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Discovering Music

Second Edition

R. Larry Todd

Publication Date - January 2020

ISBN: 9780190938956

608 pages

Retail Price to Students: $86.99

How--and and why--to listen to, understand, and enjoy great music


Make your Music Appreciation course as inspiring as the music it covers. Discovering Music, Second Edition, offers a compelling and contemporary guide that invites your students to connect intellectually and emotionally with music from the Western canon and beyond. The second edition features an expanded video program, additional coverage of women and minority composers, and new "Making Connections" sections that allow students to make connections with non-Western musical traditions. Please click the "Book Information" tab for detailed information on the text's unique features.

Digital Learning Tools to Enrich Your Course

All new print and electronic versions of Discovering Music, Second Edition, come with access to a full suite of engaging digital learning tools that can be delivered in a variety of ways to suit your course needs: in your local LMS with Oxford's interoperable course cartridge, in Oxford's cloud-based Dashboard, or in a stand-alone enhanced eBook.

An enhanced eBook integrates Larry Todd's engaging narrative with a rich assortment of audio and video resources

Streaming audio provides students with access to high-quality recordings of all seventy-eight key pieces discussed in the text

Digital Listening Maps animate the "First Listen" segment of the in-text Listening Maps, making it easier for students to follow along with the music

A collection of fifty-six engaging videos provides hours of rich multimedia content, including instrument demonstrations by members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra; opera performance clips; new non-Western music demonstrations; and author videos in which R. Larry Todd explains and demonstrates key concepts

Auto-graded quizzes test students' knowledge. Quizzes average 8-10 questions in length and often include at least one listening question related to a brief audio clip.

New assignable "Listening Log" essay activities in each part ask students to find and explore additional musical examples related to material discussed in the part

New to this Edition

  • An enhanced eBook integrates Larry Todd's engaging narrative with a rich assortment of audio and video resources
  • New "Making Connections" features allow students to make connections with non-Western musical traditions
  • Expanded inclusion of women and minority composers features coverage of Barbara Strozzi, Maria Theresia von Paradis, and Chevalier de Saint-Georges


  • Emphasizes the relevance of classical music to students' lives by highlighting connections between music, history, and other art forms and addressing the basic question posed by students who have not been exposed to this music previously: Why is this important?
  • Brings content to life through an expanded collection of compelling videos that includes brief author lectures, instrument demonstrations, reflections from working classical musicians, and global music performances
  • New "Making Connections" features allow students to make connections with non-Western musical traditions
  • Expanded inclusion of women and minority composers features coverage of Barbara Strozzi, Maria Theresia von Paradis, and Chevalier de Saint-Georges
  • Visual listening maps help students follow along and engage with each piece, providing important insights into the elements and effects of highlighted works. Most maps include four components: An Overview, a "Why to Listen" description, a "First Listen" chart, and "A Deeper Listen" chart
  • Mobile-friendly Digital Listening Maps in the interactive eBook and digital resources animate the "First Listen" segment of the seventy-eight in-text Listening Maps, making it easier for students to follow along with the music

About the Author(s)

R. Larry Todd is Arts and Sciences Professor of Music in Trinity College of Arts and Sciences at Duke University


"Discovering Music is intuitive and logical, offering an excellent blend of general information and substantive detail while addressing the needs, abilities, and interests of different kinds and levels of listeners. It is a well-organized, well-illustrated, lucidly explained, and elegantly written text that provides non-majors with a thorough and engaging introduction to the musical art."--John Michael Cooper, Southwestern University

"Discovering Music is the most exhaustive book of its kind for classes on general music listening. It's a treasure to have as my class textbook."--Anthony Kelley, Duke University

"Discovering Music is a fantastic book for any Introduction to Music or beginning music course. The language is clear and easy to understand. Todd uses great listening examples and his guided listening maps walk students through the pieces and explain what they will hear. This is a well-thought-out book that is great for beginners or music majors."--Heather Worden, SUNY Broome Community College

