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Drugs: Mind, Body, and Society

First Edition

Dr. Martha Rosenthal

Publication Date - June 2018

ISBN: 9780199949113

600 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $110.95

Contemporary, accessible, and fun to read, this text meets students where they are and challenges them to think critically about drugs

Description

Written in a contemporary and accessible voice, Drugs: Mind, Body, and Society offers more than knowledge and study skills. It is a multidisciplinary text that provides students with a comprehensive discussion about drugs and drug effects that weaves together physiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, psychology, society, culture, media, history, law, and religion. With an emphasis on critical thinking skills, this book teaches students to evaluate research, assess sources of data, and discern fact from opinion, so that they can make intelligent decisions that improve the quality of their lives.

FEATURES
*"Thinking Critically About Drugs," a separate section at the start of the book, teaches students how to evaluate data, validate sources, and understand how drug research is conducted
*True/False chapter-opening questions, with answers, draw students into the material by asking them provocative questions that challenge commonly held misconceptions about drugs
*"Critical Evaluations" in most chapters delve into controversial topics and teach students to evaluate research and information from multiple perspectives
*"Ask Yourself" questions encourage students to reflect on and discuss their own ideas about the chapter material
*"Quick Hits" scattered throughout each chapter provide students with brief, interesting anecdotes or fun facts from various disciplines, like history and economics
*"The Straight Dope" boxes feature historical and biographical profiles, cases, self-knowledge tests, and points of clinical or cultural relevance

Features

  • "Thinking Critically About Drugs" a separate section at the start of the book, teaches students how to evaluate data, validate sources, and understand how drug research is conducted
  • True/False chapter-opening questions, with answers, draw students into the material by asking them provocative questions that challenge commonly held misconceptions about drugs
  • "Critical Evaluations" in most chapters delve into controversial topics and teach students to evaluate research and information from multiple perspectives
  • Ask Yourself" questions encourage students to reflect on and discuss their own ideas about the chapter material
  • "Quick Hits" scattered throughout each chapter provide students with brief, interesting anecdotes or fun facts from various disciplines, like history and economics
  • "The Straight Dope" boxes feature historical and biographical profiles, cases, self-knowledge tests, and points of clinical or cultural relevance

About the Author(s)

Martha S. Rosenthal received her master's degree in neuropharmacology from Brown University and her PhD in neuroscience from UCLA before beginning her career at the University of Florida's College of Pharmacy. For over 20 years she has taught at Florida Gulf Coast University. As Professor of Neuroscience and Physiology, she teaches courses in drugs and society, neuroscience, human sexuality, gender, and physiology.

Reviews

"Drugs: Mind, Body, and Society is a comprehensive resource for students in many undergraduate disciplines. Contemporary content, an engaging writing style, and extensive author expertise makes this an essential text for survey courses on drug effects, policies, and addiction treatment."--Karen Thompson, Columbia College (South Carolina)

"I love the emphasis on critical thinking skills. It makes the most of new trends in education and encourages students to understand process and outcome."--Paige Telan, Florida International University

"An excellent text! It is comprehensive, well-balanced, and up-to-date."--Shepherd Jenks, Central New Mexico Community College

Table of Contents

    Preface

    Thinking Critically About Drugs

    Pharmacological Research
    Ask Specific Research Questions
    Carefully Consider Your Study Population
    Choose an Appropriate Method of Investigation
    Use Valid and Precise Measurements
    Conduct a Safe, Ethical, and Unbiased Study
    Maintain Objectivity
    Consider the Quality of and Vetting of Information
    Techniques in Neuropharmacological Research
    Animal Research
    Brain Imaging Techniques
    Critical Thinking
    Recognize Underlying Value Assumptions
    Evaluate the Strength of the Argument
    Critically Evaluate Graphs and Data
    Drugs in the Media
    Movies
    Television
    Music
    Advertising

    SECTION 1: FOUNDATIONS

    Chapter 1. Drugs: Mind, Body, and Society
    What is a Drug?
    How Prevalent is Drug Use?

