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Cover

Elements of Power Electronics

Second Edition

Philip Krein

Publication Date - December 2014

ISBN: 9780199388417

816 pages
Hardcover
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $214.99

The most up-to-date power electronics text available, now in a streamlined second edition with strong alternative energy coverage and expanded examples

Description

Building on the tradition of its classic first edition, the long-awaited second edition of Elements of Power Electronics provides comprehensive coverage of the subject at a level suitable for undergraduate engineering students, students in advanced degree programs, and novices in the field. It establishes a fundamental engineering basis for power electronics analysis, design, and implementation, offering broad and in-depth coverage of basic material. Streamlined throughout to reflect new innovations in technology, the second edition also features updates on renewable and alternative energy.

Elements of Power Electronics features a unifying framework that includes the physical implications of circuit laws, switching circuit analysis, and the basis for converter operation and control. It discusses dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac conversion tasks and principles of resonant converters and discontinuous converters. The text also addresses magnetic device design, thermal management and drivers for power semiconductors, control system aspects of converters, and both small-signal and geometric controls.

Models for real devices and components-including capacitors, inductors, wire connections, and power semiconductors-are developed in depth, while newly expanded examples show students how to use tools like Mathcad, Matlab, and Mathematica to aid in the analysis and design of conversion circuits.

Features:
*More than 160 examples and 350 chapter problems support the presented concepts
*An extensive Companion Website includes additional problems, laboratory materials, selected solutions for students, computer-based examples, and analysis tools for Mathcad, Matlab, and Mathematica

New to this Edition

  • Updated material throughout reflects innovations in technology
  • Many chapters feature new material on renewable and alternative energy
  • Examples have been updated and expanded throughout, including extensive design examples

About the Author(s)

Philip T. Krein holds the Grainger Endowed Chair in Electric Machinery and Electromechanics as Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, and holds twenty-eight U.S. patents, with additional patents pending.

Previous Publication Date(s)

September 1997

Reviews

"Elements of Power Elements is a classic text, with modern examples that upgrade its relevance. It is an excellent first book on the subject, but also a reference that I use time and time again."--Robert Balog, Texas A&M University

"This is an essential textbook by a world-class author. Its greatest strength is that it does not compromise on any of the important technical breadth and depth aspects. The revision is timely and enhances some important materials including applications and examples."--Martin Ordonez, University of British Columbia

"This book is the result of years of dedication and hard work by a superb educator. I commend him for his tenacity and attention to detail."--R. Ramakumar, Oklahoma State University

Table of Contents

    PART I: PRINCIPLES

    CHAPTER 1 -- POWER ELECTRONICS AND THE ENERGY REVOLUTION

    1.1 The energy basis of electrical engineering
    1.2 What is power electronics?
    1.3 The need for electrical conversion
    1.4 History
    » 1.4.1 Rectifiers and the diode
    » 1.4.2 Inverters and power transistors
    » 1.4.3 Motor drive applications
    » 1.4.4 Power supplies and dc-dc conversion
    » 1.4.5 Alternative energy processing
    » 1.4.6 The energy future: Power electronics as a revolution
    » 1.4.7 Summary and future developments

    1.5 Goals and methods of electrical conversion
    » 1.5.1 The basic objectives
    » 1.5.2 The efficiency objective -- the switch
    » 1.5.3 The reliability objective -- simplicity and
    integration
    » 1.5.4 Important variables and notation

    1.6 Energy analysis of switching power converters
    » 1.6.1 Conservation of energy over time
    » 1.6.2 Energy flows and action in dc-dc converters
    » 1.6.3 Energy flows and action in rectifiers

    1.7 Power electronics applications: a universal energy enabler
    » 1.7.1 Solar energy architectures
    » 1.7.2 Wind energy architectures
    » 1.7.3 Tide and wave architectures
    » 1.7.4 Electric transportation architectures

    1.8 Recap
    1.9 Problems
    1.10 References

    CHAPTER 2 -- SWITCHING CONVERSION AND ANALYSIS
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Combining conventional circuits and switches
    » 2.2.1 Organizing a converter to focus on switches
    » 2.2.2 Configuration-based
    analysis
    » 2.2.3 The switch matrix as a design tool

    2.3 The reality of Kirchhoff's Laws
    » 2.3.1 The challenge of switching violations
    » 2.3.2 Interconnection of voltage and current sources
    » 2.3.3 Short-term and long-term violations
    » 2.3.4 Interpretation of average inductor voltage and capacitor current
    » 2.3.5 Source conversion

    2.4 Switching functions and applications
    2.5 Overview of switching devices
    » 2.5.1 Real switches
    » 2.5.2 The restricted switch
    » 2.5.3 Typical devices and their functions

