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Economic Analysis of Industrial Projects

Third Edition

Ted Eschenbach, Neal Lewis, Joseph Hartman, and Lynn Bussey

Publication Date - January 2015

ISBN: 9780195178746

528 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

A leading advanced text with comprehensive coverage of the theoretical foundations of engineering economics


Economic Analysis of Industrial Projects, Third Edition, provides the best possible methods for applying economic analysis theory to practice. Completely revised and expanded in this new edition, the text now includes five new chapters and new material on real options analysis and replacement analysis.

New to this Edition

  • Ted Eschenbach and two new coauthors--Neal Lewis and Joe Hartman--have rewritten the entire text
  • Every chapter has been updated and revised, and most have been reorganized and significantly expanded in scope
  • New material on replacement and real options analysis, designed especially for advanced students, is now included
  • The text includes five new chapters: 3, Estimating Costs and Benefits; 8, Replacement Analysis; 13, Decision Making Under Risk; 14, Real Options Analysis; and 15, Capacity Expansion and Planning
  • Outdated end-of-chapter problems have been revised or deleted, and new problems have been added.
  • Cutting-edge research and scholarship is featured throughout the text and in the References section at the end of each chapter

About the Author(s)

Ted G. Eschenbach is Professor Emeritus of Engineering Management at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

Neal A. Lewis is an Associate Professor of Technology Management at the University of Bridgeport.

Joseph C. Hartman is Dean of the Francis College of Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Lynn E. Bussey was a Professor of Industrial Engineering at Kansas State University for several decades. He is the original author of Economic Analysis of Industrial Projects.

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 2004


"The theory is good, well presented, and well referenced with good problems. The material is new and incorporates a great deal of the research in this area from the last thirty years. The problems are carefully thought out and complement the text well-far better than I am accustomed to in a graduate text."--William R. Peterson, PhD

"The text definitely has the depth needed for a graduate course and at the same time includes the basic principles. The authors have done a wonderful job of maintaining this balance. Meaningful and practical end-of-chapter problems are a bonus."--Surendra Singh, University of Tulsa

Table of Contents

    PART ONE: Basic Concepts

    1. The Firm Economic Exchanges and Objectives
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Economic ExchangeÄThe Input-Output Basis of the Firm
    1.3 Functions of the Firm: Financing, Investing, Producing
    1.4 Objectives of the Firm
    1.5 Sources and Uses of Funds
    1.6 Summary

    2. Interest, Interest Factors, and Equivalence
    2.1 What is Interest?
    --2.1.1 Perfect capital market assumptions
    --2.1.2 The consumption basis of single-period exchange
    --2.1.3 Multi-period exchange
    --2.1.4 Fundamental interest equation
    --2.1.5 The equilibrium market price concept of interest rates

    2.2 Notation and Cash Flow Diagrams
    2.3 Tabulated Compound Interest Factors
    --2.3.1 Factors relating P and F
    --2.3.2 Factors relating A and F
    --2.3.3 Factors relating P and A
    --2.3.4 Arithmetic gradient conversion factors

    2.4 Examples of Time Value of Money Calculations
    2.5 Geometric Gradients
    2.6 Nominal and Effective Interest Rates
    2.7 Continuous Interest Factors
    2.8 Extended Engineering Economy Factors and Spreadsheets and Calculators
    --2.8.1 Advantages of extended engineering economy factors
    --2.8.2 Notation for extended engineering economy factors
    --2.8.3 Spreadsheet annuity functions
    --2.8.4 Time value of money (TVM) calculators

    2.9 Spreadsheets and Cash Flow Tables
    --2.9.1 Advantages of spreadsheets for economic analysis
    --2.9.2 Effective and efficient spreadsheet construction

    2.10 Economic Interpretation of Equivalent Annual Amount
    2.11 Summary

    3. Estimating Costs and Benefits-Lead Coauthor Heather Nachtmann
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Cash Flow Estimates
    3.3 Life Cycle Estimation
    3.4 Classification of Estimates
    3.5 Estimation Data
    3.6 Basic Estimation Techniques-Indexes and Per Unit
    --3.6.1 Indexes
    --3.6.2 Unit Technique

    3.7 Factor Technique
    3.8 Cost Estimation Relationships
    --3.8.1 Development Process
    --3.8.2 Capacity Functions
    --3.8.3 Learning Curves

