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Cover

Evolution

Fourth Edition

Douglas J. Futuyma and Mark Kirkpatrick

Publication Date - April 2017

ISBN: 9781605356051

Hardcover

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $153.95

Addresses major themes of evolution from genomes to ecological communities

Description

Extensively rewritten and reorganized, this new edition of Evolution--featuring a new coauthor: Mark Kirkpatrick (The University of Texas at Austin)--offers additional expertise in evolutionary genetics and genomics, the fastest-developing area of evolutionary biology. Directed toward an undergraduate audience, the text emphasizes the interplay between theory and empirical tests of hypotheses, thus acquainting students with the process of science. It addresses major themes--including the history of evolution, evolutionary processes, adaptation, and evolution as an explanatory framework--at levels of biological organization ranging from genomes to ecological communities.

For Students

Companion Website
The Evolution, Third Edition, Companion Website features review and study tools to help students master the material presented in the textbook. Access to the site is free of charge, and requires no access code. (Instructor registration is required in order for students to access the quizzes.) The site includes the following resources:

* Chapter Outlines and Summaries: Concise overviews of the important topics covered in each chapter.

* Data Analysis Exercises: Expanded for the third edition, these inquiry-based exercises involve students in working with data and analyzing methods and conclusions from published papers.

* Simulation Exercises: Interactive modules that allow students to explore many of the dynamic processes of evolution, and answer questions based on the results they observe.

* Online Quizzes: Quizzes that cover all the major concepts introduced in each chapter. These quizzes are assignable by the instructor.

* Flashcards & Key Terms: Easy-to-use activities that help students learn all the key terminology introduced in each chapter.

* The complete Glossary

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library

The Evolution, Third Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes a variety of resources to help you develop your course and deliver your lectures. The IRL includes the following resources:

* Textbook Figures and Tables: All the figures (including photographs) and tables from the textbook are provided as JPEGs (both high- and low-resolution), reformatted and relabeled for optimal readability when projected.

* PowerPoint Presentations: For each chapter, all of the chapter's figures and tables are provided in a ready-to-use PowerPoint presentation, making it easy to quickly insert figures into your own lecture presentations.

* Answers to the textbook end-of-chapter Problems and Discussion Topics

* Quiz Questions from the Companion Website

* Data Analysis and Simulation Exercises from the Companion Website, with answers

Online Quizzing
A set of online quizzes is available via the Companion Website. These quizzes can be assigned or released for student self-study, at the instructor's discretion. Instructors can also add their own questions to the quizzing system, to create custom quizzes. Results can be viewed online or downloaded for use in gradebook programs. (Instructor registration is required for student access to the quizzes.)

New to this Edition

  • Genomic perspectives on evolution are strengthened throughout
  • The content has a stronger focus on human evolution: an entirely new chapter on the topic (Chapter 21, The Evolutionary Story of Homo sapiens), and new examples throughout the book
  • Many chapters have been rewritten from the ground up
  • The book has been entirely reillustrated in a clean, contemporary style that enhances the content
  • A new Appendix, A Statistics Primer, introduces the concept of a probability distribution, reviews how statistics are used to describe populations, looks at how we estimate quantities, and discusses how hypotheses are tested. It ends with a brief overview of two major frameworks of statistical analysis: likelihood and Bayesian inference. Math is kept to a minimum.

About the Author(s)

Douglas J. Futuyma is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He received his B.S. from Cornell University and his Ph. D. in Zoology at the University of Michigan with Lawrence Slobodkin. Dr. Futuyma is the author of three previous editions of Evolution, as well as three editions of its predecessor, Evolutionary Biology. He received the 1997 Sewall Wright Award of the American Society of Naturalists and the 2012 Joseph Leidy Award of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (Philadelphia). Dr. Futuyma has served as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, the American Society of Naturalists, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996 and the National Academy of Sciences in 2006. He has served as Editor of Evolution and is currently Editor of the Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. In 2013, he was recognized as Honorary Doctor by the National University of Mongolia. An avid naturalist, his major research interests include evolution of interactions among insects and plants, speciation, and evolution of community structure.

Mark Kirkpatrick is the Painter Centennial Professor of Genetics in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his B.A. in Biology from Harvard in 1978 and his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington with Monty Slatkin in 1983. Dr. Kirkpatrick has received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1997) and a Poste Rouge Fellowship (France, 1997). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2008), and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2016). Dr. Kirkpatrick received the Sewall Wright Award from the American Society of Naturalists (2014). He has served as Associate Editor of The American Naturalist, Theoretical Population Biology, and Genetics, and on the Editorial Boards of The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics and Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Dr. Kirkpatrick's research interests are in evolutionary genetics. He has worked on sexual selection, quantitative genetics, speciation, and species ranges. Current research topics include the evolution of sex determination and chromosome rearrangements.