"Discovering Music is well written and concise. It includes an excellent selection of repertoire and covers many essential (and interesting) aspects of the music and culture for each of the periods. Its choice of subjects, composers, and music; its exploration of the culture and society that surrounded the music; and its accessible yet detailed approach all make it stand out among music appreciation texts."--Seth Coluzzi, Brandeis University

"I love the videos. For one, students get to see and hear from the author of their text, which is very rare. In addition, they get instruction that illustrates basic musical concepts clearly and in a way that they can understand."--Judy Hand, McNeese State University

Table of Contents

    Table of Contents

    Each chapter ends with a "Check Your Knowledge" section.

    The Listening Experience
    Musical Elements: An Overview
    What Is Classical Music?

    Classical Periods and Styles
    The Classical-Popular Connection
    Chapter 1. Pitch, Melody, and Key
    Notating Pitch

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Physics of Sound: The Octave
    Sharps, Flats, and Naturals
    Phrases and Intervals
    Consonance and Dissonance
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Ancient Greeks and Consonances
    The Major and Minor Scales
    The Chromatic Scale
    Chapter 2. Rhythm, Meter, Texture, and Dynamics
    Rhythmic Values
    Tempo Markings

    Pulse or Beat

    Upbeats and Downbeats
    Time Signatures
    Monophonic Texture
    Polyphonic Texture and Counterpoint
    Homophonic Texture
    The Triad
    Harmonic Progression

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Sound of Silence
    Chapter 3. Timbre, Instruments, and Ensembles
    The Voice
    The Family of Musical Instruments
    Musical Ensembles

    Instrumental Ensembles
    Vocal Ensembles
    Mixed Ensembles
    Benjamin Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946)
    Listening Map 1: Benjamin Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra [1946]
    Chapter 4. Musical Form
    Binary and Ternary Form
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Musical Form in Architecture and Painting
    Chapter 5. Learning How to Listen
    Listening to
    Hamilton, "My Shot"
    Mapping the Listening Experience
    Overview Table
    Listening Map 2: Miranda, "My Shot," Hamilton
    Check Your Knowledge
    Why Listen to Medieval Music?
    Milestones of the Medieval Era

    Chapter 6. Origins of Medieval Music
    Chapter 7. Music for the Christian Church
    Gregorian Chant
    The Divine Office and the Mass
    Medieval Christmas Music:
    Viderunt omnes
    Check Your Knowledge

    Listening Map 3: Anonymous, Viderunt omnes ("All the Ends of the Earth") [fifth century]
    Chapter 8. Hildegard of Bingen
    Listening Map 4: Hildegard of Bingen, O viridissima virga ("O Greenest Branch") [twelfth century]
    Chapter 9. Léonin and the Rise of Polyphony
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Gothic Cathedrals and Polyphonic Architecture
    Listening Map 5: Léonin, First Respond from Viderunt omnes ("All the Ends of the Earth") [twelfth century]
    Chapter 10. Secular Medieval Music
    Musical Instruments
    Secular Medieval Song
    Chapter 11. Machaut and the Rise of Secular Polyphony
    Listening Map 6:
    Machaut, Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous ("Since you have forgotten me") [ca. 1365]
    GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Myanmar: Buddhist Chant and Ritual Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music for Celebrations
    Why Listen to Renaissance Music?
    Classical Revival
    Artists as Individual
    Transition to Modernity
    Chapter 12. The Development of Renaissance Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Renaissance Rediscovers Classical Antiquity
    Chapter 13. Guillaume Dufay and the Franco-Flemish Style
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Brunelleschi's Dome
    Listening Map 7: Guillaume Dufay, Mass Se la face ay pale, Kyrie [1450]
    Check Your Knowledge
    Chapter 14. Josquin Desprez
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Lorenzo the Magnificent
    Listening Map 8: Josquin Desprez, Ave Maria [ca. 1485]
    Chapter 15. Palestrina and the Counter-Reformation
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Martin Luther and the Reformation
    Chapter 16. New Currents: National Styles
    The Italian Madrigal

