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Cover

Ethical Choices

Third Edition

Richard Burnor

Publication Date - October 2021

ISBN: 9780190074449

448 pages
Paperback
6 1/8 x 9 1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $44.95

A concise and accessible introduction to ethical theories, featuring a large variety of real-life case studies.

Description

Ideal for students with little or no background in philosophy, Ethical Choices: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy with Cases provides a concise, balanced, and highly accessible introduction to ethics. Featuring an especially lucid and engaging writing style, the text surveys a wide range of ethical theories and perspectives including consequentialist ethics, deontological ethics, natural and virtue ethics, the ethics of care, and ethics and religion.

Each chapter of Ethical Choices also includes compelling case studies that are carefully matched with the theoretical material. Many of these cases address issues that students can relate directly to their own lives: the drinking age, student credit card debt, zero tolerance policies, grade inflation, and video games. Other cases discuss current topics like living wills, obesity, human trafficking, torture "lite," universal health care, and just-war theory. The cases provide students with practice in addressing real-life moral choices, as well as opportunities to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of each ethical theory. Every case study concludes with a set of Thought Questions to guide students as they reflect upon the issues raised by that case.

New to this Edition

  • A major section on personal identity has been added to Chapter Three: Autonomy - which many students will find particularly interesting and relevant to themselves.
  • Chapter Five: Moral Psychology has received a significant amount of new material reflecting more recent progress in cognitive science where it seems relevant to doing ethics and thinking morally.
  • The discussion of egoism was separated from that of moral psychology, creating Chapter Six: Egoism as a stand-alone chapter. Considerations both in favor of and opposing ethical egoism have been added to make the chapter a more careful treatment of egoism than is often found in other texts.
  • Chapter Nine: Deontology adds a new section on Kant's Kingdom of Ends.
  • Chapter Eleven: Social Contract theory adds a new section on structural violence.
  • Chapter Thirteen: Feminism and Care Ethics adds a new section addressing more recent developments in feminist ethics.
  • The previous edition's theoretical presentation of ethical pluralism was removed due to its complexity. In place of previously just one chapter, the new edition includes a largely new Part III with several chapters in applied ethics.
  • Chapter Sixteen: Organizational Ethics is now a stand-alone chapter which replaces the previous analysis of whistleblowing with a new account.
  • The previous material on environmental ethics has been made into stand-alone Chapter Seventeen: Environmental Ethics, which now includes climate change and the Paris Accord.
  • Chapter Eighteen: Obligations to Future Generations is a new stand-alone chapter.

Features

  • Balanced and highly accessible coverage of a wide range of ethical theories and perspectives, including consequentialist ethics, deontological ethics, natural and virtue ethics, the ethics of care, and ethics and religion
  • Compelling case studies in every chapter, carefully matched with the theoretical material, provide students with practice in addressing real-life moral choices, as well as opportunities to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of each ethical theory
  • Thought Questions at the conclusion of each case study guide students as they reflect upon the issues raised by that case
  • Numerous pedagogical features--including summaries at the end of each major section of a chapter, lists of key terms, For Discussion questions at the end of each chapter, Guidelines for a Case Study Analysis, and suggestions For Further Reading that include Internet sources--aid in student study and understanding of the material

About the Author(s)

Richard Burnor is Professor of Philosophy at Felician College. Dr. Burnor has published articles in the philosophy of science, metaphysics, and teaching philosophy. Yvonne Raley was Associate Professor of Philosophy at Felician College.

Table of Contents

    Preface
    Analyzing a Case

    Part I Introduction: Theory and Practice

    Chapter One: Morals and Values
    I. EXTRAORDINARY AND ORDINARY MORALS
    II. VALUES
    III. THE MORAL VS. NON-MORAL
    IV. INTRINSIC AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUES
    V. VALUES AND FOUNDATIONS
    Values Exercise
    Case 1 Breastfeeding in Public
    Case 2 Buy Now, Pay Forever
    Case 3 The Real Price of Coffee

    Chapter Two: Moral Relativism
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. THREE VIEWS OF ETHICS
    III. EVALUATING SUBJECTIVISM
    IV. SUPPORTING RELATIVISM
    V. AGAINST RELATIVISM
    VI. A MATTER OF TOLERANCE
    **VII. BEYOND CULTURAL RELATIVISM
    Case 1 Greased Gems
    Case 2 Arranged Marriage
    Case 3 Female Genital Mutilation
    Case 4 Vaccine Exemptions by Law

    Chapter Three: Autonomy, Moral Agency, and Self-identity
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. PERSONAL AUTONOMY
    III. IMPLICATIONS OF AUTONOMY
    IV. MORAL AGENTS
    V. FILLING IN AUTONOMY
    VI. **DEVELOPING SELF-IDENTITY
    Case 1 The Drunk Driver
    Case 2 Elizabeth Bouvia
    Case 3 Should the Drinking Age Be Eighteen?
    Case 4 The Living Will
    Case 5 Determining Racial Identity


    Chapter Four: Making Moral Judgments
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. CONFLICTS
    III. CHARACTERIZING MORAL CLAIMS
    IV. FORMAL MORAL REASONING
    V. MORAL REFLECTION
    Case 1 Mr. Research
    Case 2 Child Marriage
    Case 3 Who's Responsible for Obesity?

