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Cover

Drawing Essentials

A Complete Guide to Drawing

Fourth Edition

Deborah Rockman

Publication Date - May 2020

ISBN: 9780190924812

416 pages
Paperback
8 1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $72.95

A clear and richly illustrated text for the full drawing sequence

Description

With unparalleled clarity, Drawing Essentials: A Complete Guide to Drawing, Fourth Edition, explains in depth the essentials of depicting form and space on a two-dimensional surface, focusing on the cultivation of observational skills, increased sensitivity, critical thinking, technical refinement, and knowledge of materials. This richly illustrated text is appropriate for use in all levels of drawing classes, from introductory to advanced levels, as well as for figure and life drawing classes.

New to this Edition

  • More student-friendly, streamlined, and simplified coverage that presents the material in ten chapters plus a brief Appendix I (Digital Drawing) and an Appendix II (Contemporary Art: A Gallery of Drawings)
  • Simplified coverage of perspective focuses on key student issues in understanding and applying perspective to their own work
  • Improved introduction of basic concepts in four separate chapters instead of one: (1) Getting Started: Drawing with Line and The Process of Sighting; (2) The Principles of Composition; (3) Developing Value Structure and the Illusion of Volume; and (4) The Illusion of Space and Depth on a Flat Surface
  • Two discussions--"So You're Taking a Drawing Class!" and "Where to Begin"-- now precede Chapter 1, orienting beginning students to the course and offering tips on what to expect and how to get the most out of their study
  • New examples from students, contemporary artists, and master works
  • A new distinct chapter (7) on Artistic Anatomy provides additional and more detailed skeletal information

Features

  • Written by an award-winning artist with thirty-seven years of teaching experience
  • Provides full coverage of the three categories of foundation-level drawing: basic drawing (non-subject specific), perspective, and figure drawing
  • Focuses on the cultivation of observational skills, increased sensitivity, critical thinking, technical refinement, and knowledge of materials
  • Clearly explains difficult basic concepts and methods, including the process of sighting; scaling techniques; creating meaningful line variation; methods of tonal development; creating effective still lifes, human figures, and portraits; perspective systems; using photos as reference; and brainstorming to generate ideas
  • Provides helpful pointers on both group and individual critiques
  • Offers practical advice about traditional and nontraditional media and surfaces as well as alternative processes that can be combined with drawing
  • Includes an appendix of more than one hundred lively and diverse illustrations from twenty-two contemporary artists, a bibliography, and a list of helpful supplementary reading

About the Author(s)

Deborah Rockman is an artist, author, and Emeritus Faculty at Kendall College of Art and Design of Ferris State University. She served as Chair of the Drawing and Printmaking Programs for a number of years. In addition to Drawing Essentials, she is also the author of The Art of Teaching Art (OUP, 2000).

Reviews

"Wow! Drawing Essentials covers almost every aspect of drawing thoroughly with terms that are cleverly defined and intelligently described. What I admire most is the relevance and the importance of student work within this book."--Christian Palencar, Kent State University

"Rockman really breaks down the material to a basic level that anyone can understand. All of my students who are assigned this text love it and keep it, since it is such a great resource in the drawing world."--John Wagoner, Bossier Parrish Community College

"Drawing Essentials is a great text. The sequence builds to introduce and develop the skills necessary to teach or learn basic drawing. The images are informative and of good quality, and the text is understandable and clear."--Barbara Gruber, Maryland Institute College of Art

"The book is comprehensive, accessible yet intelligent, and rigorous. It enriches and fills in blanks that may not directly be communicated by our instructors in the studio. This academic approach to art-making can really be instructive to the attentive student."--Rachel Black, University of North Texas

Table of Contents

    1. GETTING STARTED: DRAWING WITH LINE AND THE PROCESS OF SIGHTING
    Line Variation and Sensitivity

    Working from General to Specific
    The Medium and Surface
    What is Meant by "Sensitive" Line?
    Achieving Line Variation and Line Sensitivity
    Light and Dark or Light Source
    Weight and Tension
    "Speed" of Contours and Edges
    High and Low Points, or Dips and Swells, in Contours
    Strength or Force of an Edge
    Spatial Sequence
    Degrees of Importance
    Combining Different Methods

    Different Kinds and Functions of Line
    Gesture Line
    Contour Line
    Modified Contour Line
    Cross-Contour Line
    Classical Line
    Anatomical Line
    Organizational Line
    Structural Line
    Mechanical Line
    Angular Line

    Decorative Line
    Calligraphic Line
    Broken or Implied Line
    Altered Line
    Agitated or Angry Line
    Process or Searching Line
    Tonal or Dimensional Line