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Art Imitates Life: The Shocking Music of Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa
    The English Madrigal
    Listening Map 9:
    Thomas Weelkes, "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" [1601]
    Chapter 17. The Rise of Instrumental Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The English Reformation
    Listening Map 10: William Byrd, "Pavana Lachrymae" for harpsichord solo, based on John Dowland's lute song "Flow My Tears" [ca. 1600]
    GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Bali: Gamelan Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Gamelan and the West
    Why Listen to Baroque Music?
    Baroque Art and Architecture
    The Musical Legacy of the Baroque
    Chapter 18. Elements of Baroque Music
    The Development of Tonality
    The Basso Continuo
    Melody, Rhythm, and Dynamics in Baroque Music
    Chapter 19. Claudio Monteverdi and the Rise of Italian
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: St. Mark's Basilica, Venice
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Orfeo and the Rise of the Orchestra
    Listening Map 11: Monteverdi, Orfeo, Act III, "Possente spirto" ("O powerful spirit"), excerpt [1607]
    Barbara Strozzi and the Chamber Cantata
    Listening Map 12:
    Barbara Strozzi, "Voglio morire" from L'Amante segreto (The Secret Lover) [1651]
    Chapter 20. The Spread of Opera
    Opera in France
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music as Royal Power: Lully at the Court of Louis XIV
    Henry Purcell and English Opera
    Listening Map 13: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, Act III, "When I Am Laid in Earth" [1689]
    Chapter 21. Baroque Instrumental Music
    The Violin Family
    The Harpsichord
    The Organ
    New Musical Genres
    Arcangelo Corelli
    The Baroque
    Listening Map 14:
    Corelli, Trio Sonata in A minor, Op. 3 No. 10 [1689]
    Chapter 22. Antonio Vivaldi
    Listening Map 15: Vivaldi, Spring from The Four Seasons, Op. 8 No. 1, First Movement [ca. 1725]
    Chapter 23. Johann Sebastian Bach's Life and Career
    Bach's Early Life and Career Beginnings
    The Move to C:othen
    Final Years in Leipzig

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Bach's Children and Wives
    Chapter 24. Bach's Instrumental Music
    Bach and the Fugue

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Fugues beyond Music
    Listening Map 16: J. S. Bach, "Little" Fugue in G minor for Organ [ca. 1708-1717]
    Bach's Concertos
    Listening Map 17:
    J. S. Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, First Movement [1721 or earlier]
    Chapter 25. Bach's Sacred Music
    Bach's Cantatas
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: A Tale of Two Churches
    Listening Map 18: J. S. Bach, Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf (Sleepers, Awake!), First Movement [1731]
    Bach's Other Religious Music
    Chapter 26. George Frideric Handel
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel versus Bach: Two Baroque Titans Compared
    Handel's Life and Career
    Listening Map 19: Handel, Water Music: Alla Hornpipe [1717]
    Handel and Italian Opera
    Chapter 27. Handel and the English Oratorio
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel, the Duke of Cumberland, and Bonnie Prince Charlie
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Handel's Messiah and Jonathan Swift
    Listening Map 20: Handel, Messiah, Aria, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion" [1742]
    Listening Map 21: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah Chorus" [1742]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Standing Up for Handel
    Chapter 28. The End of the Baroque
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Musical Representations of Spring
    Why Listen to Music from the Classical Period?
    The Enlightenment
    The Revival of Antiquity
    Chapter 29. Music in the Classical Period

    Composers of the New Classicism
    Melody in Classical Music

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Balance in Neoclassical Art and Architecture
    Dynamics in Classical Music
    The Fortepiano
    Rhythm in Classical Music
    Harmony and Texture in Classical Music
    Chapter 30. Genres and Forms in Classical Music
    New Instrumental Genres
    Sonata Form