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 2013
April 2009
January 2005

Table of Contents


    1. Evolutionary Biology
    "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution"
    What Is Evolution? Is It Fact or Theory?
    The Evolution of Evolutionary Biology
    Before Darwin
    Charles Darwin
    Darwin's evolutionary theory
    Evolutionary biology after Darwin
    The evolutionary synthesis
    Evolutionary biology since the synthesis
    Box 1A. Fundamental Principles of Biological Evolution
    How Evolution Is Studied
    Philosophical Issues
    Ethics, religion, and evolution
    Summary

    2. The Tree of Life
    The Tree of Life, from Darwin to Today
    Box 2A. Classification, Taxonomic Practice, and Nomenclature
    Phylogenetic Trees
    Inferring phylogenies: An introduction
    Variations on the Phylogenetic Theme
    Branches of a phylogenetic tree sometimes rejoin
    Not only organisms have Phylogenetic Insights into Evolutionary History
    Inferring the history of character evolution
    Estimating time of divergence
    Patterns of evolution
    Box 2B. Evidence for Evolution
    Summary

    3. Natural Selection and Adaptation
    Adaptive Evolution Observed
    Natural Selection
    The meaning of natural selection
    Natural selection and chance
    The effective environment depends on the organism
    Levels of Selection
    Selfish genes and unselfish behaviors
    Selection of organisms and groups
    Species selection
    The Nature of Adaptations
    Selection of and selection for
    Recognizing adaptations
    Imperfections and Constraints
    Natural Selection and the Evolution of Diversity
    What Not To Expect of Natural Selection
    Summary

    4. Mutation and Variation
    The Machinery of Inheritance
    The Inheritance of Variation
    Gene mixing by segregation
    Gene mixing by recombination
    Gene mixing with asexual inheritance
    Mutation: The Ultimate Source of Variation
    Point mutations
    Structural mutations
    Rates and Effects of Mutations
    Mutation rates
    Box 4A. Estimating Mutation Rates
    Effects of mutations
    Germ line mutations and somatic mutations
    Is Mutation Random?
    Nongenetic Inheritance
    Summary

    5. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
    Natural Selection and Evolution in Real Time
    Evolution by Selection and Inheritance
    Fitness: The Currency of Selection
    Positive Selection: The Spread of Beneficial Mutations
    Box 5A. Evolution by Selection on a Single Locus
    The rate of adaptation
    Chance and adaptation: The probability that a beneficial mutation spreads
    Evolutionary Side Effects
    Hitchhiking: When one allele goes for a ride with another
    When Selection Preserves Variation
    Overdominance
    Other forms of balancing selection
    Selection That Favors the Most Common
    Underdominance: When heterozygotes suffer
    Positive frequency-dependent selection
    The Evolution of a Population's Mean Fitness
    The fundamental theorem of natural selection and the adaptive landscape
    Deleterious Mutations
    A mutation-selection balance
    The mutation load
    Summary

    6. Phenotypic Evolution
    Genotypes and Phenotypes
    Fitness Functions Describe Selection on Quantitative Traits
    Measuring the Strength of Directional Selection
    Evolution by Directional Selection
    When genes interact: Dominance and epistasis
    Adaptation from standing genetic variation versus new mutations
    Can adaptation rescue species from extinction?
    Artificial Selection
    Correlated Traits
    Constraints and trade-offs
    The causes of genetic correlations
    Phenotypic Plasticity
    The Genetic Architecture of Quantitative Traits
    Quantitative trait loci
    The genetics of quantitative traits
    Summary

    7. Genetic Drift: Evolution at Random
    What Is Random Genetic Drift?
    The Genealogy of Genes
    How Strong Is Genetic Drift?
    Populations that change in size
    Drift and Genetic Variation within Species
    Estimating population size
    Genetic Drift and Natural Selection
    Crossing an adaptive valley by drift
    The fate of beneficial mutations in large populations
    The Evolution of Differences among Species
    The neutral theory of molecular evolution
    Searching the Genes for Signatures of Adaptation
    Synonymous versus nonsynonymous differences
    The MK test
    Divergence among populations
    Summary

