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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Donald G. Crosby

Publication Date - 26 February 1998

ISBN: 9780195117134

350 pages
6-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches


Although they are two aspects of the same subject, environmental toxicology and environmental chemistry are usually presented as though they are entirely separate from one another; even their practitioners often seem unaware of the connections. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry is the first text to tie these subjects closely together, demonstrating the immediate relevance of each subject to the other while also providing basic, easily understandable introductions to both areas. This unique work presents their principles and applications through numerous illustrative examples and special topics that highlight current environmental concerns. It provides up-to-date as well as historical examples of both subjects and includes discussions of ecotoxicology, epidemiology, predictive methods, and other topics not covered in similar texts. It also includes invertebrates and nonmammal vertebrates, plants, and microorganisms, as well as humans and other mammals. The first five chapters place chemicals in the environment; the following five provide the biological and toxicological settings; and the remaining six chapters offer examples of specific chemicals, their toxic effects and significance, and predictions of fate and toxicity. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of a related topic of particular public and scientific interest, such as chemical carcinogens, pesticide residues, or hazardous wastes.
Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in environmental toxicology courses, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry offers a timely, comprehensive introduction to the principles of toxicology as they apply to our environment. It is also useful for professionals and practitioners in a wide range of environmentally related fields and businesses.

Table of Contents

    1. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
    1.1. Poisons
    1.2. Environmental Toxicology
    1.3. Environmental Chemistry
    1.4. Toxicity
    1.5. Hazard and Risk
    1.6. Major Toxic Hazards
    1.7. Perspective
    1.8. References
    Special Topic 1: Ecotoxicology
    2. Environmental Chemicals
    2.1. Chemicals in the Environment
    2.2. Detection and Measurement
    2.3. The Atmosphere
    2.4. Water
    2.5. Soils
    2.6. Biota
    2.7. Everyday Life
    2.8. References
    Special Topic 2: Pesticide Residues
    3. Environmental Chemodynamics
    3.1. Environmental Chemodynamics
    3.2. Dissolution
    3.3. Solvent Partitioning
    3.4. Volatilization
    3.5. Adsorption
    3.6. Significance
    3.7. References
    Special Topic 3: The Great Escape
    4. Environmental Transport
    4.1. Dissipation of Chemicals
    4.2. Transport in and from Surface Water
    4.3. Transport in Soil and Groundwater
    4.4. Atmospheric Transport
    4.5. Commercial Conveyance
    4.6. Global Transport
    4.7. References
    Special Topic 4: Wind, Water, and Waves
    5. Abiotic Transformations
    5.1. Transformations
    5.2. Photochemistry
    5.3. Oxidation
    5.4. Reduction
    5.5. Hydrolysis
    5.6. Some Other Abiotic Reactions
    5.7. Summary of Abiotic Reactions
    5.8. References
    Special Topic 5: Free Radicals and the Ozone Layer
    6. Biotransformations
    6.1. Biotransformations
    6.2. Transformations by Microorganisms
    6.3. Transformations in Animals and Higher Plants
    6.4. Comparative Metabolism
    6.5. Summary of Biotransformations
    6.6. References
    Special Topic 6: Anatomy of an Oil Spill
    7. Intoxication
    7.1. The Intoxication Process
    7.2. Absorption and Disposition
    7.3. Factors Governing Intoxication
    7.4. Toxic Effects
    7.5. References
    Special Topic 7: Adaptation
    8. Quantitative Toxicology
    8.1. Dose-Response Relationships
    8.2. Factors Affecting Quantitative Responses
    8.3. Toxicokinetics
    8.4. Toxicity Measurements and Endpoints
    8.5. Data from Humans
    8.6. References
    Special Topic 8: Epidemiology
    9. Intoxication Mechanisms
    9.1. The Biochemical Lesion
    9.2. Receptors and Targets
    9.3. Mechanisms of General Toxicity
    9.4. Animal-specific Mechanisms
    9.5. Plant-specific Mechanisms
    9.6. Microbe-specific Mechanisms
    9.7. Perspective
    9.8. References
    Special Topic 9: Chemical Carcinogens
    10. Exposure and Risk
    10.1. Hazard and Risk
    10.2. Exposure
    10.3. Risk Assessments
    10.4. Ecological Risk
    10.5. Risk Management
    10.6. References
    Special Topic 10: PBPK Models
    11. Inorganic Toxicants
    11.1. Toxic Inorganic Chemicals
    11.2. Some Basic Chemistry
    11.3. Nonmetallic Elements
    11.4. The Metalloids
    11.5. Heavy Elements
    11.6. Transition Elements
    11.7. Radioactive Elements
    11.8. Other Toxic Elements
    11.9. References
    Special Topic 11: Methylation of Metals and Metalloids
    12. Biotoxins
    12.1. Biotoxins
    12.2. The Alkaloids
    12.3. Toxic Glycosides
    12.4. Plant Phenolics
    12.5. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    12.6. Lactone Mycotoxins
    12.7. Perspective
    12.8. References
    Special Topic 12: Allelochemicals
    13. Industrial Chemicals
    13.1. Industrial Chemicals
    13.2. Petrochemicals
    13.3. Toxic Byproducts and Conversion Products
    13.4. References
    Special Topic 13: Why Chlorinate?
    14. Refractory Pollutants
    14.1. Refractory Chemicals
    14.2. DDT and DDE
    14.3. Chlorinated Alicyclics
    14.4. Chlorinated Dioxins
    14.5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    14.6. Phthalate Esters
    14.7. Perspective
    14.8. References
    Special Topic 14: Environmental Persistence
    15. Reactive Pollutants
    15.1. Reactivity
    15.2. Alkyl Halides
    15.3. Chlorophenols
    15.4. Divalent Sulfur Compounds
    15.5. Dithiocarbamates
    15.6. Nitroarenes
    15.7. Amines and Their Derivatives
    15.8. Esters
    15.9. Carbon Monoxide and Cyanides
    15.10. Perspective
    15.11. References
    Special Topic 15: Hazardous Waste
    16. Predicting Environmental Fate and Effects
    16.1. Quantitative Prediction
    16.2. Predicting Environmental Transport
    16.3. Predicting Environmental Transformations
    16.4. Modeling Environmental Fate
    16.5. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relations (QSAR)
    16.6. Microcosms (Model Ecosystems)
    16.7. References
    Special Topic 16: QSAR and Toxicity