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Edited by Roger Griffin

Publication Date - September 1995

ISBN: 9780192892492

432 pages

Retail Price to Students: $84.99

Meets the need for a single volume incorporating the key texts on fascism


No political ideology has had a greater impact on modern history, or caused more intellectual controversy, than fascism. It has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, orchestrated violence, and blind obedience, and was directly associated with the horrors of the Second World War, which left more than 40 million dead and introduced inconceivable notions of inhumanity. The mere mention of the term today evokes visions of atrocities and ineffable cruelty. Yet, the end of the twentieth century appears to have spawned a renewed interest in fascism, suggesting that it is time for us to examine our understanding of its ideas, ideals, and inequities.
Edited by Roger Griffin, described as 'the premier theorist {of fascism} of the younger generation' (Contemporary European History), this important Oxford Reader demonstrates why fascism strongly appeals to many people, and how dangerous the result of this fascination may be. It includes a wide selection of texts written by fascist thinkers and propagandists, as well as by prominent anti-fascists from both inside and outside Europe, before and after the Second World War. Included are texts on fascism in Germany and Italy, on the abortive pre-1945 fascisms in more than a dozen countries around the world, on reactions to fascism, and on post-war and contemporary fascism. With contributions from writers as diverse as Benito Mussolini and Primo Levi, Joseph Goebbels and George Orwell, Martin Heidegger and Max Horkheimer, this compelling anthology provides insight into the depths and breadths of the destructive repercussions of fascist ideology. In no other volume will students of political theory, history, sociology, and psychology have access to such a compendium of key texts on this simultaneoulsy intriguing and frightening political force.

About the Author(s)

Roger Griffin is the author of several studies of fascism, including The Nature of Fascism (1991, 1993), and contributor to Contemporary Political Ideologies (1993). He is Principal Lecturer in the Department of History at Oxford Brookes University.