    The Sonata Form in Action
    Theme and Variations Form
    and Trio
    Listening Map 22: Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), K. 525, First Movement, Allegro [1787]
    Listening Map 23: Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major ("Surprise"), Second Movement (Andante) [1791]
    Rondo Form
    Listening Map 24: Mozart, Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), K. 525, Third Movement (Allegretto) [1787]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Rise of the Minuet
    Listening Map 25: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 13 ("Pathétique"), Third Movement (Allegro) [1798]
    Chapter 31. Joseph Haydn
    Haydn's Life and Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Esterházys and Haydn
    Haydn and the Classical Orchestra
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Haydn in England
    Haydn and the String Quartet
    Listening Map 26: Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major ("Surprise"), Fourth Movement (Allegro Molto) [1791]
    Haydn's Influence
    Listening Map 27: Haydn, String Quartet in G major, Op. 76 No. 3 ("Emperor"), Second Movement (Poco adagio; cantabile) [1797]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Politics of Haydn's "Emperor's Hymn"
    Chapter 32. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Mozart's Life and Career
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mozart as Freemason
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mozart and Posterity
    Mozart and the Classical Concerto
    Maria Theresia von Paradis: "The Blind Enchantress"

    Mozart and Italian Opera
    Listening Map 28: Maria Theresia von Paradis, "Morgenalied eines armen Mannes" ("The Morning Song of a Poor Man") [1786]
    Listening Map 29: Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 23 in A major, K. 488, First Movement (Allegro) [1786]
    Mozart and German Opera
    Listening Map 30: Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act I, Scene 2, Figaro, "Se vuol ballare" ("If you want to dance") [1786]
    Listening Map 31: Mozart, The Magic Flute, K. 620, Act II, Scene 3, Queen of the Night, "Der H:olle Rache" ("Vengeance of Hell") [1791]
    Mozart's Legacy
    Chapter 33. Ludwig van Beethoven

    Beethoven's Early Period
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Beethoven and Haydn
    Beethoven's Middle Period
    Listening Map 32: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27 No. 2 ("Moonlight"), First Movement (Adagio sostenuto) [1801]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Napoleon as Romantic Figure
    Beethoven's Fifth Symphony in C minor
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Finding Meaning in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
    Listening Map 33: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, First Movement (Allegro con brio) [1808]
    Listening Map 34: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Second Movement (Andante con moto) [1808]
    Listening Map 35: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Third Movement (Allegro) [1808]
    Beethoven's Late Period
    Listening Map 36: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Fourth Movement (Allegro) [1808]
    Beethoven's Death and Funeral
    Beethoven's Legacy

    GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Thailand: Music of the Khaen
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Free-Reed Instruments
    Why Listen to Romantic Music?
    Romantic Movements

    Chapter 34. Music in the Romantic Period
    Melody in Romantic Music
    Dynamics and Expression Marks in Romantic Music
    Tempo and Rhythm in Romantic
    Harmony and Tonality in Romantic Music
    Forms and Genres in Romantic Music
    Timbre and Tone Color in Romantic Music

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Romantic Content in Program Music
    Chapter 35. Art Song
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Lyric Poetry and Us
    Schubert's Life
    Schubert's Lieder