    Chapter Five: Psychology and Morality
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. SITUATIONISM AND MORAL CHARACTER
    III. OF TWO MINDS
    IV. THE ETHICS OF CHOICE AND BELIEF
    V. ALTRUISM
    Case 1 Human Trafficking
    Case 2 A Kindly Companion
    Case 3 A Covid party
    Case 4 Evaluating Expertise

    PART II Introduction

    Chapter Six: Egoism
    I. Introduction
    II. Ethical and Psychological Egoism
    III. Assessing Ethical Egoism
    IV. **Why Does Egoism Go Wrong?
    Case 1 Declaring Wages
    Case 2 A Scratched Bumper
    Case 3 Job Competition
    Case 4 MAD

    Chapter Seven: Consequentialist Ethics: Act Utilitarianism
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. UTILITY AND CONSEQUENTIALISM
    III. **UTILITY AND MILL'S ACCOUNT
    IV. ACT UTILITARIANISM
    V. ADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS
    VI. **BEYOND CLASSICAL UTILITARIANISM
    Case 1 Charity vs. Xbox
    Case 2 Sponsoring a Child
    Case 3 Should Your Next Car Be all-electric?
    Case 4 Factory Farming and Animal Suffering
    Case 5 Torture Lite


    Chapter Eight: Consequentialist Ethics: Rule Utilitarianism
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. RULE UTILITARIANISM
    III. RULE VS. ACT UTILITARIANISM
    IV. PROBLEMS WITH RULE UTILITARIANISM
    V. **JUSTICE AND RIGHTS REVISITED
    Case 1 Transgender Students and College Athletics
    Case 2 Curbing Grade Inflation
    Case 3 Universal Healthcare

    Chapter Nine: Deontological Ethics
    I. INTRODUCTION
    **II. ROSS'S ETHICS
    III. KANT'S GOOD WILL
    IV. KANT'S PRINCIPLE OF ENDS
    V. KANT'S PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSAL LAW
    VI. ATTRACTIONS AND PROBLEMS
    VII. **AUTONOMY AND KANT'S KINGDOM OF ENDS
    Case 1 Internet Bride-Straight from Asia
    Case 2 A Demanding Honor Code
    Case 3 The Ayala Case
    Case 4 A Personal Decision
    Case 5 Suicide

    Chapter Ten: Natural Law Theory
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. NATURAL LAW THEORY
    III. FORFEITURE
    IV. DOUBLE EFFECT
    V. PROBLEMS FOR NATURAL LAW THEORY
    Case 1 Relieving Pain in a Dying Patient
    Case 2 Birth Control
    Case 3 Just War Theory and the Killing of Noncombatants
    Case 4 Permanent Vegetative State: The Case of Terri Schiavo
    Chapter Eleven: Social Contracts and Rights
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. LOCKE
    III. HOBBES
    IV. RAWLS
    V. SOME INITIAL ASSESSMENTS
    VI. MORE ON RIGHTS
    VII. **STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE
    Case 1 Socrates's Imprisonment
    Case 2 Lord of the Flies
    Case 3 Locke and Load: Lockean Rights and Gun Control

    Chapter Twelve: Virtue Ethics
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. THE HEART OF VIRTUE ETHICS
    III. ARISTOTLE'S VIRTUE ETHICS
    IV. **CRITIQUING PRINCIPLE-BASED ETHICS
    V. CLASSIFYING THE VIRTUES
    VI. PROBLEMS WITH VIRTUE ETHICS
    Case 1 The Unlikely Rescue
    Case 2 Video Games
    Case 3 Compulsive Gambling and the Internet
    Case 4 Moral Luck
    Case 5 Democracy in Switzerland

    Chapter Thirteen: Feminism and Care Ethics
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. **FEMINIST ETHICS
    III. THE CARE PERSPECTIVE
    IV. ELEMENTS OF CARE ETHICS
    V. PROBLEMS
    VI. **CARE AND VIRTUE
    VII.** NEW DEVELOPMENTS
    Case 1 The Heinz dilemma
    Case 2 The International Gemstone Trade
    Case 3 Parent Responsibility Toward Their In Utero Child
    Case 4 Absolute Poverty

    Chapter Fourteen: Ethics and Religion
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. DIVINE COMMAND THEORY
    III. AN ALTERNATE DEPENDENCY ACCOUNT
    IV. OBJECTIONS AND ELABORATIONS
    V. COMPLETENESS
    Case 1 By Divine Command?
    Case 2 Religious Symbols and Public Schools
    Case 3 A Question of Authority

    PART III Introduction

    Chapter Fifteen: Medical Ethics: Futility
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. CONFLICTS
    Case 1 Infant Medical Futility
    Case 2 National Triage
    Case 3 Challenge Studies

    Chapter Sixteen: Organizational Ethics: Whistleblowing
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. CLASSIC ANALYSIS
    III. COMPLICITY & SUCCESS
    IV. A MODIFIED ANALYSIS
    Case 1 Mr. Tran and Wells Fargo
    Case 2 Surfer, Sailor, Whistleblower
    Case 3 The Challenger
    Case 4 The Snowden Leak

    Chapter Seventeen: Environmental Ethics: Pollution and Resource Use
    I. OPTIMIZATION AND CONFLICTS
    II. CLIMATE CHANGE
    III. A PRACTICAL AND MORAL RESPONSE
    Case 1 National Parks
    Case 2 The Diesel Dupe
    Case 3 Anthropocentric vs. Ecocentric Views

    Chapter Eighteen: Obligations to Future Generations
    I. INTRODUCTION
    II. CAN THERE BE OBLIGATIONS TOWARDS NON-EXISTENT PEOPLE?
    III. CAN THERE BE OBLIGATIONS TOWARDS INDETERMINATE PEOPLE?
    IV. IS THERE AN OBLIGATION TO ENSURE ANY FUTURE HUMANITY?
    V. GUIDING PRINCIPLES
    Case 1 The Inheritance
    Case 2 Hey, isn't That Your Grandkid's Dinner?
    Case 3 Juggling Life, Health and the Economy
    Case 4 Designer Babies: Science Fiction No More

    Postscript

    Glossary

    Index