    3.9 Growth Curves
    3.10 Estimating Product Costs
    --3.10.1 Direct costs
    --3.10.2 Indirect costs

    3.11 Sensitivity Analysis
    3.12 Summary

    4. Depreciation: Techniques and Strategies
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Depreciation Strategies
    4.3 Definitions
    --4.3.1 Depreciable property
    --4.3.2 Basis of property
    --4.3.3 Recovery period
    --4.3.4 Salvage value
    --4.3.5 Symbols and notation

    4.4 Basis and Book Value Determination
    --4.4.1 Definition of initial basis and book value
    --4.4.2 Special first-year write-offs
    --4.4.3 Like-for-like replacement

    4.5 Methods of Depreciation
    --4.5.1 Introduction
    --4.5.2 The straight-line method
    --4.5.3 The declining balance method
    --4.5.4 The sum-of-the-years' digits (SOYD) method
    --4.5.5 Switching
    --4.5.6 Units of production
    --4.5.7 Reasons for accelerated depreciation
    --4.5.8 Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System
    --4.5.9 Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act
    --4.5.10 Comparing book values with different depreciation methods

    4.6 The Present Value of the Cash Flow Due to Depreciation
    --4.6.1 Straight-line method
    --4.6.2 Declining balance method
    --4.6.3 Sum-of-years' digits method
    --4.6.4 Modified accelerated cost recovery system

    4.7 Simple Depreciation Strategies
    --4.7.1 Accelerated depreciation is better
    --4.7.2 Declining balance method versus the straight-line method
    --4.7.3 The declining balance method versus the sum-of-years' digits method

    4.8 Complications Involving Depreciation Strategies
    4.9 Summary of Conclusions: Depreciation
    4.10 Depletion of Resources
    --4.10.1 Entitlement to depletion
    Methods for computing depletion deductions
    --4.10.3 The depletion deduction
    --4.10.4 Typical percentage depletion rates

    4.11 Amortization of Prepaid Expenses and Intangible Property

    5. Corporate Tax Considerations
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Ordinary Income Tax Liability
    5.3 Federal Income Tax Rates
    --5.3.1 Investment tax credit
    5.4 Generalized Cash Flows from Operations
    5.5 Tax Liability When Selling Fixed Assets
    --5.5.1 What are Section 1231 assets?
    --5.5.2 Tax treatment of 1231 assets

    5.6 Typical Calculations for After-Tax Cash Flows
    5.7 After-Tax Replacement Analysis
    5.8 Value-added Tax

    6. The Financing Function
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Costs of Capital for Specific Financing Sources
    6.3 Cost of Debt Capital
    --6.3.1 Short-term capital costs
    --6.3.2 Capital costs for bonds

    6.4 Cost of Preferred Stock
    6.5 Cost of Equity Capital (Common Stock)
    --6.5.1 Dividend valuation model
    --6.5.2 The Gordon-Shapiro growth model
    --6.5.3 The Solomon growth model
    --6.5.4 Note on book value of stock
    --6.5.5 Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
    --6.5.6 Cost of retained earnings
    --6.5.7 Treasury stock

    6.6 Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    6.7 Marginal Cost of Capital
    --6.7.1 Market values imply a marginal cost approach
    --6.7.2 Marginal cost-marginal revenue approach
    --6.7.3 A discounted cash flow approach
    --6.7.4 Mathematical approach to marginal cost of
    6.8 Numerical Example of the Marginal Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    --6.8.1 Calculation of the present weighted average cost of capital
    --6.8.2 The future weighted average cost of capital after provision for new capital
    --6.8.3 The marginal cost of capital

    6.9 MARR and Risk
    6.10 WACC and the Pecking Order Model
    6.11 Summary

    PART TWO: Deterministic Investment Analysis

    7. Economic Measures
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Assumptions for Unconstrained Selection
    7.3 Some Measures of Investment Worth (Acceptance Criteria)
    7.4 The Payback Period
    --7.4.1 Payback rate of return
    --7.4.2 Discounted payback

    7.5 Criteria Using Discounted Cash Flows
    7.6 The Net Present Value Criterion
    --7.6.1 Production-consumption opportunities of the firm
    --7.6.2 The present value criterion for project selection
    --7.6.3 Multi-period analysis
    --7.6.4 Characteristics of net present value