Table of Contents

    General Introduction
    A. Fascism as an Oppostion Movement
    i. Pre-1918 Tributaries of Fascism
    1. The War as a Source of National Renewal, Giovanni Papini
    2. The War as a Proletarian Cause, Revolutionary Syndicalism
    3. The War as the Catharsis of Italian Society, Filippo T. Marinetti
    4. The War as a Revolutionary Event, Benito Mussolini
    5. 'Trenchocracy', Benito Mussolini
    6. The Futurist Vision of the New Italy, Political Futurism
    7. From the Old Italy to the New, Alfredo Rocco
    8. The War as the Midwife of a New Italian People, Roberto Farinacci
    ii Fascism in Opposition 23 March 1918 - 27 October 1922
    9. San Sepulcro Fascism, Benito Mussolini
    10. The Regency of Fiume as the Harbinger of the New Italy, Gabriele D'Annunzio and Alceste De Ambris
    11. The Nationalist Blueprint for a New Italy, The Italian Nationalist Association
    12. The Squadistri as the Revolutionaries of the New Italy, Mario Piazzesi
    13. Fascism as the Victory of the New Italy, Luigi Federzoni
    14. The Incorporation of the Peasantry into the Italian Nation, Benito Mussolini
    15. Fascism's Myth: The Nation, Benito Mussolini
    iii. The Coalition Government 30 October 1922 - 3 January 1925
    16. A Futurist Portrait of the New Prime Minister of Italy, Filippo T. Marinetti
    17. The New State Born of Syndicalism and Statism, Sergio Panunzio
    18. Fascism's European Mission, Curzio Malaparte
    19. The End of the Liberal Regime, Benito Mussolini
    B. Fascism in Power January 1925-April 1945
    i. The Formative Years of the 'Totalitarian' Regime January 1925-February 1929
    20. Fascism as a Total Conception of Life, Giovanni Gentile
    21. Fascist Mysticism, Italian Fasci Abroad
    22. Fascism as the Creator of the Third Italian Civilization, Benito Mussolini
    23. The Leader as the Voice of the Reborn Race, Augusto Turati
    24. The Strength in Numbers, Benito Mussolini
    25. The Anti-Modernist Aesthetic of Strapaese, Mino Maccari
    26. The Modernist Aesthetic of Novecento, Marco Bontempelli
    27. The University as the Incubator of a Fascist Elite, Giuseppe Bottai
    28. The Achievements of the Fascist Revolution, Benito Mussolini
    ii The Period of Consolidation 1930-1934
    29. Towards a Fascist Europe, Asvero Gravelli
    30. The Role of Youth under Fascism, Giovanni Giurati
    31. Fascist Corporativism as the Key to a New International Order, Ugo Spirito
    32. Mussolini's Century, Giuseppe Bottai
    33. Going to the People, Achille Starace
    34. The Birth of a New Civilization, Benito Mussolini
    iii Imperialist Expansion and Alignment with Nazism 1935-1939
    35. The Vital Need for Empire, Benito Mussolini
    36. Two Marching Songs of Fascist Soldiers Abroad
    (a) From the Abyssinian Campaign
    (b) From the Spanish Campaign
    37. The Autarkic Mentality and the New Fascist Order, Edmondo Rossoni
    38. Blood Brothers: Fascism and Nazism, Benito Mussolini
    39. The Introduction of Fascist Racial Policy, Gioacchino Volpe
    iv Fascism at War 1940-1943
    40. People of Italy! Run to your Arms!, Benito Mussolini
    41. Safeguarding Europe's Birthright against the Jewish Conspiracy, Alfredo Cioffi
    42. The New Europe which will Arise from the Axis Victory, Carlo Costamagna
    v The Italian Socialist Republic 1943-1945
    43. Fascism Reborn, The Fascist Republican Party
    44. The Greatest Massacre of All Time: Democracy, Benito Mussolini
    45. What Might Have Been: Axis Europe, Benito Mussolini
    A. German Fascism before the Nazi Seizure of Power
    i Pre-1914 Precursors of German Fascism
    46. The Redemptive Mission of German Culture, Richard Wagner
    47. The Need to Transcend Liberalism, Paul De LaGarde
    48. The Rebirth of German Genius, Julius Langbehn
    49. Planting the New Reich, Stefan George
    50. The Need for the Nation to be Healed, Theodor Fritsch
    ii Non-Nazi German Fascisms
    51. The Resurgence of the West, Otto Dickel
    52. The Eternal German Reich, Arthur Moeller Van Den Bruck
    53. The Organic German Nation, Edgar Jung
    54. The Great War: Father of a New Age, Ernst Junger
    55. The Germany of the Freikorps, Ernst Von Salomon
    56. The Emergence of a New Type of Human Being, Ernst Junger
    57. The Prussian Spirit: Salvation of the White Race, Oswald Spengler
    58. The German Knight as the Key to Europe's Recovery, Otto Strasser
    iii Nazism before 1933
    59. The Mission of the Nazi Movement, Adolf Hitler
    60. Barren Trees, Franz Pfeffer Von Salomon
    61. 'Christ-Socailism', Joseph Goebbels
    62. Let there be Light, Gottfried Feder