    2.6 Methods for diode switch circuits
    2.7 Control of converters based on switch action
    2.8 Equivalent source methods
    2.9 Simulation
    2.10 Summary and recap
    2.11 Problems
    2.12 References


    PART II: CONVERTERS AND APPLICATIONS

    CHAPTER 3 -- DC-DC CONVERTERS
    3.1 The importance of dc-dc conversion
    3.2 Why not voltage dividers?
    3.3 Linear regulators
    » 3.3.1 Regulator circuits
    » 3.3.2 Regulation measures

    3.4 Direct dc-dc converters and filters
    » 3.4.1 The buck converter
    » 3.4.2 The boost converter
    » 3.4.3 Power filter design
    » 3.4.4 Discontinuous modes and critical inductance

    3.5 Indirect dc-dc converters
    » 3.5.1 The buck-boost converter
    » 3.5.2 The boost-buck converter
    » 3.5.3 The flyback converter
    » 3.5.4 SEPIC, zeta, and other indirect converters
    » 3.5.5 Power filters in indirect converters
    » 3.5.6 Discontinuous modes in indirect converters

    3.6 Forward converters and isolation
    » 3.6.1 Basic transformer operation
    » 3.6.2 General considerations in forward converters
    » 3.6.3 Catch-winding forward converter
    » 3.6.4 Forward converters with ac links
    » 3.6.5 Boost-derived (current-fed) forward converters

    3.7 Bidirectional converters
    3.8 Dc-dc converter design issues and examples
    » 3.8.1 The high-side switch challenge
    » 3.8.2 Limitations of resistive and forward drops
    » 3.8.3 Regulation
    » 3.8.4 A solar interface converter
    » 3.8.5 Electric truck interface converter
    » 3.8.6 Telecommunications power supply

    3.9 Application discussion
    3.10 Recap
    3.11 Problems
    3.12 References

    CHAPTER 4 -- RECTIFIERS AND SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Rectifier overview
    4.3 The classical rectifier -- operation and analysis
    4.4 Phase controlled rectifiers
    » 4.4.1 The uncontrolled case.
    » 4.4.2 Controlled bridge and midpoint rectifiers
    » 4.4.3 The polyphase bridge rectifier
    » 4.4.4 Power filtering in rectifiers
    » 4.4.5 Discontinuous mode operation

    4.5 Active rectifiers
    » 4.5.1 Boost rectifier
    » 4.5.2 Discontinuous mode flyback and related converters as active rectifiers
    » 4.5.3 Polyphase active rectifiers

    4.6 Switched-capacitor converters
    » 4.6.1 Charge exchange between capacitors
    » 4.6.2 Capacitors and switch matrices
    » 4.6.3 Doublers and voltage multipliers

    4.7 Voltage and current doublers
    4.8 Converter design examples
    » 4.8.1 Wind-power rectifier
    » 4.8.2 Power system control and HVDC
    » 4.8.3 Solid-state lighting
    » 4.8.4 Vehicle active battery charger

    4.9 Application discussion
    4.10 Recap
    4.11 Problems
    4.12 References

    CHAPTER 5 -- INVERTERS
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Inverter considerations
    5.3 Voltage-sourced inverters and control
    5.4 Pulse-width modulation
    » 5.4.1 Introduction
    » 5.4.2 Creating PWM waveforms
    » 5.4.3 Drawbacks of PWM
    » 5.4.4 Multi-level PWM
    » 5.4.5 Inverter input current under PWM

    5.5 Three-phase inverters and space vector modulation
    5.6 Current-sourced inverters
    5.7 Filters and inverters
    5.8 Inverter design examples
    » 5.8.1 Solar power interface
    » 5.8.2 Uninterruptible power supply
    » 5.8.3 Electric vehicle high-performance drive

    5.9 Application discussion
    5.10 Recap
    5.11 Problems
    5.12 References


    PART III: REAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS

    CHAPTER 6 -- REAL SOURCES AND LOADS
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Real loads
    » 6.2.1 Quasi-steady loads
    » 6.2.2 Transient loads
    » 6.2.3 Coping with load variation -- dynamic regulation

    6.3 Wire inductance
    6.4 Critical values and examples
    6.5 Interfaces for real sources
    » 6.5.1 Impedance behavior of sources
    » 6.5.2 Interfaces for dc sources
    » 6.5.3 Interfaces for ac sources

    6.6 Source characteristics of batteries
    » 6.6.1 Lead-acid cells
    » 6.6.2 Nickel
    batteries
    » 6.6.3 Lithium-ion batteries
    » 6.6.4 Basis for comparison

