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The Essentials

Melissa W. Burek, Steven P. Lab, and Michael E. Buerger

Publication Date - 26 March 2020

ISBN: 9780190882525

280 pages

In Stock

The most concise, flexible, and affordable Introduction to Corrections text


Corrections: The Essentials provides a concise presentation of corrections, covering the essential materials for understanding the history, development, and current operations of corrections in an understandable, non-complex discussion of the topics.

About the Author(s)

Melissa W. Burek is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice and Associate Dean in the College of Health and Human Services at Bowling Green State University.

Steven P. Lab is Professor of Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.

Michael E. Buerger is Professor of Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.

They are coauthors, with Marian R. Williams, Jefferson E. Holcomb, and William R. King, of Criminal Justice: The Essentials, Fifth Edition (OUP, 2018).


"Corrections: The Essentials is an excellent text--very well written, short, and to the point. It covers all the pertinent information about corrections in just eight short chapters, yet is very detailed and informative."--Chernoh Wurie, Virginia Commonwealth University

"This book provides students with the essential information to succeed and learn about corrections. It is innovative in that it is loyal to the idea of 'essentials.'"--Monica Solinas-Saunders, Indiana University Northwest

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. The History and Development of Corrections
    Defining Corrections
    The Earliest Responses
    The Early Middle Ages
    Feudalism and the Later Middle Ages
    Middle Ages to 1800
    The Era of the Penitentiary
    The Pennsylvania System
    The Auburn System
    The Beginnings of Modern Community Corrections
    The Era of Reform
    The Era of Industry
    The Era of Rehabilitation
    The Era of Retribution
    The Era of Reentry
    History of Incarceration for Women
    The Custodial Model
    The Reformatory Model
    Women's Corrections Since the 1930s

    Chapter 2. Correctional Systems
    Local Corrections
    Country Corrections
    Jail Design
    State Corrections
    Prison Models
    Prison Security Levels
    Federal Corrections
    Types of Federal Prisons
    Growth in Federal Corrections
    Private Corrections

    Chapter 3. Correctional Rationales
    Theoretical Schools of Thought
    The Classical School
    The Positivistic School
    Intersections and Change
    Restorative Justice

    Chapter 4. Institutional Corrections
    Life Behind Bars
    Adapting to the Prison Life Prior to the 1970s
    Prison Life in the late 20th, early 21st Centuries
    Women and Prison Life
    Pro-Social Adjustment to Prison Life
    Inmate Rights
    History and Background
    Types of Litigation
    Implication of the Prisoners' Rights Movement
    Special Offender Populations
    Inmates and HIV/AIDS
    Inmates and Substance Use
    Aging and Elderly Inmates
    Inmates and Mental Illness
    Correctional Officers
    Rank and Responsibilities to Ensure Safety and Security
    Types of Correctional Officers
    Women as Correctional Officers
    Problems Faced by Correctional Officers
    Relationships between Correctional Officers and Inmates
    Prison Issues
    Prison Violence and Prison Discipline
    Institutional Corrections and Technology

    Chapter 5. Community Corrections
    History and Foundations
    Presentence Investigation Process and the Probation Decision
    Probation Conditions
    The Probation Officer Role
    Probation Caseloads
    Intermediate Sanctions
    Intensive Supervision Probation
    Home Confinement
    Electronic Monitoring
    Halfway Houses or Community Residential Centers
    Day Reporting Centers
    Boot Camps
    Other Community Sanctions
    Economic Sanctions
    Community Service
    Determining the Appropriate Sanction
    Principles of Effective Classification
    Intermediate Sanctions and Widening the Net

    Chapter 6. Parole and Reentry
    Word of Honor
    Predecessors to Parole
    Australia and Alexander Maconochie
    The Irish Penal System and Sir Walter Crofton
    Parole in the United States
    The Elmira Reformatory
    Justifications For and Against Parole
    Dual Meaning of Parole
    Characteristics of Parole Boards
    The Parole Release Decision
    Parole Guidelines
    Conditions of Release
    Parole Officers and Parolees
    Parole Revocation Process
    Other Mechanisms of Release from Prison and Sentence Reductions
    Barriers and Challenges to Reentry
    Reentry Programming and Services
    Evidence-Based Practices to Reentry

    Chapter 7. Juvenile Corrections
    Early History
    Houses of Refuge
    Institutions for Females
    The New Juvenile System
    Juvenile Institutional Corrections Today
    Detention Centers
    Training Schools
    Other Placements
    Institutional Life
    Inmate Misconduct
    Racial/Ethnic Tension
    Mental Health and Co-occurring Disorders
    Community Corrections
    Intensive Probation Supervision
    Home Confinement
    Balanced Probation
    Restorative Justice
    Issues in Community Corrections

    Chapter 8. Correctional Effectiveness
    The Collective Incapacitation of Imprisonment
    The Selective Incapacitation of Imprisonment
    The "What Works" Argument
    Risk, Need, and Responsivity
    Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
    Rehabilitation Summary

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