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Goethe and Music
    Schubert's Erlking
    Listening Map 37: Schubert, "Erlk:onig" ("The Erlking") [1815]
    Robert Schumann
    Schumann's Dichterliebe, Op. 48
    Clara Schumann
    Listening Map 38:
    Robert Schumann, "Im wundersch:onen Monat Mai" ("In the Lovely Month of May"), from Dichterliebe (Poet's Love) [1840]
    Clara Schumann, "Liebst du um Sch:onheit" ("If You Love for Beauty")
    Listening Map 39: Clara Schumann, "Liebst du um Sch:onheit" ("If You Love for Beauty") [1841]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Clara Schumann as Composer
    Chapter 36. Piano Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Age of the Virtuoso
    Frédéric Chopin
    Chopin's Nocturnes and Preludes
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: A Double Portrait by Delacroix
    Listening Map 40: Chopin, Nocturne in E-flat major for Piano, Op. 9 No. 2 [1831]
    Listening Map 41: Chopin, Prelude in D minor for Piano, Op. 28 No. 24 [1839]
    Franz Liszt
    Liszt, Petrarch Sonnet No. 104
    Fanny Hensel
    Hensel, "Il Saltarello Romano" ("The Roman Saltarello") in A minor, Op. 6 No. 4
    Listening Map 42: Liszt, Petrarch Sonnet No. 104 [1858]
    Listening Map 43: Hensel, "Il Saltarello Romano" ("The Roman Saltarello") in A minor, Op. 6 No. 4 [1841]
    Chapter 37. Orchestral Music
    Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Mendelssohn as Conductor
    Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 21
    Listening Map 44: Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 21 [1826]
    Hector Berlioz
    Fantastic Symphony
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Romantics and Opium
    Listening Map 45: Berlioz, Fantastic Symphony, Finale, "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" [1830]
    Chapter 38. Romantic Opera
    Italian Romantic Opera
    Giuseppe Verdi
    Listening Map 46: Verdi, Rigoletto, Act III, Canzone "La donna è mobile" ("Woman Is Fickle") [1851]
    French Romantic Opera
    German Romantic Opera
    Richard Wagner
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Musical Cues in Wagner and Beyond
    Listening Map 47: Wagner, Das Rheingold, concluding scene, "The Gods' Entrance into Valhalla" [1854]
    Chapter 39. Late Nineteenth-Century Music
    Johannes Brahms
    Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 77, Third Movement
    Nationalism in Music
    Listening Map 48: Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 77, Third Movement [1879]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Nationalism in Art
    Antonín Dvorák
    Dvorák, Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World"), Second Movement
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Jeanette Thurber and Music Patronage, Americanized
    Russian Music
    Listening Map 49:
    Dvorák, Symphony No. 9 ("From the New World"), Second Movement, Largo [1893]
    Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition
    Listening Map 50: Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, "The Great Gate of Kiev" (1874), orchestrated by Maurice Ravel [1922]
    Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky
    Program Music of the Later Nineteenth Century
    Listening Map 51:
    Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet [1880]
    Richard Strauss, Death and Transfiguration
    Gustav Mahler
    Listening Map 52: Strauss, Death and Transfiguration [1889]
    Europe at the Close of the Century
    Bizet, Carmen, Habanera from Act 1
    Listening Map 53: Mahler, Songs of a Wayfarer, No. 2 [1896]
    Instrumental Genres and Verismo Opera
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Afterlife of La Bohème
    Listening Map 54: Bizet, Carmen Act 1, Habanera [1875]
    GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Gambia: Kora Music of the Mandinka
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music that Tells a Story
    Why Listen to Music from the Modern Era?
    Chapter 40. Music in the Twentieth Century
    Alternatives to Tonality
    Arnold Schoenberg and the Rejection of Tonality

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Atonality and Soundtracks
    New Experiments with Rhythm and Timbre
    Chapter 41. The Modernist Revolution
    Claude Debussy

    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Eiffel Tower as Modernist Icon
    Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (1894)
    Listening Map 55: Debussy, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun [1854]
    Igor Stravinsky
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Ballets Russes
    Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring (1913)
    Listening Map 56: Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, "Introduction" and "Augursof Spring: Dance of the Adolescents" [1913]
    Arnold Schoenberg
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Wassily Kandinsky and German Expressionism
    Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire (1912), "Valse de Chopin"
    Listening Map 57: Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire, No. 5, "Valse de Chopin" [1912]
    Alban Berg and Anton von Webern
    Chapter 42. Neoclassicism
    Sergei Prokofiev
    Prokofiev, Symphony No. 1 in D major ("Classical") (1917)
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Music in the Soviet Union
    Stravinsky and Neoclassicism
    Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms (1930)
    Listening Map 58: Prokofiev, "Classical" Symphony First Movement [1917]
    Listening Map 59: Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms Second Movement (Psalm 40: 1-3) [1930]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Stravinsky as Lecturer
    Béla Bartók
    Bartók, Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta (1936)
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Palindromes and Musical Symmetries
    Listening Map 60: Bartók, Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta, Third Movement [1936]
    Chapter 43. National Styles
    English Music