    7.7 The Benefit-Cost Ratio Criteria
    7.8 Internal Rate of Return
    --7.8.1 Defining the internal rate of return
    --7.8.2 The fundamental meaning of internal rate of return
    --7.8.3 Conventional and nonconventional investments (and loans)
    --7.8.4 Conventional investments and internal rate of return

    7.9 Nonconventional Investment
    --7.9.1 Nonconventional investment defined
    --7.9.2 Conventional, pure investments
    --7.9.3 Analyzing nonconventional investments
    --7.9.4 Numerical examples

    7.10 Roots for the PW Equation
    --7.10.1 Using the root space for P, A, and F
    --7.10.2 Defining the root space for P, A, and F
    --7.10.3 Practical implications of the root space for P, A, and F

    7.11 Internal Rate of Return and the Lorie-Savage Problem
    --7.11.1 Multiple positive roots for rate of return
    --7.11.2 Return on invested capital
    --7.11.3 Present worth and the Lorie-Savage problem

    7.12 Subscription/Membership Problem
    7.13 Summary

    8. Replacement Analysis
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Infinite Horizon Stationary Replacement Policies
    --8.2.1 Stationary costs (no technological change)
    --8.2.2 Technological change and stationary results

    8.3 Non-Stationary Replacement Policies
    --8.3.1 Age-based state space approach
    --8.3.2 Length of service state space approach
    --8.3.3 Applying dynamic programming to an infinite horizon problem
    --8.3.4 Solving with linear programming

    8.4 After-Tax Replacement Analysis
    8.5 Parallel Replacement Analysis
    8.6 Summary and Further Topics

    9. Methods of Selection Among Multiple Projects
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Project Dependence
    9.3 Capital Rationing
    9.4 Comparison Methodologies
    9.5 The Reinvestment Rate Problem
    9.6 The Reinvestment Assumption Underlying Net Present Value
    9.7 The Reinvestment Assumption Underlying the Internal Rate of Return: Fisher's Intersection
    9.8 Incremental Rates of Return
    --9.8.1 Incremental rate of return applied to the constrained project selection problem
    --9.8.2 Inclusion of constraints

    9.9 The Weingartner Formulation
    --9.9.1 Objective function
    --9.9.2 Constraints
    --9.9.3 The completed Weingartner model
    --9.9.4 Constrained project selection using Solver

    9.10 Constrained Project Selection by Ranking on IRR
    --9.10.1 The opportunity cost of foregone investments
    --9.10.2 Perfect market assumptions
    --9.10.3 Internally imposed budget constraint
    --9.10.4 Contrasting IRR and WACC assumptions
    --9.10.5 Summary of ranking on IRR

    9.11 Summary

    PART THREE: Investment Analysis under Risk and Uncertainty

    10. Optimization in Project Selection (Extended Deterministic Formulations)
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Invalidation of the Separation Theorem
    10.3 Alternative Models of the Selection Problem
    --10.3.1 Weingartner's horizon models
    --10.3.2 The Bernhard generalized horizon model
    --10.3.3 Notation
    --10.3.4 Objective function
    --10.3.5 Constraints
    --10.3.6 Problems in the measurement of terminal wealth
    --10.3.7 Additional restrictions
    --10.3.8 The Kuhn-Tucker conditions
    --10.3.9 Properties of
    --10.3.10 Special cases

    10.4 Project Selection by Goal Programming Methods
    --10.4.1 Goal programming format
    --10.4.2 An example of formulating and solving a goal programming problem
    --10.4.3 Project selection by goal programming

    10.5 Summary
    Appendix 10.A Compilation of Project Selection Problem

    11. Utility Theory
    11.1 Introduction
    --11.1.1 Definitions of Probability
    11.2 Choices under Uncertainty: The St. Petersburg Paradox
    11.3 The Bernoulli Principle: Expected Utility
    --11.3.1 The Bernoulli solution.
    --11.3.2 Preference theory: the Neumann-Morgenstern hypothesis
    --11.3.3 The axiomatic basis of expected utility

    11.4 Procuring a Neumann Morgenstern Utility Function
    --11.4.1 The standard lottery method.
    --11.4.2 Empirical determinations of utility functions