    63. Motherhood and Warriorhood as the Key to a National Socialism, Gregor Strasser
    64. Nordic Thinking and the German Rebirth, Hans F.K. Gunther
    65. Breeding a New Nobility, R. Walther Darre
    66. The New Human Synthesis, E. Gunther Grundel
    B. German Fascism in Power 1933-1945
    i The Establishment of the Third Reich 1933-1935
    67. German Rebirth, Alfred Rosenberg
    68. The Third Reich as Savior of the West, Hermann Goering
    69. The Total Revolution of National Socialism, Joseph Goebbels
    70. The New Breed of German, Gottfried Benn
    71. The New German Woman, Paula Siber
    72. The Legal Basis of the Total State, Carl Schmitt
    73. The Place of Art in Germany's Political Reawakening, Adolf Hitler
    ii The Period of Consultation 1936-1939
    74. Soldierly Economics, Werner Daitz
    75. The Joy of the National Socialist Economy, Robert Ley
    76. The Expansionary Spirit of a Rejuvenated People, Paul Ritter
    77. Nazism's World Crusade against the Jews, Hammer Press
    78. The Divine Mission of the SS, Heinrich Himmler
    79. The Role of Youth in Perpetuating the Third Reich, Willi F. Konitzer
    80. The Successful Cleansing of German Culture, Helmuth Langenbucher
    81. National Socialism as the Custodian of European Being, Martin Heidegger
    82. The Third Reich as the Cure for the European Sickness, Christoph Steding
    iii The Third Reich at War 1939-1945
    83. The New European Order, Paul Herre
    84. A National Socialist Common Market, Hans S. V. Heister
    85. Improving the Stock, Walter Gross
    86. The True Meaning of the War, Joseph Goebbels
    87. The Ultimate Turning-Point: Total War, Robert Ley
    88. Moral Dilemmas, Heinrich Himmler
    89. Heimat, Schwarzes Korps
    90. The Rebirth of National Socialism, Adolf Hitler
    A. European Fascisms
    i. Britain
    91. Christ, Nietzsche, and Caesar, Oswald Mosley
    92. Towards a Fascist Europe, Oswald Mosley
    93. A Corporate Britain, Alexander Raven Thomson
    94. Britain Awake!, E.D. Randell
    95. A Spiritual Typhus, Arthur Kenneth Chesterton
    96. Hitler Shows the Way, William Joyce
    ii Ireland
    97. The New Corporate Ireland, Eoin O'Duffy
    iii Spain
    98 Ramiro Ledesma Ramos. The Voice of Spain
    99. Total Feeling, Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera
    100. Bread and Justice, Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera
    101. A New Breed of Spaniards, Antonio Vallejo-Nagera
    iv Portugal
    102. The Wind of Change, Rolao Preto
    103. Ersatz Fascism, Rolao Preto
    v France
    104. Empty Portfolios, George Valois
    105. Saving France, Jacques Doriot
    106. The European Revolution and the New State, Marcel Deat
    107. The Rebirth of European Man, Pierre Drieu La Rochelle
    vi Belgium
    108. The Revolution of Souls, Leon Degrelle
    109. Fascism's Century, Jose Streel
    vii Norway
    110. The Nordic Revival, Vidkun Quisling
    111. A Greater Norway, Vidkun Quisling
    viii Finland
    112. The Battle for the New Finland, Lapua
    113. The Revolution of the Finnish Heart, Elias Simojoki
    ix Estonia
    114. A New Estonia, Evl
    x Latvia
    115. A Latvian Latvia, Gustavs Celmin
    xi Romania
    116. The Romanian Legionary's Mission in Spain, Ion Mota
    117. The Resurrection of the Race, Corneliu Codreanu
    xii Hungary
    118. Hungarism, Ferenc Szalasi
    B. Non-European Fascisms
    i. South Africa
    119. The Reawakening of the Boerevolk, Ossewabrandwag
    ii Chile
    120. Chilean Action and National Regeneration, Carlos Keller
    121. The Soul of the Race, Jorge Gonalez
    iii Brazil
    122. A Fourth Era of Humanity Dawns, Plinio Salgado
    123. The Soul of the Nation Awakens, Plinio Salgado
    iv Japan
    124. The Need for a Totalitarian Japan, Nakano Seigo
    125. Write Your Own Mein Kampf, Nakano Seigo
    A. Reactions to Fascism 1920-1945
    i Ambivalent or Positive Reactions to the Spread of Fascism
    126. Black Sheep, Vilfredo Pareto
    127. A Plague of Amateur Mussolinis, Kenneth Roberts
    128. A Sunny Disposition, Robert Michels
    129. The Italian Volksstaat, Johann W. Mannhardt
    130. The Italian Experiment, Erwin von Beckerath
    131. To Each Country its Own Fascism, James Strachey Barnes
    132. The Makers of Europe, Giuseppe Borgese
    133. A Sense of Humor, Sir Charles Petrie
    134. A Bad Good Thing, H.G. Wells
    ii Interpretations of Fascism by Marxists
    135. Three Comintern Responses to Fascism
    (a) Opening the Door to Fascism
    (b) White Terror
    (c) Fruit of the Womb
    136. Erroneous Definitions, Palmiro Togliatti
    137. The Purging Fires of Fascism, R. Palme Dutt
