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Third Edition

Michelle N. Shiota and James W. Kalat

Publication Date - October 2017

ISBN: 9780190635510

576 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $114.99

With an accessible and friendly writing style, this text provides a comprehensive survey of theory and research on emotion


Emotion, Third Edition, offers a comprehensive and integrated survey of the field of affective science. The text covers the major theories of emotion in detail and reviews both classic and cutting-edge research on emotional processes from various subdisciplines. The authors' thoughtful engagement with ongoing controversies, contradictory findings, methodological limitations, and replication failures encourages critical thinking. While highly rigorous, the text is also student-friendly, with a light, humorous tone, real-world stories, and an intuitive structure. Emotion, Third Edition, addresses the questions undergraduates are most likely to ask: Why do we have emotions? How do they affect our lives? and How can we improve emotional well-being?

New to this Edition

  • Three new chapters: "What Elicits Emotions," "Emotional Expression in the Face, Posture, and Body," and "Emotion in Relationships and Society"
  • A wealth of new research and updated pop-culture references
  • Reorganized, streamlined chapters based around key questions from students' perspectives
  • Instructor resources, including a Test Bank and PowerPoint lecture slides


  • Integrates cutting-edge research and pop culture references
  • Openly addresses controversies in the field, contradictions among empirical findings, discrepancies between theory and research, limitations of particular studies, and failures to replicate highly prominent findings
  • Each chapter includes suggestions for further reading (primarily engaging and accessible popular-press books written by prominent researchers in emotion)
  • Features a student-friendly style that offers real-world, inside stories about researchers and studies
  • Organized according to the major questions that students have about emotions

About the Author(s)

Michelle "Lani" Shiota is Associate Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her work has been published in high-impact journals including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychologist, and Emotion.

James Kalat is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University. He is the best-selling author of Introduction to Psychology (2017) and Biological Psychology (2016).


"This text provides an excellent overview of the field, starting with foundational questions and building to topics that interest a wide range of students."--Andrea Heberlein, Boston College

"Emotion, Third Edition, is well written, engaging, and visually interesting."--Anna Luerssen, Lehman College CUNY

"I think this text is well organized, insightful, and informative, and I would highly recommend it to my colleagues."--Taunjah Bell Neasman, Jackson State University

Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Thought/Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further Reading.
    Chapter 1. The Nature of Emotion
    What Is Emotion?
    An Attempt to Define Emotion
    A Different Type of Definition: The Prototype Approach
    Classic Theories of Emotion
    James-Lange Theory
    Cannon-Bard Theory
    Schachter-Singer Theory
    Modern Theories of Emotion
    Basic/Discrete Emotions
    Core Affect and Psychological Construction
    The Component Process Model
    Which Modern Theory Is Right?
    Research Methods: How Do We Study Emotion?
    Inducing Emotion
    Measuring Emotion
    --Physiological Measurements
    --Behavioral Observations
    Do Different Aspects of Emotion Hang Together?
    Chapter 2. The Evolution of Emotion
    What Is an Evolutionary Perspective?
    Basic Principles of Evolutionary Theory
    Emotions as Adaptations
    Functions of Emotion
    Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion
    Social Functions of Emotion
    Role of Evolution in Modern Theories of Emotion
    The Signal Value of Emotional Feelings
    Approach and Avoidance Motivation
    Emotions as Superordinate Neural Programs
    A Phylogeny of Emotions?
    Methodological Considerations
    Example: Are Physiological Aspects of Emotion Universal?
    Chapter 3. Culture and Emotion
    What Is Culture?
    A Definition and Its Implications
    Cultural Differences in Concepts of Emotion
    Do All Cultures Have the Same "Basic" Emotions?
    The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    Hyper- Versus Hypocognized Emotions
    Aspects of Culture That Predict Differences in Emotion
    Individualism Versus Collectivism
    Power Distance: Vertical Versus Horizontal Societies
    Linear Versus Dialectical Epistemology
    Methodological Considerations
    Example: Culture of Honor and Implications for Anger
    Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches
    Ekman (1972): Neurocultural Theory of Emotion
    Russell (1991): Emotion Episodes as Socially Constructed Scripts
    Keltner & Haidt (1999): Levels of Analysis
    Chapter 4. What Elicits Emotions?
    What Is Appraisal?
    The Speed of Emotional Appraisals
    What Is the Content of Appraisal?
    Core Relational Themes
    Appraisal Dimensions
    Which Approach Is Correct?
    Evidence Linking Appraisal to Emotion
    Does Appraisal Cause Emotion?
    Universals and Cultural Differences in Emotional Appraisals
    Is Appraisal Necessary for Emotion?
    The Mere Exposure Effect
    Example: What Elicits Anger?
    Core Relational Theme Approach
    Appraisal Dimension Approach
    No-Cognition Approach: The Cognitive Neoassociationistic Model
    Chapter 5. Emotional Expression in the Face, Posture, and Voice
    Historical Importance of Facial Expression Research
    Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal?
    Ekman's Cross-cultural Studies
    How Many Expressions Are There?
    Culture and Emotional Expression
    Cultural Display Rules
    Facial Expression Dialects
    Emotion in Posture and the Voice
    Posture and Emotion
    Vocal Expression of Emotion
    Can Expression Influence Emotional Feelings?
    Chapter 6. Emotion and the Central Nervous System
    Methods to Study Emotion and the Brain
    Brain Damage
    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Neurochemistry Techniques
    The Reverse Inference Problem
    The Amygdala and Emotion
    Effects of Amygdala Damage
    Laboratory Studies of Fear Conditioning
    Events That Activate the Human Amygdala
    The Amygdala and Emotional Memory
    Emotion Neuroanatomy: Important Structures
    The Hypothalamus
    The Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area
    The Insular Cortex
    The Prefrontal Cortex
    Emotion Neurochemistry: Important Neurotransmitters
    B-Endorphin and the Opioid Peptides
    Theories of Emotion: Evidence from Neuroscience
    Chapter 7. The Autonomic Nervous System and Hormones
    The Autonomic Nervous System
    Fight or Flight: The Sympathetic Nervous System
    Rest and Digest: The Parasympathetic Nervous System
    How the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems Work Together
    Hormones and the Endocrine System
    Measuring Physiological Aspects of Emotion
    Commonly Used Measures
    Measurement Challenges
    The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion
    Are Bodily Sensations Necessary for Emotional Feelings?
    Autonomic Nervous System Specificity of Emotions
    Culture and Emotion Physiology
    Physiological Aspects of Positive Emotions
    Stress and Its Health Consequences
    Hans Selye and the Concept of Stress
    Defining and Measuring Stress
    How Stress Can Affect Health
    Chapter 8. Emotional Development
    Emotional Reactions in Infancy
    Smiling and Laughing
    Responses to Danger
    When Do Specific Emotions Emerge?
    How Do Emotions Develop?
    Physical Maturation
    Cognitive Maturation
    Social Interaction
    Development of Emotional Communication: Perceiving, Sharing, and Talking About Emotions
    Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotion
    Emotional Language
    Socialization of Emotional Expression
    Emotion in Adolescence
    Emotional Development in Adulthood
    Individual Consistency Across the Lifespan
    Age Trends in Emotion
    Chapter 9. Emotion in Relationships and Society
    Early Emotional Bonds: Infant Attachment
    What Is the Function of Attachment?
    Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms of Attachment
    Types of Attachment: Secure, Anxious-Ambivalent, and Avoidant
    Romantic Love and Marriage
    Romantic Attraction and Falling in Love
    Attachment in Adult Romantic Relationships
    Marriage: Predicting Satisfaction and Stability
    Emotions in Caring for Others
    Sympathy, Compassion, and Nurturant Love
    Emotions in Society
    Attachment Processes in Friendships and Groups
    Gratitude: Find, Remind, and Bind
    The Appeasement Function of Embarrassment
    Pride and Social Status
    Chapter 10. Emotion and Cognition
    Emotions and Attention
    Emotions and Memory
    Emotion and Memory Encoding
    Emotion and Consolidation
    Emotion and Retrieval
    Emotions and Information Processing
    Systematic Versus Heuristic Processing
    Mood and Systematic Versus Heuristic Cognition
    Are Depressed People More Realistic?
    Positive Affect and Creativity
    Emotions and Decision Making
    The Somatic Marker Hypothesis
    Choices Based on Preferences and Values
    Emotions and Moral Reasoning
    The Downside of Relying on Emotions
    Chapter 11. The Value of Negative Emotions
    The Value of Fear
    The Biology of Fear and Anxiety
    Individual Differences: Gender and Genetics
    The Value of Anger
    The Biology of Anger and Aggression
    Individual Differences: Expression and Management
    The Biology of Disgust
    Individual Differences: Development and Implications
    The Value of Sadness
    The Biology of Sadness
    Individual Differences: Aging and Loss
    Embarrassment, Shame, and Guilt
    The Value of Self-Conscious Negative Emotions
    The Biology of Embarrassment
    Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions
    Chapter 12. Happiness and the Positive Emotions
    Is Happiness an Emotion?
    Measuring Subjective Well-Being
    What Predicts Happiness?
    Personality: The Top-Down Theory of Happiness
    Life Events That Impact Happiness
    Wealth and Happiness
    Other Correlates of Happiness
    The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotion
    Are There Multiple Positive Emotions?
    Enthusiasm: The Anticipation of Reward
    Amusement and Humor
    Hope and Optimism
    Chapter 13. Individual Differences in Emotion
    Gender and Emotion
    Gender Differences in Emotional Experience and Expression
    Gender and Emotion Regulation
    Gender and Empathy
    Personality and Emotion
    Biological Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Emotion
    Frontal Lobe Activation Asymmetry
    Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism
    Emotional Intelligence
    Measuring Emotional Intelligence
    Reliability and Validity of Emotional Intelligence Tests
    Can Emotional Intelligence Be Taught?
    Chapter 14. Emotion in Clinical Psychology
    Diagnosis in Clinical Psychology
    Major Depressive Disorder
    Multiple Types of Depression?
    Causes of Depression
    Treating Depression
    Mania and Bipolar Disorder
    Anxiety Disorders
    Causes of Anxiety Disorders
    Treating Anxiety Disorders
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    Antisocial Personality Disorder
    Emotional Disturbances as Transdiagnostic Aspects of Disorder
    Chapter 15. Emotion Regulation
    Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms: An Early Taxonomy of Coping Strategies
    The Process Model of Emotion Regulation
    Situation-Focused Strategies
    Choosing Situations Wisely
    Active Coping: Changing the Situation
    Cognition-Focused Strategies
    Attentional Control
    Cognitive Reappraisal
    Different Types of Reappraisal
    Response-Focused Strategies
    Escaping Emotions: Drugs, Alcohol, and Food
    Suppressing Emotional Expression
    Catharsis: Expressing Your Feelings
    The Neurobiology of Emotion Regulation
    Which Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Best?