    8. Evolution in Space
    Patterns in Space
    Gene Flow
    How is gene flow measured?
    Genetic Divergence between Populations
    Gene Flow and Selection
    Tension zones
    Gene Flow and Drift
    Gene flow, local adaptation, and drift
    The Evolution of Dispersal
    The Evolution of Species' Ranges
    Summary

    9. Species and Speciation
    What Are Species?
    Box 9A. Diagnosis of a New Species
    Reproductive Isolation
    Prezygotic barriers
    Postzygotic barriers
    How fast does reproductive isolation evolve?
    The Causes of Speciation
    Box 9B. Speciation in the Lab
    The Geography of Speciation
    Allopatric speciation
    Sympatric speciation
    Parapatric speciation
    The Genomics of Speciation
    Summary

    10. All About Sex
    What Are Females and Males?
    Sexual Selection
    Why are males sexually selected?
    Sexual selection by male-male competition
    Sexual selection by female choice
    Sexual selection in flowering plants
    Sex Ratios
    Why Sex?
    Advantages to sex in changing environments
    Selective interference favors sex and recombination
    Selfing and Outcrossing
    Summary

    11. How to Be Fit
    Life History Traits as Components of Fitness
    Costs of reproduction
    Fitness in age-structured populations
    Senescence
    Evolution of the Population Growth Rate and Density
    Diverse life histories
    Number of offspring
    Life histories and mating strategies
    Specialists and Generalists
    Advantages of specialization
    Specialization without trade-offs
    Experiments on niche evolution
    Summary

    12. Cooperation and Conflict
    The Costs and Benefits of Interacting
    Social Interactions and Cooperation
    Cooperation among Unrelated Individuals
    Reciprocity
    Box 12A. Evolutionarily Stable Strategies
    Shared Genes and the Evolution of Altruism
    Box 12B. Calculating Relatedness
    Box 12C. Altruistic Mating Displays in Turkeys
    Spite
    Conflict and Cooperation in Close Quarters: The Family
    Conflict between mates
    Murder in the family
    Parent-offspring conflict
    Eusocial animals: The ultimate families
    Levels of Selection
    Selfish DNA
    Selfish mitochondria
    Group selection
    Cooperation and Major Evolutionary Transitions
    Summary

    13. Interactions among Species
    Coevolution and Interactions among Species
    The Evolution of Enemies and Victims
    Aposematism and mimicry
    Plants and herbivores
    Parasite-host interactions and infectious disease
    Mutualisms
    The Evolution of Competitive Interactions
    Evolution and Community Structure
    Summary

    14. The Evolution of Genes and Genomes
    The Birth of a Gene
    Gene families
    The Death of a Gene
    Evolution of Protein-Coding Genes
    Evolution of coding regions by genetic drift
    Evolution of coding regions by positive selection
    Evolution of Gene Expression
    Gene Structure
    Chromosome Evolution
    Fissions, fusions, and the evolution of chromosome number
    Inversions and the evolution of chromosome structure
    Evolution of Genome Size and Content
    Genomes large and small
    Genetic parasites and transposable elements
    Routes to the evolution of the smallest and largest genomes
    Summary

    15. Evolution and Development
    Comparative Development and Evolution
    Gene Regulation
    Box 15A. Some Methods in Developmental Genetics
    Hox genes and the genetic toolkit
    Developmental-Genetic Bases of Phenotypic Evolution
    Evolution by cis-regulatory mutations
    Evolution by trans-regulatory mutations
    Overview: The genetics and development of phenotypic evolution
    Evolvability and Developmental Pathways
    Constraints on Adaptive Evolution
    Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalization
    Does phenotypic plasticity contribute to evolution?
    Summary

    16. Phylogeny: The Unity and Diversity of Life
    Inferring Phylogenies
    Why estimating phylogenies can be hard
    Methods for estimating phylogenies
    Box 16A. Estimating Trees with Likelihood
    How Do We Use Phylogenies?
    Dating evolutionary events
    Discovering the history of genes and cultures
    Reconstructing ancestors
    Studying adaptations: The comparative method
    Classification
    Summary

    17. The History of Life
    Some Geological Fundamentals
    The fossil record
    Before Life Began
    The Emergence of Life
    Precambrian Life
    The Cambrian Explosion and the Origins of Animal Diversity
    Paleozoic Life
    The colonization of land
    Paleozoic life on land
    The end-Permian mass extinction
    Mesozoic Life
    The Cenozoic Era
    The modern world takes shape
    The adaptive radiation of mammals
    Pleistocene events
    Summary