    Straight-Line Construction
    Planar Construction
    Sighting and the Use of a Sighting Stick
    Why Use Sighting?
    Guidelines for Sighting
    Applications of Sighting
    First Application: Sighting for Relative Proportions
    Second Application: Sighting for Angles and Axis Lines
    Third Application: Sighting for Vertical and/or Horizonal Alignments

    Transferring Sighting Observations to a Drawing Surface
    2. THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION
    Theory Versus Application
    Review of Some Simple Definitions
    Composition
    Elements (formal elements)
    Positive Space

    Negative Space
    Format
    Visual Principles of Composition
    Balance
    Harmony
    Variety
    Emphasis/Domination
    Movement/Directional Forces
    Proportion
    Economy
    Unity

    Variable Compositional Elements to Consider
    Size
    Position
    Direction
    Number
    Density
    Interval
    Proximity or Nearness
    Similarity

    Using a Viewfinder: What Does It Do for You?
    General Guidelines Concerning Composition
    Pay Attention to Both Positive and Negative Space
    Consider How the Forms Occupy the Format
    Watch General Placement of the Forms
    Consider the Kind of Space You Wish to Establish
    Consider Viewpoint in Your Composition
    Consider Options for the Development of Negative Space or Environment

    Thumbnail Studies as a Method for Exploring Composition
    3. DEVELOPING VALUE STRUCTURE AND THE ILLUSION OF VOLUME
    Working With Light and Shadow

    A General-to-Specific Approach to Building Value Structure
    Imagine Building a House
    Using Value to Establish an Effect or a Mood
    Chiaroscuro
    Tenebrism
    Plastic Value
    Low-Key Value
    Middle-Key Value
    High-Key Value
    Value and Texture
    Some Different Kinds of Texture
    --Actual Texture
    --Simulated Texture
    --Uniform Texture
    --Invented Texture
    --Frottage
    Four Things to Look for When Identifying Value Structure
    The Light Source
    The Shape of Areas of Shadow and Light
    Variations of Value Within Larger Shapes of Value
    Edge Quality of Shapes of
    Value
    Various Methods for Applying Value
    Continuous Tone
    Hatching
    --Parallel Hatching
    --Contour Hatching
    --Cross-Hatching
    Stippling
    Mark Making
    Subtractive Drawing
    An Alternative Subtractive Process
    Toned Paper
    Exercises for Promoting a General-to-Specific Approach
    Projecting an Inverted, Out-of-Focus Image as a Drawing Reference
    A Sustained Approach to Gesture Drawing

    Controlling Some Variables of Value Structure
    4. THE ILLUSION OF SPACE AND DEPTH ON A FLAT SURFACE
    Methods for Indicating Space and Depth
    Consider the Variables
    Size
    Baseline or Position
    Overlapping
    Sharp and Diminishing Detail
    Value Contrast
    Converging Parallels
    Linear Perspective
    Different Kinds of Space
    Decorative Space
    Shallow Space
    Plastic Space
    Deep or Infinite Space
    Ambiguous Space
    The Technique of Scaling to Determine Accurate Size Relationships

    Establishing Scale Successfully
    Scale or Unit of Measure
    Height of Eye Level or Horizon Line
    Station Point
    The Process of Scaling
    General Guidelines for Scaling
    Creating an Effective Still Life
    What Kinds of Objects Should be Included?
    Regular Forms
    Irregular or Natural Forms
    Cubic Forms

    Additional Considerations for Still Lifes
    The Meaning of Things You Include in a Drawing
    Using Photographic References
    5. SPATIAL THINKING AND VISUALIZATION: ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE DRAWING
    An Introduction to Perspective

    What Is Perspective?
    Different Types of Perspective
    Technical or Mechanical Perspective
    Freehand Perspective
    Linear Perspective
    Atmospheric Perspective
    Basic Principles of Linear Perspective
    Perspective and Sighting
    Limitations of Linear Perspective
    Recommended Sequencing for Maximum Comprehension
    Suggestions for Effective Perspective Drawing
    Determining the Variable Elements of Perspective Drawing
    --Scale
    --Eye Level (EL)
    --Ground Line (GL)
    --Station Point (SP)
    --Central Vanishing Point (CVP) and Special Vanishing Point (SVP) Left or Right
    --Vanishing Point Left (VPL) and Vanishing Point Right (VPR)
    --Key Cube or "Mother Cube"
    --Keeping Things Simple
    Perspective Materials List
    Optional Items
    The Terminology
    of Perspective
    Primary Working Terminology
    One-Point Perspective (1-PT)
    Two-Point Perspective/Oblique Perspective (2-PT)
    Eye Level (EL)
    Horizon Line (HL)
    Scale
    Station Point (SP)
    Picture Plane (PP)
    Ground Plane (GP)
    Ground Line (GL)
    Cone of Vision (COV)
    Vanishing Point (VP)
    Central Vanishing Point (CVP)
    Special Vanishing Point (SVP)
    Auxiliary Vanishing Point (AVP)
    Vanishing Point Three (VP3)
    Measuring Line (ML)
    Diagonal Measuring Line (DML)
    Related Terminology
    Foreshortening
    Convergence
    Position or Base Line
    Overlap
    Diminution