    Global Drug Use
    Demographics of Drug Use in the United States
    Most Commonly Used Drugs
    Prescription Drugs
    Variations in Drug Use over Time
    Why Do People Use Drugs?
    To Feel Pleasure and to Avoid Feeling Pain
    To Change the State of Consciousness
    To Enhance Spiritual, Religious, or Mystical Experiences
    To Facilitate and Enhance Social Interaction
    To Alter and Improve the Body
    How Does Drug Use Affect Individuals and Society?
    Individual Problems with Acute Use
    Individual Problems with Chronic Use
    Societal Problems Associated with Drug Use
    How Are Drugs Classified?
    Drug Types
    Drug Naming
    Drug Scheduling
    How Are New Drugs Developed?
    FDA Drug Development and Approval
    Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising
    Critical Evaluation: Should pharmaceutical companies be allowed to produce direct-to-consumer ads?

    Chapter 2. Drug Laws and Policies
    History of Drug Policy

    1950s: Increasing Penalties for Drug Crimes
    1970 Controlled Substances Act
    1984-1988 Drug Abuse Control Acts
    The 1990s and Beyond
    Current Drug Laws
    Federal Agencies that Create and Enforce Drug-Control Laws
    Federal Drug Laws
    State and Local Drug Laws
    International Drug Laws and Policies
    Harm Reduction Policies
    Reduce Health Risks Associated with Drug Use
    Reduce Prison Overcrowding
    Focus on Treatment Rather than Punishment
    Ramifications of Drug Laws
    Individual Ramifications
    Societal Ramifications
    International Ramifications
    Legalization
    Critical Evaluation: What is the relationship between drugs and crime?
    Factors Considered When Evaluating a Drug's Legal Status
    Public Opinion on Drug Laws
    Issues Related to Legalizing Drugs
    Social Policies Related to Drug Use
    Minimum Legal Drinking Age
    Critical Evaluation: Should the U.S. minimum legal drinking age be lowered?
    Drunk Driving
    Drug Use during Pregnancy

    Chapter 3. The Nervous System
    The Structure and Function of Neurons
    Neuronal Transmission
    Action Potentials
    Actions at a Chemical Synapse
    The Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems
    The Peripheral Nervous System
    The Central Nervous System
    Protection of the CNS
    Neurotransmitters
    GABA
    Glutamate
    Catecholamines
    Serotonin
    Acetylcholine
    Opioids
    Cannabinoids

    Chapter 4. Pharmacology: How Drugs Work
    Pharmacokinetics
    Absorption
    Dosage
    Route of Administration
    Distribution
    Metabolism and Biotransformation
    Genetic and Racial Factors
    Elimination
    Pharmacodynamics
    Receptors
    Drug Expectations and the Placebo Effect
    Setting
    Effects and Side Effects of Acute Drug Use
    Effects of Chronic Drug Use


    SECTION 2: LEGALLY RESTRICTED PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS


    Chapter 5. Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamines
    Cocaine
    History of Cocaine
    Prevalence of Cocaine Use
    Source and Forms of Cocaine
    Pharmacokinetics of Cocaine
    Mechanism of Action of Cocaine
    Acute Effects of Cocaine
    Chronic Effects of Cocaine
    Critical Evaluation: What are the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine use on children's future behavior?
    Cocaine Dependence and Addiction
    Treatment of Cocaine Addiction
    Amphetamine
    History of Amphetamines
    Prevalence of Amphetamine Use
    Source and Forms of Amphetamines
    Pharmacokinetics of Amphetamines
    Mechanism of Action of Amphetamines
    Acute and Adverse Effects of Amphetamines
    Chronic Effects of Amphetamines
    Amphetamine Dependence and Addiction
    Other Stimulants
    Cathinone/Khat
    Bath Salts

    Chapter 6. Hallucinogens
    History of Hallucinogens

    History of LSD and Psilocybin
    History of Peyote/Mescaline
    History of MDMA
    History of PCP and Ketamine
    Prevalence of Hallucinogen Use
    Source and Forms of Hallucinogens
    Indoleaminic Psychedelic Hallucinogens
    Phenylethamine Psychedelic Hallucinogens
    Anticholinergic Deliriants
    Dissociative Hallucinogens
    Cultural and Religious Influence of Hallucinogens
    Literature
    Music
    Religion
    Pharmacokinetics of Hallucinogens
    Dosage
    Routes of Administration
    Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
    Mechanism of Action of Hallucinogens
    Psychedelic Hallucinogens
    MDMA
    Deliriants and Dissociatives
    Acute Effects of Hallucinogens
    Physiological and Psychological Effects of Psychedelic Hallucinogens
    Physiological and Psychological Effects of MDMA
    Physiological and Psychological Effects of Deliriant Hallucinogens
    Physiological and Psychological Effects of Dissociative Anesthetics
    Drug Interactions
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Hallucinogens
    Chronic Effects of Hallucinogens
    Tolerance
    Adverse Effects of Chronic Use
    Critical Evaluation: Is MDMA neurotoxic in humans, and does it cause cognitive damage?
    Hallucinogen Dependence and Addiction