    6.7 Source characteristics of fuel cells and solar cells
    » 6.7.1 Fuel cells
    » 6.7.2 Solar cells

    6.8 Design examples
    » 6.8.1 Wind farm interconnection problems
    » 6.8.2 Bypass capacitor benefits
    » 6.8.3 Interface for a boost PFC active rectifier
    » 6.8.4 Lithium-ion battery charger for a small portable device

    6.9 Application discussion
    6.10 Recap
    6.11 Problems
    6.12 References

    CHAPTER 7 -- CAPACITORS AND RESISTORS
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Capacitors -- types and equivalent circuits
    » 7.2.1 Major types
    » 7.2.2 Equivalent circuit
    » 7.2.3 Impedance behavior
    » 7.2.4 Simple dielectric types and materials
    »
    7.2.5 Electrolytics
    » 7.2.6 Double-layer capacitors

    7.3 Effects of ESR
    7.4 Effects of ESL
    7.5 Wire resistance
    » 7.5.1 Wire sizing
    » 7.5.2 Traces and busbar
    » 7.5.3 Temperature and frequency effects

    7.6 Resistors
    7.7 Design examples
    » 7.7.1 Single-phase inverter energy
    » 7.7.2 Paralleling capacitors in a low-voltage dc-dc converter
    » 7.7.3 Resistance management in a heat lamp application

    7.8 Application discussion
    7.9 Recap
    7.10 Problems
    7.11 References

    CHAPTER 8 -- CONCEPTS OF MAGNETICS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Maxwell's equations with magnetic approximations
    8.3 Materials and properties
    8.4 Magnetic circuits
    » 8.4.1 The circuit analogy
    »
    8.4.2 Inductance
    » 8.4.3 Ideal and real transformers

    8.5 The hysteresis loop and losses
    8.6 Saturation as a design constraint
    » 8.6.1 Saturation limits
    » 8.6.2 General design considerations

    8.7 Design examples
    » 8.7.1 Core materials and geometries
    » 8.7.2 Additional discussion of transformers
    » 8.7.3 Hybrid car boost inductor
    » 8.7.4 Building-integrated solar energy converter
    » 8.7.5 Isolated converter for small satellite application

    8.8 Application discussion
    8.9 Recap
    8.10 Problems
    8.11 References

    CHAPTER 9 -- POWER SEMICONDUCTORS IN CONVERTERS
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Switching device states
    9.3 Static models
    9.4 Switch energy losses and examples
    » 9.4.1 General analysis of losses
    » 9.4.2 Losses during commutation
    » 9.4.3 Examples

    9.5 Simple heat transfer models for power semiconductors
    9.6 The PN junction as a power device
    9.7 PN junction diodes and alternatives
    9.8 The thyristor family
    9.9 Field-effect transistors
    9.10 Insulated-gate bipolar transistors
    9.11 Integrated gate-commutated thyristors and combination devices
    9.12 Impact of compound and wide bandgap semiconductors
    9.13 Snubbers
    » 9.13.1 Introduction
    » 9.13.2 Lossy turn-off snubbers
    » 9.13.3 Lossy turn-on snubbers
    » 9.13.4 Combined and lossless snubbers

    9.14 Design examples
    » 9.14.1 Boost converter for disk drive
    » 9.14.2 Loss estimation for electric vehicle inverter
    » 9.14.3
    Extreme performance devices
    9.15 Application discussion
    9.16 Recap
    9.17 Problems
    9.18 References

    CHAPTER 10 -- INTERFACING WITH POWER SEMICONDUCTORS
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Gate drives
    » 10.2.1 Overview
    » 10.2.2 Voltage-controlled gates
    » 10.2.3 Pulsed-current gates
    » 10.2.4 Gate turn-off thyristors

    10.3 Isolation and high-side switching
    10.4 P-channel applications and shoot-through
    10.5 Sensors for power electronic switches
    » 10.5.1 Resistive sensing
    » 10.5.2 Integrating sensing functions with the gate drive
    » 10.5.3 Noncontact sensing

    10.6 Design examples
    » 10.6.1 Gate consideration on dc-dc-based battery charger
    » 10.6.2 Gate drive impedance requirements
    »
    10.6.3 Hall sensor accuracy interpretation
    10.7 Application discussion
    10.8 Recap
    10.9 Problems
    10.10 References


    PART IV: CONTROL ASPECTS

    CHAPTER 11 -- OVERVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CONVERTERS
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 The regulation and control problem
    » 11.2.1 Introduction
    » 11.2.2 Defining the regulation problem
    » 11.2.3 The control problem

    11.3 Review of feedback control principles
    » 11.3.1 Open-loop and closed-loop control
    » 11.3.2 Block diagrams
    » 11.3.3 System gain and Laplace transforms
    » 11.3.4 Transient response and frequency domain
    » 11.3.5 Stability