    Additional Useful Terminology
    Convergence
    Perpendicular
    Parallel
    Diagonal
    Vertical
    Horizontal

    Plane
    Square
    Rectangle
    Circle
    Ellipse
    Axis
    Cube
    Pyramid
    Cylinder
    Cone
    Sphere
    Vessel
    Right Angle
    Acute Angle
    Oblique
    Diameter
    Circumference
    Vertex
    Tangent Point
    Perspectives and Cubes

    Constructing a Cube in One-Point Perspective
    Constructing a Cube in Two-Point Perspective Based on Estimation of Cube Depth in Relation to Cube Height
    Estimating Cube Depth in Two-Point Perspective
    Respecting the Cone of Vision
    Proximity to Vanishing Points Left and Right and Proximity to the Central Vanishing Point
    The Leading Edge of a Cube

    Using Perspective Grids
    Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in One-Point Perspective
    Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in Two-Point Perspective
    To Continue Using the Measuring Line Method
    To Continue Using the Fencepost Method
    To Continue Using the "Converging Diagonals" Method
    Increasing Complexity in the Perspective Environment

    Multiple or Sliding Vanishing Points
    Cube Multiplication
    The Fencepost Method for Cube Multiplication
    The Measuring Line Method for Cube Multiplication
    Distortion in Cube Multiplication
    Cube Division
    Constructing Ellipses in One-Point and Two-Point Perspective
    The Eight-Point Tangent System for Ellipse Construction
    Major and Minor Axes, Distortion, and Fullness of Ellipses
    6. ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES FOR DRAWING THE HUMAN FIGURE
    Why Study the Human Figure?

    Classroom Etiquette When Drawing from a Model
    The Process of Sighting in Relation to the Human Body
    Sighting the Human Body for Relative Proportions
    Sighting the Human Body for Vertical and Horizontal Alignments Between Two or More Landmarks or Reference Points
    Comparative Proportions in the Male and Female Figure
    Female
    Male

    Gesture Drawing or Rapid Contour Drawing
    Seeing Is the Key
    Using Axis Lines
    Keeping It Simple
    Setting the Pace
    Working from the Inside Out
    Enhancing the Illusion of Volume and Space in the Human Form
    Line Variation in Figure Drawing
    Scaling Techniques in Figure Drawing
    A General-to-Specific Approach to Form and Value in Figure Drawing
    An Introduction to Portraiture
    Common Errors
    General Guidelines for Locating Facial Features and Other Landmarks
    Central Axis
    Length of the Nose
    Centerline of the Mouth
    Distance Between the Eyes in a Frontal View
    Edges or Wings of the Nostrils
    Outside Corners of the Mouth
    Top of the Ears
    Bottom of the Ears, or the Bottom of the Ear Lobes
    Width of the Neck
    Three-Quarter View

