Oriented Policing
    --An Example of Problem-Oriented Policing: Richmond's Sector 213
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Focused Deterrence

    Chapter 12. Core Concepts of U.S. Court Systems
    Case Study: Pretrial Detention for a Crime He Did Not Commit
    The Structure of the U.S. Court System
    --Hierarchical Jurisdiction
    --Other Forms of Jurisdiction
    The Courtroom Workgroup
    --Judges
    --Prosecutors
    --Defense Attorneys
    --Other Courtroom Workgroup Members
    Criminal Pretrial Processes
    --Initial Appearance
    --Bail
    --Charging
    --Arraignment
    --Discovery
    --Plea Bargaining
    --Pretrial Motions
    Criminal Trial Processes
    --Jury Selection
    --Presumptions and Evidence
    --Trial
    --Sentencing
    --Postconviction Review
    Judicial Review
    Legal Reasoning
    --Philosophies of Legal Reasoning
    --The Process of Legal Reasoning
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Problem-Solving Courts

    Chapter 13. Core Concepts of U.S. Correctional Theory and Practice
    Case Study: Weightlifting in Prison
    The Scope and Purpose of American Corrections
    Four Essential Tensions Underlying Correctional Philosophy and Policy
    --The Essential Tension of Finance
    --The Essential Tension of Research
    --The Essential Tension of Discretion
    --The Essential Tension of Invisibility
    --Summary of the Concept of Essential Tensions
    History and Practice of Institutional Corrections
    --A Historical Survey of Correctional Institutions
    --Current Practice in Correctional Institutions
    --Theoretical Perspectives on Prison Life
    History and Practice of Community Corrections
    --A Historical Survey of Community Corrections
    --Current Practice in Community Corrections
    Conclusion
    Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Voting Rights
    References
    Glossary
    Index
    Photo Credits

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