    Chapter 7. Opioids
    History of Opioids

    Early Opioid Use
    Smoking Opium
    Opium Wars
    Opioids in the 19th Century
    Opioids in the 20th Century
    Prevalence of Opioid Use
    Prescription Opioids
    Heroin
    Source and Forms of Opioids
    Natural Opiates
    Semi-Synthetic Opioids
    Synthetic Opioids
    Pharmacokinetics of Opioids
    Routes of Administration
    Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
    Mechanism of Action of Opioids
    Opioid Receptors
    Endogenous Opioids
    Acute Effects of Opioids
    Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Behavioral and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Drug Interactions
    Overdose
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Opioids
    Pain
    Cough Suppressant
    Diarrhea Treatment
    Chronic Effects of Opioids
    Tolerance
    Adverse Effects of Chronic Use
    Opioid Dependence and Addiction
    Treatment for Opioid Dependence and Addiction
    Withdrawal
    Treatments to Aid Withdrawal
    Ultra-Rapid Opioid Detoxification
    Substitution Opioids
    Programs to Help Quit Opioids
    Critical Evaluation: Should Needle Exchange Programs Be Funded by the Federal Government?
    Needle Exchange Programs

    Chapter 8. Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Inhalants
    Sedatives and Hypnotics

    History of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Prevalence of Sedative and Hypnotic Use
    Source and Forms of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Pharmacokinetics of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Mechanism of Action of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Acute Effects of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Chronic Effects of Sedatives and Hypnotics
    Other Sedative/Hypnotic Drugs
    GHB
    Quaaludes
    Propofol
    Inhalants
    History of Inhalants
    Prevalence of Inhalant Use
    Source and Forms of Inhalants
    Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action of Inhalants
    Acute Effects of Inhalants
    Chronic Effects of Inhalants
    Critical Evaluation: Are the cognitive impairments seen in huffers due to inhalant use or to other factors?

    Chapter 9. Marijuana
    History of Marijuana

    17th-19th Century America
    20th Century and Beyond
    Prevalence of Marijuana Use
    Legal and Cultural Issues Related to Marijuana
    Legal Issues
    Cultural Issues
    Source and Forms of Marijuana
    Types of Cannabis Plant
    Phytocannabinoids
    Types of Cannabis Products
    Synthetic Cannabinoids
    Pharmacokinetics of Marijuana
    Routes of Administration and Dosage
    Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination
    Mechanism of Action of Marijuana
    Acute Effects of Marijuana
    Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Behavioral and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Potential Adverse Effects
    Critical Evaluation: Does long-term cannabis use cause cognitive deficits?
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Marijuana
    Analgesia
    Nausea, Vomiting, and Appetite
    Epilepsy
    Glaucoma
    Cancer
    Brain Injury and Neurodegenerative Disorders
    Diabetes
    Irritable Bowel Disease
    Depression
    Reducing Use of Other Harmful Substances
    Chronic Effects of Marijuana
    Tolerance
    Dependence
    Withdrawal
    Treatment for Cannabis Dependence


    SECTION 3: LEGAL PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS


    Chapter 10. Tobacco
    History of Tobacco

    Tobacco in Colonial America
    Mechanization
    Tobacco in the 20th Century
    Troubled Times for the Tobacco Industry
    Prevalence of Tobacco Use
    Gender
    Race
    Education
    Employment and Socioeconomic Status
    Concurrent Use of Other Drugs
    Mental Health
    Age
    Economics and Social Issues Related to Tobacco
    Economics
    Advertising
    Movies
    Source and Forms of Tobacco
    Making Tobacco
    Smoking Tobacco
    Electronic Cigarettes
    Smokeless Tobacco
    Pharmacokinetics of Tobacco and Nicotine
    Dosage, Absorption, and Distribution
    Metabolism and Elimination
    Drug Interactions
    Mechanism of Action of Nicotine
    Acute Effects of Tobacco and Nicotine

    Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Overdose
    Behavioral and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Chronic Effects of Tobacco and Nicotine
    Tolerance
    Withdrawal
    Adverse Effects from Chronic Use
    Prenatal and Postnatal Effects
    Secondhand Smoke
    Critical Evaluation: Should tobacco be legal?
    Tobacco Dependence and Addiction
    Quitting Tobacco