    The Features and Other Significant Aspects of Portraiture
    The Eyes
    The Nose
    The Mouth
    The Ears
    The Neck
    The Shoulders
    The Hair
    Value Structure
    An Alternative Viewpoint in Portraiture
    Mapping the Figure in Space
    Drawing the Figure in an Observed Environment
    Using Straight-Line Construction
    Creating Visual Paths of Movement
    7. THE HUMAN FIGURE AND ARTISTIC ANATOMY
    Artistic Anatomy Versus Medical Anatomy
    Anatomy
    Reveals Itself
    Major Bones of the Human Skeletal Structure
    Skull/Cranium
    List of 15 Individual Bones
    Torso
    List of 18 Individual Bones
    Leg and Foot
    List of 9 Individual Bones
    Arm and Hand
    List of 6 Individual Bones
    Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure
    List of 29 Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure
    Helpful Information about the Human Skeletal Structure
    The Skull
    Additional Information About the Skull
    The Spinal Column (Back Bone)
    Additional Information About the Bones of the Spinal Column
    The Rib Cage
    Additional Information About the Bones of the Rib Cage
    The Shoulder Girdle
    Additional Information About the Shoulder Girdle
    The Pelvis or Ilium (Hip Bone)
    Additional Information About the Pelvis/Ilium
    The Leg
    Additional Information About the Leg
    The Foot and Ankle
    Additional Information About the Foot and Ankle
    The Arm and Wrist
    Additional Information About the Arm and Wrist
    The Hand and Fingers
    Additional Information About the Hand and Fingers
    Superficial Muscles of the Human Figure
    Face and Head
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Neck
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Torso
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Arm and Hand
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Upper Leg
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Lower Leg and Foot
    List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
    Helpful Anatomical Terminology
    List of Relevant Anatomical Terms
    List and Definition of 22 Relevant Anatomical Terms
    8. COLOR THEORY AND APPLICATION
    Understanding Color
    Color Terminology
    Color
    Hue
    Spectrum
    Objective Color/Local Color
    Subjective Color (also known as Expressive Color)
    Pigments
    Neutrals
    Neutralized Color
    Color Value
    Color Intensity
    Color Temperature
    Primary Colors
    Secondary Colors
    Intermediate or Tertiary Colors
    Complementary Colors
    Split Complement
    Analogous Colors or Adjacent Colors
    Tinted Color
    Toned Color
    Shaded Color
    Additive Color
    Subtractive Color
    Chromatic
    Achromatic
    Monochromatic or Monochrome
    Color Chord
    Color Dyad
    Color Triad
    Color Tetrad
    The Seven Color Contrasts
    Contrast of Hue
    Contrast of Value
    Contrast of Temperature
    Contrast of Intensity
    Complementary Contrast
    Simultaneous Contrast
    Contrast of Extension

    Color Harmony and Color Chords
    The Spatial and Volumetric Effects of Color
    Value and Color
    Temperature and Color
    Intensity and Color
    Volume and Color
    Volume and Color Value
    Volume and Color Temperature
    Volume and Color Intensity
    Volume and Color Texture

    Hints for Observing and Recording Color
    Value in a Color Drawing
    Intensity in a Color Drawing
    Complements in a Color Drawing
    Drawing with Color Media
    Colored Pencils

    Student-Grade Colored Pencils
    Artist-Grade Colored Pencils
    Building Your Colored Pencil Collection
    Colored Pencil Accessories
    Storage and Transport Containers
    Pencil Sharpeners
    Pencil Extenders
    Erasers
    Razor Blades and Adhesive Tapes

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Colored Pencils
    Colored Pencil Papers
    Colored and Toned Papers
    White and Neutral Papers
    Colored Pencil Techniques
    Textured and Textureless Colored Pencil Drawings
    Blending and Burnishing
    Value Structure and Color Shifts
    Tinting Your Paper
    Working from Hard to Soft or Lean to Fat

    Resolving Some Limitations of Colored Pencil
    Pastels
    Student-Grade Pastels
    Artist-Grade Pastels
    Hard Artist-Grade Pastels
    Soft Artist-Grade Pastels

    Pastel Pencils
    Pastel Accessories
    Storage and Transport Containers
    Blenders
    Fixatives
    Erasers
    Razor Blades and
    Sandpaper Pads
    Adhesive Tape
    Mahl Sticks
    Solvent Alcohol
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Pastels
    Pastel Papers and Substrates
    Colored and Toned Papers and Substrates
    Preparing Your Own Surface

    Pastel Techniques
    Side Stroking
    Hatching and Cross-Hatching
    Blending
    Scumbling
    Feathering
    Working from Hard to Soft, or Lean to Fat

    Basic Working Procedures
    Starting Your Drawing
    Blocking in Base Colors
    Developing Your Drawing Further
    Using Color Shifts to Describe Value Shifts
    Blending by Rubbing Sparingly and Cautiously
    Oil Pastels

    Student-Grade Oil Pastels
    Artist-Grade Oil Pastels
    Building Your Oil Pastel Collection
    Oil Pastel Accessories
    Storage and Transport Containers
    Brushes and Solvents
    Palette Knives and Razor Blades
    Blending Tools
    Gesso and Other Surface Primers
    Extenders
    Fixatives

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Oil Pastels
    Oil Pastel Papers and Substrates
    Primed Papers and Substrates
    Potential Problems When Working on Raw Paper
    Preparing Your Own Surface