    Vaughan Williams, Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1910)
    Listening Map 61: Vaughan Williams, Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis [1910]
    Dmitri Shostakovich and Russian Music
    Shostakovich, Fifth Symphony, Second Movement (1937)
    Listening Map 62: Shostakovich, Fifth Symphony, Second Movement [1937]
    Chapter 44. American Music: Beginnings to Aaron Copland
    Amy Beach
    Beach, Romance for Violin and Piano, Op. 23 (1893)
    Charles Ives
    Listening Map 63:
    Amy Beach, Romance for Violin and Piano, Op. 23 [1893]
    Ives, General William Booth Enters into Heaven (1914)
    Listening Map 64: Ives, General William Booth Enters into Heaven [1914]
    William Grant Still
    Still, "Afro-American" Symphony, Third Movement ("Humor") (1930)
    Listening Map 65: William Grant Still, "Afro-American" Symphony, Third Movement ("Humor") [1930]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Harlem Renaissance and the "New Negro"
    George Gershwin
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Rhapsody in Blue: An Icon of American Music
    Gershwin, "Summertime," from Porgy and Bess (1935)
    Listening Map 66: Gershwin, "Summertime," from Porgy and Bess, as performed by Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong [1957]
    Aaron Copland
    Copland, Appalachian Spring (1944)
    Listening Map 67: Copland, Appalachian Spring, Section 7: Variations on the Shaker melody "Simple Gifts" [1944]
    Chapter 45. Jazz
    The Rise of Jazz: Ragtime and Blues
    The Blues
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Robert Johnson and the Blues as Literature
    Bessie Smith, "Lost Your Head Blues" (1926)
    Listening Map 68: Bessie Smith, "Lost Your Head Blues" [1926]
    Early Jazz: New Orleans and Beyond
    The Birth of Swing Music
    Duke Ellington

    Ellington, "Mood Indigo" (1930)
    Listening Map 69: Duke Ellington, "Mood Indigo" [1930]
    The Birth of Bebop
    Charlie Parker, "Constellation" (1948)
    Listening Map 70: Charlie Parker, "Constellation" [1948]
    Cool and Free Jazz
    Miles Davis
    Listening Map 71: Miles Davis, Bitches Brew ("Miles Runs the Voodoo Down," opening section) [1969]
    Chapter 46. Film Music, Musicals, and Contemporary Popular Styles
    The Rise of Film Music

    John Williams
    Listening Map 72: John Williams, "Imperial March" from The Empire Strikes Back [1980]
    Leonard Bernstein
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The Many Roles of Leonard Bernstein
    Listening Map 73: Leonard Bernstein, West Side Story, Balcony Scene, "Tonight" [1957]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: The '60s: Music of Protest
    Chapter 47. The Eclipse of Modernism: New Frontiers
    The New Order: Total Serialism
    New Resources in Sound

    Edgard Varèse
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: An Early Electronic Studio
    Listening Map 74: Edgard Varèse, Poème électronique (Electronic Poem), opening 2'36" [1958]
    Further Developments in Electronic Music
    Chance in Music
    John Cage
    Listening Map 75: John Cage, 4'33" [1951]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Across the Arts: John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and Merce Cunningham
    Women and Contemporary Music
    Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
    Listening Map 76: Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, Concerto grosso, First Movement [1985]
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Minimalism in the Visual Arts
    John Adams
    Listening Map 77: Adams, Short Ride in a Fast Machine [1986]
    The Future Beckons
    Into the Twenty-First Century
    Sofia Gubaidulina
    The Future
    Listening Map 78: Sofia Gubaidulina, Violin Concerto No. 2 ("In tempus praesens"), opening section [2007]
    GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: North India: Rhythm in Hindustani Music
    MAKING CONNECTIONS: Rhythm in Music