    11.4 Converter models for feedback
    » 11.4.1 Basic converter dynamics
    » 11.4.2 Fast switching
    models
    » 11.4.3 Piecewise-linear models
    » 11.4.4 Discrete-time models

    11.5 Voltage-mode and current-mode controls for dc-dc converters
    » 11.5.1 Voltage-mode control
    » 11.5.2 Current-mode control
    » 11.5.3 Sensorless current mode and flux controls
    » 11.5.4 Large-signal issues in voltage-mode and current-mode control

    11.6 Comparator-based controls for rectifier systems
    11.7 Proportional and proportional-integral control applications
    11.8 Design examples
    » 11.8.1 Voltage mode control and performance
    » 11.8.2 Feedforward compensation
    » 11.8.3 Electric vehicle control setup

    11.9 Application discussion
    11.10 Recap
    11.11 Problems
    11.12 References

    CHAPTER 12 -- CONTROL MODELING AND DESIGN
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Averaging methods and models
    » 12.2.1 Formulation of averaged models
    » 12.2.2 Averaged circuit models

    12.3 Small-signal analysis and linearization
    » 12.3.1 The need for linear models
    » 12.3.2 Obtaining linear models
    » 12.3.3 Generalizing the process

    12.4 Control and control design based on linearization
    » 12.4.1 Transfer functions
    » 12.4.2 Control design - Introduction
    » 12.4.3 Compensation and filtering
    » 12.4.4 Compensated feedback examples
    » 12.4.5 Challenges for control design

    12.5 Design examples
    » 12.5.1 Boost converter control example
    » 12.5.2 Buck converter design example with current-mode control
    » 12.5.3 Buck converter with voltage mode control

    12.6 Application discussion
    12.7 Recap
    12.8 Problems
    12.9 References

    PART V: ADVANCED TOPICS

    CHAPTER 13 -- AC-AC CONVERSION
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Ac regulators and integral cycle control
    » 13.2.1 SCR and triac-based ac regulators
    » 13.2.2 Integral cycle control

    13.3 Frequency matching conditions
    13.4 Matrix converters
    » 13.4.1 Slow-switching frequency converters: The choice fin - fout
    » 13.4.2 Unrestricted frequency converters: The choice fswitch = fin + fout
    » 13.4.3 Unifying the direct switching methods: linear phase modulation

    13.5 The cycloconverter
    13.6 PWM ac-ac conversion
    13.7 Dc link converters
    13.8 Ac link converters
    13.9 Design examples
    » 13.9.1 Heater control with triac ac regulator
    » 13.9.2 Matrix converter

    » 13.9.3 Link converter
    13.10 Application discussion
    13.11 Recap
    13.12 Problems
    13.13 References

    CHAPTER 14 -- RESONANCE IN CONVERTERS
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Review of resonance
    » 14.2.1 Characteristic equations
    » 14.2.2 Step function excitation
    » 14.2.3 Series resonance
    » 14.2.4 Parallel resonance

    14.3 Soft switching techniques -- introduction
    » 14.3.1 Soft-switching principles
    » 14.3.2 Inverter configurations
    » 14.3.3 Parallel capacitor as a dc-dc soft switching element

    14.4 Soft switching in dc-dc converters
    » 14.4.1 Description of quasi-resonance
    » 14.4.2 ZCS transistor action
    » 14.4.3 ZVS
    transistor action
    14.5 Resonance used for control -- forward converters
    14.6 Design examples
    » 14.6.1 Limitations of antiresonant filters
    » 14.6.2 Creating an ac link for a dc-dc converter
    » 14.6.3 Resonant boost converter for solar application

    14.7 Application discussion
    14.8 Recap
    14.9 Problems
    14.10 References

    CHAPTER 15 -- HYSTERESIS AND GEOMETRIC CONTROL FOR POWER CONVERTERS
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Hysteresis control
    » 15.2.1 Definition and basic behavior
    » 15.2.2 Hysteresis control in dc-dc converters
    » 15.2.3 Hysteresis power factor correction control
    » 15.2.4 Inverters
    » 15.2.5 Design approaches

    15.3 Switching boundary control
    » 15.3.1 Behavior near a switching boundary
    » 15.3.2 Possible behavior
    » 15.3.3 Choosing a switching boundary

    15.4 Frequency control in geometric methods
    15.5 Design examples
    » 15.5.1 Designing hysteresis controllers
    » 15.5.2 Switching boundary control combination for battery charging management
    » 15.5.3 Boost converter with switching boundary control

    15.6 Application discussion
    15.7 Recap
    15.8 Problems
    15.9 References


    APPENDIX
    A. Trigonometric identities
    B. Unit systems
    C. Fourier series
    D. Three-phase circuits
    E. Polyphase graph paper


    INDEX

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