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Cover

Essentials of Music Technology

Mark Ballora

Publication Date - April 2015

ISBN: 9780190240912

256 pages
Paperback
8 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $99.99

Description

Computers in music have gone from being a niche subject to becoming a ubiquitous presence that all music students are bound to encounter in their professional lives. Meant to serve as a general reference for music technology courses, Essentials of Music Technology provides an overview of musical acoustics, psychoacoustics, MIDI, digital audio, and sound recording.

Topics covered include:

* The Internet

* MIDI software

* The nature of digital audio storage

* Filters

* Effects

* Room acoustics

* Sampling and synthesis techniques

Features

  • Discusses MIDI software
  • Describes the nature of digital audio storage
  • Explores sampling and synthesis techniques
  • An overview of musical acoustics, psychoacoustics, MIDI, digital audio, and sound recording

About the Author(s)

Mark Ballora has a background in theater arts, music composition, and multimedia production. He studied music technology at New York University and McGill University. He is Associate Professor of Music Technology at Pennsylvania State University.

Table of Contents

    Preface

    Chapter 1 Basic Acoustics
    The Nature of Sound Events
    Wave Propagation
    Simple Harmonic Motion
    Characteristics of Waves
    Refraction and Reflection
    Superposition
    Standing Waves, Resonant Frequencies, and Harmonics
    Phase

    Speed and Velocity

    Chapter 2 Music and Acoustics
    What Is the Difference Between Musical Sound and Noise?
    Properties of Musical Sound
    Frequency/Pitch
    Frequency Is Objective, Pitch Is Subjective
    Human Pitch Perception is Logarithmic

    Loudness
    Power
    Amplitude
    Intensity
    Timbre

    Chapter 3 Acoustic Factors in Combination: Perceptual Issues
    Sound in Time
    Localization of Natural Events
    Simulated Localization in Audio Systems
    Mismatches Between Measurement and Perception
    Phase
    Timbre
    Loudness

    Conclusion

    Chapter 4 Introduction to Computers
    Multimedia
    The Internet
    The World Wide Web
    Caveat Emptor
    Streaming Media
    The Web and Music Research


    Chapter 5 Representing Numbers
    Numbers Are Power
    Of What Value Power?
    Numbers in Computers
    The Binary Number System
    Some Essential Technology
    The Hexadecimal Number System
    Integers and Floating Points

    Chapter 6 Introduction to MIDI
    A Brief Historical Background
    What MIDI Is and What It Is Not
    MIDI Compromises
    MIDI Channels

    Computers and MIDI
    Central Traffic Control
    Sequencing Software
    Notation Software
    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Software
    Accompaniment
    Software
    Editor/Librarian Software
    Connecting MIDI Instruments
    Basic Configurations
    Computer Configurations
    The Computer as Sound Generator

    Chapter 7 The MIDI Language
    The MIDI Language, 1: Channel Voice Messages
    Structure of Channel Voice Messages
    Channel Voice Message Types

    The MIDI Language, 2: MIDI Modes
    Channel Mode Messages
    Other Types of Mode Messages

    The MIDI Language, 3: System-Level Messages
    System Common Messages
    System Real-Time Messages
    System Exclusive Messages

    MIDI and Time
    MIDI Synchronization
    MIDI Clock
    Song Position Pointer
    Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
    MIDI Time Code (MTC)

    MIDI Implementation Charts

    Chapter 8 MIDI and More
    Nonkeyboard MIDI Instruments
    The Challenge Imposed by MIDI
    MIDI String Instruments
    MIDI Wind Instruments
    MIDI Percussion Instruments

    Additions to the MIDI Protocol
    Standard MIDI Files
    General MIDI
    Multi Mode
    Karaoke Files
    GS MIDI and XG MIDI
    MIDI Machine Control (MMC) and MIDI Show
    Control (MSC)


    Chapter 9 Digital Audio
    Introduction
    Digitizing Audio--The Big Picture
    The Central Problem
    Digital Conversion
    Does Digital Sound as Good as Analog?

    Characteristics of Digital Audio
    Sampling Rate
    The Sampling Rate of CD Audio and Its Origin
    Quantization
    Quantization vs. Sampling Rate
    The Size of Audio Files

    Filtering
    What Is Filtering?
    Filter Types

    The Digital Filtering Process
    Feedforward vs. Feedback Filters
    Lowpass Filters
    Highpass Filters
    Bandpass and Band-Reject Filters
    Other Filter Characteristics

    The Digital Recording and Playback Process
    Recording
    Playback

    Chapter 10 Working with Digital Audio: Processing and Storage
    Spectral Representation
    0 Hz = Direct Current
    Spectra of Digital Signals
    Convolution
    Time Domain Localization vs. Spectral Resolution

    Oversampling and Noiseshaping
    Perceptual Coding
    Psychoacoustics
    Masking
    Data Reduction
    Storage Media
    Compact Disc
    Digital Audio Tape (DAT)
    MiniDisc
    DVD
    DVD-Audio
    Super Audio CD
    Hard-Disk Recording--The Convergence of Multimedia
    Digital Workstations
    Transferring Data Among Devices
    Audio Files


    Chapter 11 Acquiring Audio
    Room Acoustics
    Direct and Reflected Sound
    Large Performance Spaces
    Small Performance Spaces

    Microphones
    Receptor Types
    Transducer Types
    Directionality

    Microphone Configurations
    Time-of-Arrival Stereophony
    Intensity Stereophony
    Near-Coincident Configurations
    Support Microphones
    5.1 Channel Configurations

    Chapter 12 Treating and Mixing Audio
    Effects: Introduction
    Effects = Filtering
    Filtering = Delay
    Effects Processors and Word Length

    Long Delays: Audible Echoes
    Simple Delay
    Multitap Delay
    Feedback Delay

    Building Blocks of Delay-Based Effects: Comb and Allpass Filters
    Comb Filters
    Allpass Filters

    Delay-Based Effects
    Flanging
    Chorusing
    Phase
    Shifting
    Reverberation

    Non-Delay-Based Effects
    Ring/Amplitude Modulation
    Compression/Limiting and Expansion/Noise Gating

    Mixing
    Channels
    Phantom Power
    Channel Insert
    Equalization
    Channel Fader
    Mixer Buses
    Auxiliary Buses
    Mute/Solo
    Pan
    Output Buses
    A Final Note on Levels


    Chapter 13 Digital Instruments
    Samplers
    Sampler Variations
    Synthesizers
    Sound Fonts
    Groove Boxes and Looping Software
    Tracking Software

    Software Synthesis
    Building Blocks of Sound Synthesis
    Additive Synthesis
    Subtractive Synthesis
    Phase Modulation
    Vector Synthesis
    Latency


    Afterword
    Appendix 1: Suggested Class Projects
    Appendix 2: Web Page Template with MIDI
    File
    References
    Index