    Oil Pastel Techniques
    Side Stroking
    Hatching and Cross-Hatching
    Blending
    Scumbling
    Feathering
    Washes
    Working from Hard to Soft, or Lean to Fat
    Basic Working Procedures
    Starting Your Drawing
    Blocking in Base Colors
    Developing Your Drawing Further
    Using Color Shifts to Describe Value Shifts
    Blending with Consideration for Color Theory

    Some Final Thoughts About Working With Color
    9. DEVELOPING IDEAS, RESOLVING PROBLEMS, AND EVALUATING RESULTS
    Ideation: Generating Ideas

    Imaginative Thinking and the Brain
    Imagination, Creativity, and Brainstorming
    The Process of Brainstorming
    Collage as a Tool for the Exploration of Ideas
    What Is Collage?
    The History and Origins of Collage
    Collage and Related Processes
    Why Collage--A Tool for Exploration of Ideas and Materials
    Resources for Collage
    Substrates or Support Surfaces
    Adhesives
    Diagnosing Problems in Your Work
    Inaccurate Proportional, Scale, or Shape Relationships
    Multiple Perspective Eye Levels
    Foreshortening Inaccuracies or a Lack of Foreshortening
    Flat and Restricted Line Work
    Details or Specifics at the Expense of the General Underlying Form
    Scaling Inaccuracies in Relation to Perspective Principles
    Lack of Volume or Timid Value Structure in Three-Dimensional Forms
    Overly Generalized Drawing
    Substituting Recipes or Formulas for Careful Observation
    Unintentionally Ambiguous Space
    Rigid or Pristine Drawings Lacking a Sense of Process
    Disregard for or Poor Composition
    Intentions Versus Results
    Discovering Disparity
    Descriptive Feedback
    Interpretive Feedback
    Written Feedback as an Alternative to Spoken Feedback
    The Importance of Critiques
    Group Critiques
    Individual Critiques
    Key Questions for Critiquing Work
    Questions Regarding Composition
    Questions Regarding Drawing
    Questions Regarding Figure Drawing
    Questions Regarding Perspective
    Questions Regarding Color
    10. DRAWING MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
    Media and Materials for Drawing
    Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Surfaces and Substrates
    Traditional Paper
    --Texture or Finish
    --Sizing
    --Weight
    --Acidity
    --Ply
    --Size or Dimension
    Paper Recommendations
    --White Papers and Neutral-Tinted Papers
    --Charcoal and Pastel Papers--White and Color
    Nontraditional Surfaces and Substrates for Drawing
    Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Media
    Dry Media--Black/White and Monochromatic
    --Drawing Pencils or Graphite Pencils
    --Graphite Sticks
    --Graphite Powder
    --Silverpoint
    --Charcoal Pencils
    --Carbon Pencils
    --Vine Charcoal or Willow Charcoal
    --Compressed Charcoal
    --Powdered Charcoal
    --Conte Crayons or Drawing Crayons
    --Conte Pencils
    Dry Media--Color
    --Colored Pencils
    --Colored Pencil Sticks
    --Soft Pastels
    --Pastel Pencils
    --Oil Pastels
    Wet Media--Black/White and Color
    --Ink
    --Ink Washes
    --Ink Pens
    Nontraditional Drawing Media
    Additional Materials for Drawing and Related Processes
    Transfer Techniques Combined with Drawing
    Photocopy and Laser Print Transfers
    Materials Needed
    Images for Transfer
    Solvents for Transferring Images
    Procedure for Transferring Images
    Other Materials Used in the Transfer Process
    Additional Considerations

    Acrylic Medium Transfers
    Materials Needed
    Procedure for Transferring Images

    Lazertran Transfers
    Materials Needed
    Procedure for Transferring Images to Nonabsorbent, Shiny Surfaces
    Procedure for Transferring Images to Paper or Canvas
    Procedure for Transferring Images to a Variety of Porous Surfaces Using Turpentine

    APPENDIX I: DIGITAL ART AND DRAWING
    APPENDIX II: CONTEMPORARY ART: A GALLERY OF DRAWINGS
    Black and White Images
    David Kohan
    Emily Mayo
    Armin Mersmann
    Beili Liu
    Egon Schiele
    Robert Schultz
    Dragana Crnjak
    Seth Marosok
    William Kentridge
    Shelby Shadwell
    Color Images

    Aneka Ingold
    David Bailin
    Ian Ingram
    Henry Darger
    Julia Randall
    Julie Mehretu
    Nathan Heuer
    Michael Borremans
    Huaming Wang
    Whitfield Lovell
    Juan Perdiguero
    Zaria
    Forman
    Glossary of Art Terms
    Bibliography
    Index

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