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Exploitation, Inequality, and Resistance

A History of Latin America since Columbus

Mark Burkholder, Monica Rankin, and Lyman L. Johnson

Publication Date - 29 June 2017

ISBN: 9780199837618

480 pages
6-1/8 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Tells the story of more than 500 years of Latin American history through the themes of exploitation, inequality, and resistance


The words "exploitation," "inequality," and "resistance" bind together attitudes and actions that encapsulate much of Latin America's economic, social, and political history for more than half a millennium. In this compelling text, authors Mark A. Burkholder, Lyman L. Johnson, and Monica A. Rankin tell the story of more than 500 years of Latin American history through the themes of exploitation, inequality, and resistance.

Some examples of exploitation and inequality include slavery and other labor systems, sexual and gender exploitation, an inequitable economic relationship with foreign countries, repressive political systems through dictatorship and military regimes, and an unequal diplomatic relationship with the United States and other powerful nations. Despite deeply entrenched systems of injustice, Latin Americans remain notable for their resilience. Active and passive resistance to oppression and discrimination still persist in the twenty-first century, with native revolts and slave flights, unionization, the emergence of the Latin American women's movement, black-market economies, the emergence of populism, and various forms of revolt and revolution. Exploitation, Inequality, and Resistance: A History of Latin America since Columbus emphasizes these themes and analyzes the ways in which earlier events continue to resonate today.

About the Author(s)

Mark Burkholder is Curators' Professor of History at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He is the coauthor, with Lyman L. Johnson, of Colonial Latin America, Ninth Edition (OUP, 2014).

Monica Rankin is Director of the Center for U.S. Latin America Initiatives and Associate Professor of History at the University of Texas, Dallas.

Lyman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.


"Burkholder, Johnson, and Rankin offer a compelling and provocative interpretation of Latin American history. This magisterial work is the product of decades of study and reflection by historians who have lived and researched in many Latin American countries. It is unique in its range of subjects and sophistication of analysis. This fine one-volume synthesis of Latin America, which moves deftly over the centuries, covers a broad range of topics including race, politics, economics, religion, urban and rural life, education, art, and literature."--Jaime E. Rodríguez Ordóñez, University of California, Irvine

"Exploitation, Inequality, and Resistance is a sweeping, well-written tour de force of Latin American history since Columbus's voyage, paying due attention to social, cultural, political, and economic developments. It is required reading for undergraduate students and general readers alike."--Jurgen Buchenau, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

"This book is outstanding. It is the product of three major figures in the field, written in an exceedingly clear, accessible, and readable style, and impeccably organized and researched."--Peter Klaren, George Washington University

"The authors have managed to provide a survey of a complex region from its early colonial period to the present, and have done so elegantly and in a way that students--most of whom have no experience with Latin America or the Caribbean--will easily understand."--Teresita Levy, Lehman College

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: The Eve of Atlantic Empires
    Indigenous Societies in "The Indies"
    Africa and the Early Slave Trade

    Chapter 2: Exploration, Columbus, and Early Settlement

    An Age of Exploration
    The Caribbean Experiment

    Chapter 3: Conquest and Failure on the Mainland
    The Fall of the Aztec Empire
    The Fall of the Inka Empire
    Continued Conquest
    Rewards of Conquest
    Spectacular Failures

    Chapter 4: Invaders Alter the Indies
    Demographic Disaster
    Environmental Change
    The Columbian Exchange

    Chapter 5: Tools of Empire: Administration
    Imperial Organization
    The Sale of Royal Appointments in Spanish America
    Native Communities
    Administration in Brazil

    Chapter 6: Tools of Empire: The Church
    The Early Church
    The Mature Church
    The Inquisition

    Chapter 7: Language, Education, and Idolatry
    Indians in the Clergy?
    Formal Education
    Campaigns to Extirpate "Idolatry"

    Chapter 8: Economies and Trade
    Early Tribute
    The Evolution of Labor Systems
    Domestic Economies and Regional Trade
    Mining: Gold and Silver
    Trans-Oceanic Trade

    Chapter 9: Societies of Caste and Class

    The Broad Base of New World Societies
    Family: The Foundation of Society
    Women in the Societies and Economies of the Indies
    The Culture of Honor

    Chapter 10: Living in an Empire

    Urban and Rural Environments
    Daily Life

    Chapter 11: Expanding Empires

    The Spanish Empire from the Late-Seventeenth Century to the 1750s
    The Reforms of Charles III
    Brazil in an Age of Expansion
    Protest, Popular Insurrections, and Conspiracies

    Chapter 12: The Age of Independence (I)
    A Political Revolution
    Early Insurrections in Spanish America
    Rebellion in the Spanish Empire's Periphery
    Rebellion in the Old Viceroyalties
    Portugal and Brazil in an Era of Revolution

    Chapter 13: The Age of Independence (II)
    Societies at War
    Social Change
    Government and Political Life

    Chapter 14: Colonies to Nations

    Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Independence
    Centralism or Federalism?

    Chapter 15: Nation-State Formation

    Politics and Parties
    Mexico and la Reforma
    Colombia and Liberal Reform
    Liberals and Conservatives in Central America
    Society and Culture in the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    Chapter 16: Early Foreign Wars and Interventions
    Inter-American Wars
    Direct Intervention and Territorial Acquisition (1830s-1860s)
    Manifest Destiny
    U.S.-Mexican War
    Spain and the Dominican Republic
    French Intervention
    Social and Cultural Impact of War
    War, Nationalism, and National Heroes
    Nationalism and the Written Word

    Chapter 17: Progress and Modernization
    Argentina's Liberal Oligarchy
    The Age of Guano in Peru
    Coffee Elite in Central America
    Venezuela and the Guzmanato
    Social Limits of Progress

    Chapter 18: The Age of Informal Imperialism

    New Attitudes in the United States
    Expansion of U.S. Trade
    Venezuela and the Boundary Dispute
    Intellectual Response to Imperialism
    Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

    Chapter 19: Early Populism
    Populist Responses
    Populism and the Labor Movement
    Early Populism in South America
    Social and Cultural Dynamics
    Revolutionary Populism

    Chapter 20: Depression and World War
    The Great Depression in Latin America
    Latin America and the World
    Changes in Populism
    Women's Suffrage
    Mass Media and a National Imaginary

    Chapter 21: Onset of Cold War

    Leftism in Latin America
    Post-War Economic Trends
    Consumers and Culture at Mid-Century
    Cold War Security and Politics

    Chapter 22: Cuban Revolution
    Interventions and Dictatorship
    New Government and Initial U.S. Reaction
    Legacy of the Cuban Revolution

    Chapter 23: National Security State and Dirty Wars
    National Security State Defined
    The United States and National Security Doctrine
    The Emergence of National Security State Trends
    Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
    Cultural Expression under Authoritarianism

    Chapter 24: Debt and the Lost Decade
    Debt Crisis
    Challenges to Neoliberalism
    The Cuban Exception to Neoliberalism
    Cultural Production in the Lost Decade and the Special Period
    Latin American Tourism

    Chapter 25: Violence and Security in the Late-Twentieth Century
    Civil War in Guatemala
    Other Violence in Central America
    The United States and the Contras
    Democratization and the End of Cold War
    The Illegal Drug Trade
    Social and Cultural Impact of Violence

    Chapter 26: Latin America in the Twenty-First Century
    The Turn "Left"
    Regional Integration
    New Developments in Drug Trafficking

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