    Benefits of Quitting
    Methods of Quitting

    Chapter 11. Caffeine
    History of Caffeine

    Coffee
    Tea
    Chocolate
    Soft Drinks and Energy Drinks
    Prevalence of Caffeine Use
    Source and Forms of Caffeine
    Coffee
    Tea
    Chocolate
    Soft Drinks and Energy Drinks
    Other Caffeine Sources
    How Much Caffeine is in the Substances We Ingest?
    Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine
    Route of Administration, Absorption, and Distribution
    Metabolism, Elimination, and Drug Interactions
    Mechanism of Action of Caffeine
    Acute Effects of Caffeine

    Physiological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Behavioral and Psychological Effects at Low and Moderate Doses
    Overdose
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Caffeine
    Type 2 Diabetes
    Liver
    Cognitive Function
    Parkinson's Disease
    Cardiovascular Disease
    Cancer
    Mortality
    Critical Evaluation: Does caffeine increase or decrease a person's mortality?
    Chronic Effects of Caffeine
    Tolerance and Dependence
    Withdrawal
    Adverse Effects from Chronic Use
    Effects on the Fetus
    Quitting Caffeine

    Chapter 12. Alcohol
    History of Alcohol
    Early Alcohol Use
    The Middle Ages to the Early Modern Era
    Puritans and Colonial America
    Temperance Movements in the United States (19th Century)
    Prohibition
    Alcohol from WWII to Today
    Prevalence of Alcohol Use
    Global Alcohol Use
    Alcohol Consumption in the United States
    Underage Drinking
    Drinking by College Students
    Source and Forms of Alcohol
    Fermented Beverages
    Distilled Beverages
    Alcohol Content of Standard Drinks
    Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol
    Dosage
    Absorption
    Distribution
    Metabolism
    Elimination
    Drug Interactions
    Mechanism of Action of Alcohol
    GABA
    Glutamate
    Dopamine
    Opioids
    Serotonin
    Endogenous Cannabinoids
    Acute Effects of Alcohol
    Physiological Effects
    Behavioral and Psychological Effects
    Critical Evaluation: Does alcohol increase aggression?
    Adverse Effects from Acute Heavy Drinking
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Alcohol
    Chronic Effects of Alcohol

    Tolerance
    Withdrawal
    Adverse Effects of Chronic Heavy Drinking


    SECTION 4: COMMONLY USED PRESCRIPTION AND NON-PRESCRIPTION DRUGS


    Chapter 13. Drugs for Treating Psychological Disorders
    Psychological Disorders in Today's Society
    Major Depressive Disorder

    Prevalence of Depression
    Critical Evaluation: Why have depression rates increased?
    Causes of Depression
    Symptoms of Depression
    Diagnosis of Depression
    Prognosis of Depression
    Antidepressant Treatments
    Critical Evaluation: Does antidepressant drug use increase or decrease the rate of suicide?
    Other Treatments for Depression
    Bipolar Disorder
    Prevalence of Bipolar Depression
    Causes of Bipolar Depression
    Symptoms of Bipolar Depression
    Treatment of Bipolar Depression
    Schizophrenia
    Prevalence of Schizophrenia
    Causes of Schizophrenia
    Neurochemical Abnormalities
    Symptoms of Schizophrenia
    Prognosis of Schizophrenia
    Treatments for Schizophrenia
    Other Treatments for Schizophrenia
    Anxiety Disorders
    Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders
    Causes of Anxiety
    Symptoms and Types of Anxiety Disorders
    Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
    Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
    The Future of Drugs Used to Treat Mental Illness

    Chapter 14. Performance-Enhancing Drugs
    Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
    History of Performance-Enhancing Drugs
    Prevalence of Performance-Enhancing Drugs Use
    Forms of Performance-Enhancing Drugs
    Pharmacokinetics and Mechanism of Action of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
    Acute Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
    Critical Evaluation: Does roid rage exist?
    Medical and Therapeutic Uses of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
    Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Tolerance and Dependence
    Prevention and Treatment of Anabolic- Androgenic Steroid Abuse
    Drugs to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    Symptoms and Diagnosis of ADHD
    Prevalence of ADHD
    Causes of ADHD
    Consequences of ADHD
    Pharmacological Treatments for ADHD
    Critical Evaluation: Does long-term use of ADHD medications lead to academic improvement?
    Nonpharmaceutical Treatments for ADHD