    11.5 Risk Aversion and Utility Functions
    --11.5.1 Risk aversion as a function of wealth
    --11.5.2 Other risk-avoiding utility functions
    --11.5.3 Linear utility functions: Expected monetary value
    --11.5.4 Complex
    utility functions: Risk seekers and insurance buyers
    --11.5.5. Reconciling firm's utility and behavior by employees and managers

    11.6 Summary

    12. Stochastic Cash Flows
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Single Risky ProjectsÄRandom Cash Flows
    --12.2.1 Estimates of cash flows
    --12.2.2 Expectation and variance of project net present value
    --12.2.3 Autocorrelations among cash flows (same project)
    --12.2.4 Probability statements about net present value

    12.3 Multiple Risky Projects and Constraints
    --12.3.1 Variance of cross-correlated cash flow streams
    --12.3.2 The candidate set of projects
    --12.3.3 Multiple project selection by maximizing expected net present value

    12.4 Accounting for Uncertain Future States
    12.5 Summary

    13, Decision Making Under Risk
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Decision Networks
    13.3 Decision Trees
    13.4 Sequential Decision Trees
    13.5 Decision Trees and Risk
    --13.5.1 Stochastic decision trees
    --13.5.2 Applications

    13.6 Expected Value of Perfect Information
    13.7 Simulation
    13.8 Summary

    14. Real Options Analysis
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Financial Options
    14.3 Real Options
    --14.3.1 Historical development
    --14.3.2 The real option model
    --14.3.3 Interest rates
    --14.3.4 Time
    --14.3.5 Present value of future cash flows

    14.4 Real Option Volatility
    --14.4.1 Actionable volatility
    --14.4.2 Logarithmic cash flow
    --14.4.3 Stock proxy method
    --14.4.4 Management estimates method.
    --14.4.5 Logarithmic present value returns method (CA method)
    --14.4.6 Standard deviation of cash flows
    --14.4.7 Internal Rate of Return
    --14.4.8. Actionable volatility revisited

    14.5 Binomial Lattices
    14.6 The Deferral Option: Dementia Drug Example
    --14.6.1 Definition and NPV calculation
    --14.6.2 Volatility
    --14.6.3 Black-Scholes results
    --14.6.4 Binomial lattices

    14.7 The Deferral Option: Oil Well Example
    --14.7.1 NPV.
    --14.7.2 Delay option formulation
    --14.7.3 Black-Scholes results
    --14.7.4 Binomial lattices

    14.8 The Abandonment Option
    14.9 Compound Options
    --14.9.1 Multi-stage options modeling
    --14.9.2 Multi-stage
    option example
    --14.9.3 Closed form solution
    --14.9.4 Volatility issues in multi-stage modeling

    14.10 Current Issues with Real Options
    14.11 Summary
    Appendix 14.A Derivation of the Black-Scholes Equation

    15. Capacity Expansion and Planning
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Expansion Analysis
    --15.2.1 Dynamic deterministic evaluation
    --15.2.2 Dynamic probabilistic evaluation

    15.3 Capacity Planning Strategies
    --15.3.1 Maximizing market share strategy
    --15.3.2 Maximizing utilization of capacity strategy

    15.4 Summary

    16. Project Selection Using Capital Asset Pricing Theory
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Portfolio Theory
    --16.2.1 Securities and portfolios
    --16.2.2 Mean
    and variance of a portfolio
    --16.2.3 Dominance among securities and portfolios
    --16.2.4 Efficient portfolios
    --16.2.5 The risk in a portfolio

    16.3 Security Market Line and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    --16.3.1 Combinations of risky and riskless assets
    --16.3.2 The security market line
    --16.3.3 The capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

    16.4 Firm's Security Market Line and Project Acceptance
    --16.4.1 Projects and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
    --16.4.2 Risk/return trade-offs and the firm's security market line

    16.5 The Firm's Portfolio of Projects
    --16.5.1 Why do firms use project portfolios?
    --16.5.2 Can security portfolio theory be extended to project portfolios?
    --16.5.3 Reasonable inferences from security
    portfolio theory to project portfolios
    --16.5.4 Can the capital asset pricing model for securities be extended to projects?

    16.6 Summary



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