    18. The Geography of Evolution
    Biogeographic Evidence for Evolution
    Major Patterns of Distribution
    Historical factors affecting geographic distributions
    Historical Explanations of Geographic Distributions
    Vicariance
    Dispersal
    Phylogeography
    Geographic Range Limits: Ecology and Evolution
    Geographic Patterns of Diversity
    Summary

    19. The Evolution of Biological Diversity
    Estimating and Modeling Changes in Biological Diversity
    Studying diversity in the fossil record
    Diversity through the Phanerozoic
    Rates of origination and extinction
    Mass extinctions
    Phylogenetic Studies of Diversity
    The shapes of phylogenies
    Does Species Diversity Reach Equilibrium?
    Summary

    20. Macroevolution: Evolution above the Species Level
    The Origin of Major New Forms of Life
    The origin of mammals
    Gradualism and Saltation
    The Evolution of Novelty
    Incipient and novel features: Permissive conditions and natural selection
    Complex characteristics
    Homology and the emergence of novel characters
    From Microevolution to Macroevolution
    Rates of evolution
    Gradualism and punctuated equilibria
    Speciation and phenotypic evolution
    Trends, Predictability, and Progress
    Trends: Kinds and causes
    Are there major trends in the history of life?
    Predictability and contingency in evolution
    The question of progress
    Summary

    21. The Evolutionary Story of Homo sapiens
    Where Did We Come From?
    Our closest living relatives
    How humans differ from other apes
    Our ancestry: Hominins through time
    The Arrival of Homo sapiens
    The human history of hybridization
    The diversity of human populations
    Brain and Language
    Diet and Agriculture: A Revolution in Our World
    Box 21A. Domesticated Plants and Animals
    Natural Selection, Past and Present
    Our genetic loads
    Natural selection and evolution in real time
    Evolutionary mismatches
    The Evolution of Culture
    Summary

    22. Evolution and Society
    Box 22A. Refuting Antievolutionary Arguments
    Creationism and Science
    Creationism
    The nature of science
    The Evidence for Evolution
    The fossil record
    Phylogenetic and comparative studies
    Genes and genomes
    Biogeography
    Failures of the argument from design
    Evolution, and its mechanisms, observed
    The Uses and Implications of Evolutionary Science
    Evolution by natural selection: A broad and flexible concept
    Practical applications of evolutionary science
    Using organisms' adaptations
    Agriculture and natural resources
    Conservation
    Box 22B. The Current Extinction Crisis
    Health and medicine
    Evolution and Human Behavior
    Variation in cognitive and behavioral traits
    Human behavior: Evolution and culture
    Understanding nature and humanity
    Summary

    Appendix: A Statistics Primer
    Glossary
    Literature Cited
    Illustration Credits

Teaching Resources

For Students

Companion Website
The Evolution, Third Edition, Companion Website features review and study tools to help students master the material presented in the textbook. Access to the site is free of charge, and requires no access code. (Instructor registration is required in order for students to access the quizzes.) The site includes the following resources:

* Chapter Outlines and Summaries: Concise overviews of the important topics covered in each chapter.

* Data Analysis Exercises: Expanded for the third edition, these inquiry-based exercises involve students in working with data and analyzing methods and conclusions from published papers.

* Simulation Exercises: Interactive modules that allow students to explore many of the dynamic processes of evolution, and answer questions based on the results they observe.

* Online Quizzes: Quizzes that cover all the major concepts introduced in each chapter. These quizzes are assignable by the instructor.

* Flashcards & Key Terms: Easy-to-use activities that help students learn all the key terminology introduced in each chapter.

* The complete Glossary

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library
The Evolution, Third Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes a variety of resources to help you develop your course and deliver your lectures. The IRL includes the following resources:

* Textbook Figures and Tables: All the figures (including photographs) and tables from the textbook are provided as JPEGs (both high- and low-resolution), reformatted and relabeled for optimal readability when projected.

* PowerPoint Presentations: For each chapter, all of the chapter's figures and tables are provided in a ready-to-use PowerPoint presentation, making it easy to quickly insert figures into your own lecture presentations.

* Answers to the textbook end-of-chapter Problems and Discussion Topics

* Quiz Questions from the Companion Website

* Data Analysis and Simulation Exercises from the Companion Website, with answers

Online Quizzing
A set of online quizzes is available via the Companion Website. These quizzes can be assigned or released for student self-study, at the instructor's discretion. Instructors can also add their own questions to the quizzing system, to create custom quizzes. Results can be viewed online or downloaded for use in gradebook programs. (Instructor registration is required for student access to the quizzes.)

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