    138. The Return of the Dark Ages, E. J. Strachey
    iii Democratic Critiques of Fascism
    139. Tribal Loyalties, G.D.H. and M.I. Cole
    140. Dragon's Teeth, R.A. Brady
    141. The Hopeless Task, Karl Polanyi
    142. Rabbits Ruled by Stoats, George Orwell
    143. Black Magic, Peter Drucker
    144. The Iron Heel, Max Horkheimer
    iv Four Wartime Analyses of Fascism
    145. Forcing Elephants into Foxholes, Wilhelm Reich
    146. The Fear of Freedom, Erich Fromm
    147. Market Forces, Harold Laski
    148. Rationalism Debunked, Talcott Parsons
    B. Post-War Judgements on Fascism
    i Some Approaches to Fascism
    149. Paradigms of Fascism, Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Larsen
    a. Marxist Approaches
    150. The View From Moscow, A Soviet Political Dictionary
    151 Joachim Petzold. The View from East Germany
    152. The View of a Western Marxist, Martin Kitchen
    b. Fascism as the Product of Structural Forces
    153. Extremism of the Centre, Seymour M. Lipset
    154. Defective Nation-Building, Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Rokkan
    155. Redemptive Potential, Geoffrey Eley
    c. Psycho-Historical Approaches
    156. Fear and Destructiveness, The Frankfurt School
    157. Making Sense, Gerald M. Platt
    158. Raising the Dead, Klaus Theweleit
    d. Modernization Theories
    159. Blood and Death, Barrington Moore
    160. Utopian Anti-Modernism, Henry A. Turner Jun
    161. Fascist Modernity, Emilio Gentile
    ii Some Individual Theories of the Fascist Minimum
    162. Resisting Transcendence, Ernst Nolte
    163. The Total Charismatic Community, A. James Gregor
    164. The Latecomer, Juan B. Linz
    165. Verbal Revolutionarism, Renzo de Felice
    166. A Mulish Concept, Gilbert Allardyce
    167. A Third Way, George L. Mosse
    168. A New Nationalist Authoritarian State, Stanley Payne
    160. A New Civilization, Zeev Sternhell
    170. The New Synthesis, Roger Eatwell
    i Verdicts on the 'Fascist Era' from Veteran Fascists
    171. Fascism: Myth and Reality, Julius Evola
    172. The Third Reich: The Triumph of the Demagogues, Ernst Niekisch
    173. Lenin was Right, Maurice Bardeche
    174. The Ideals of the Fascist Era, Leon Degrelle
    175. The Lunacy of Fascism and Nazism, Arthur Kenneth Chesterton
    176. Hubris and Miscalculation, Oswald Mosley
    ii Discourses of Post-War Fascism
    (a) Universal Nazism
    177. The Revival of National Socialism, Colin Jordan
    178. A Racist Catechism, The West European Foundation
    179. How to Save Europe, Guy Amaudruz
    (b) Holocaust Denial
    180. The Miracle of the Telephone Box, Leon Degrelle
    181. A Monumental Lie, Thies Christophersen
    182. An Ever-Flowing River, John Day
    (c) Historical Revisionism
    183. The Bicycle Thief, David Irving
    184. Laying it on the Line, David Irving
    185. From Class War to Race War, Ernst Nolte
    186. Truth and Fiction, Gerhard Frey
    (d) Eurofascism
    187. The European Revolution, The Malmo Manifesto
    188. The True Europe's Revolt against the Modern World, Juliys Evola
    189. Europe a Nation, Oswald Mosley
    (e) The New Right
    190. Regenerating History, Alain de Benoist
    191. The Metapolitical Rebirth of Europe, Pierre Krebbs
    192. A Breath of Fresh Air, Michael Walker
    (f) The Conservative Revolution
    193. German Nihilism, Armin Mohler
    194. The Will to Modernity of the Conservative Revolution, Louis Dupeux
    195. Heroic Realism, Robert Steukers
    (g) Third Position
    196. The European Genius and the Rediscovery of the Sacred, Adolfo Morganti
    197. The Political Soldier and the National Revolution, Derek Holland
    198. A Community of Destiny, Groupe Union Defense
    iii Contemporary Expressions of Fascism
    (a) Ideological Fascism
    199. Songs for Europe, Skrewdriver
    200. The Immortal Principle, Hartwig Huber
    201. The Greening of Nazism, Padraig Cullen
    202. Spiritual AIDS, John Tyndall
    (b) Militant Fascism
    203. Blood, Soil, and Faith, L'Oeuvre Francaise
    204. The Cleansing Hurricane, William Pierce
    205. Patriots of the World Unite!, Paymat
    206. God's Own, Afrikaner-Weerstandsbeweging
    207. The Romanian Ethnocratic State, Noua Dreapta
    (c) Electoral Fascism
    208. Living Stones of the New Spain, Frente Nacional
    209. The European Home, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
    210. Saving the Nation, British National Party
    211. For a New Italy, Movimento Sociale Italiano
    212. King Kong Meets his Match, Russia's Liberal Democratic Party
    213. The Deadly Trunk of Fascism, Primo Levi
    Select Bibliography