    Chapter 15. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs
    OTC Drugs: Regulation and Dangers

    History of OTC Regulations
    Dangers of OTC Drugs and Self-Care
    Critical Evaluation: Should OTC drugs be more or less available than they currently are?
    Non-Narcotic Analgesics
    History of Non-Narcotic Analgesics
    Prevalence of Non-Narcotic Analgesic Use
    Pharmacokinetics of Non-Narcotic Analgesics
    Mechanism of Action of Non-Narcotic Analgesics
    Acute Effects and Medical Benefits of Non-Narcotic Analgesics at Low and Moderate Doses
    Adverse Effects of Non-Narcotic Analgesics
    Side Effects Associated with Non- Narcotic Analgesics
    Use during Pregnancy
    Drug Interactions
    Overdose
    Cough, Cold, and Allergy Products
    Components of Cough and Cold Medications
    OTC Drugs to Treat Gastrointestinal Ailments
    Drugs to Treat Heartburn, Gastric Reflux, and Peptic Ulcer
    Drugs to Treat Diarrhea
    Laxatives
    OTC Weight Loss Aids
    OTC Sleep Aids
    Dietary Supplements

    Chapter 16. Sex and Reproductive Drugs
    Hormonal Contraceptives
    Oral Contraceptives
    Other Forms of Hormonal Contraceptives
    Emergency Contraception
    Hormonal Contraceptives and Society
    Contraception for Men
    Fertility Drugs
    How an Egg Is Fertilized
    Infertility
    Drugs to Treat Infertility
    Hormone Replacement Therapy
    HRT in Women
    HRT in Men
    Viagra and Other Drugs to Treat Erectile Dysfunction
    Mechanism of Action of Drugs to Treat Erectile Dysfunction
    Side Effects and Drug Interactions of Erectile Dysfunction Drugs
    Viagra for Women
    Aphropdisiacs and Anaphrodisiacs
    Herbs and Plants
    Alcohol and Other Drugs
    Anaphrodisiacs
    Gardasil
    Critical Evaluation: Should the HPV Vaccine Be Required for Enrollment in Schools?


    SECTION 5: ADDICTION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT


    Chapter 17. Problematic Drug Use and Addiction
    Definitions of Dependence and Addiction

    Prevalence of Addiction
    Addiction and Race
    Addiction and Age
    Addiction and Gender
    Recognition, Diagnosis, and Assessment
    Critical Evaluation: Is addiction a disease?
    Factors Underlying Drug Abuse and Addiction
    Biological Factors
    Psychological and Interpersonal Factors
    Social and Environmental Factors
    Societal Views on Drug Addiction
    Attitudes about Addiction Based on Gender
    Attitudes about Addiction Based on Occupation
    Attitudes about Addiction Based on Survey Question Wording
    Why Do People's Beliefs About Addiction Matter?
    Attitudes about Problematic Drinking and Other Compulsive Behaviors

    Chapter 18. Prevention and Treatment of Drug Use and Abuse
    Types of Prevention

    Primary Prevention
    Secondary Prevention
    Tertiary Prevention
    Universal Prevention
    Selective Prevention
    Indicated Prevention
    School-Based Prevention Campaigns
    Ineffective K-12 School-based Methods of Drug Abuse Prevention
    Effective School-based Methods of Drug Abuse Prevention
    Family and Community Involvement
    Alcohol and Drug Prevention Programs at Colleges and Universities
    Advertising Campaigns to Prevent Drug Use
    Anti-Drug Ads
    Anti-Tobacco Ads
    Drug Testing
    Who is Subject to Drug Tests?
    When Do Drug Tests Typically Occur?
    What Process is Used for Drug Testing?
    For Which Drugs Are Tests Run?
    How Long after Using a Drug will Someone Test Positive?
    What Types of Drug Tests Are Used?
    How Accurate Are Drug Tests?
    How Effective Are Drug Tests?
    Prevalence of Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction
    The Stages of Recovery
    Methods of Treatment

    Pharmacological Treatments for Addiction
    Psychosocial Therapeutic Treatments for Addiction
    Critical Evaluation: Is total abstinence the only solution for drug or alcohol abuse?
    Characteristics of Effective Addiction Treatments
    Relapse


    Appendix
    Answers
    Glossary
    Endnotes
    Credits
    Index

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