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Converging Media

Sixth edition

John V. Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh

Publication Date - January 2018

ISBN: 9780190646653

504 pages
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

Industry. Culture. Technology. It's time they came together.


Industry. Culture. Technology. It's time they came together.

From reading news on tablets to video calling on smartphones, digital media has changed the ways in which we communicate. Placing convergence at the center of the discussion, Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Sixth Edition, uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment--and to consider where we might be headed.

New to this Edition

  • Separate chapters on public relations and advertising allow for expanded discussions of rhetorical and strategic communication; online advertising; and specific advertising and communications trends and campaigns
  • New discussions of gamification across media and developments in the gaming industry and social networking
  • Expanded coverage of the convergence of interpersonal and mass communication through social media
  • Updated explorations of augmented and virtual reality and their potential future uses
  • Critical analyses of cybersecurity across media


  • Provides a fresh perspective on media through the lens of convergence, showing how different aspects of media are parts of the whole and examines how they influence each other
  • Places social media within a larger media and sociocultural context
  • Uses cutting-edge examples that diverse and intriguing to illustrate how the media landscape continues to evolve
  • Presents an international perspective to help students gain an appreciation for media systems throughout the world
  • Emphasizes career paths in media including both traditional and emerging career trends

About the Author(s)

John V. Pavlik is Professor of Journalism and Media Studies at Rutgers University.

Shawn McIntosh is Assistant Professor of English and Communication at Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts.


"This is the best introductorytextbook available with respect to staying in the moment of the change taking place within the media industry and, as a result, within our media culture."--Thom Gencarelli, Manhattan College

"This is an excellent textbook for anyone teaching a course on converging media. It provides compelling story about the challenges we face in understanding a rapidly changing media landscape."--Steven Keeler, Cayuga Community College

Table of Contents

    About The Authors

    Part 1: The Changing Media Landscape

    Chapter 1: Mass Communication and its Digital Transformation
    Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
    Three Types of Convergence
    Technological Convergence
    Economic Convergence
    Cultural Convergence
    Implications of Convergence
    Media Organization
    Media Type
    Media Content
    Media Use
    Media Distribution
    Media Audience
    Media Profession
    Attitudes And Values
    Mass Communication in the Digital Age
    Interpersonal Communication
    Mass Communication
    Mass Communication and Convergence
    Functions of Mass Communication
    Cultural Transmission
    Television: The Future of Convergence
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 2: Media Literacy In The Digital Age
    Education and Media
    What Is Media Literacy?
    What Makes Mediated Communication Different?
    Early Concerns of Media Effects
    Media Grammar
    Print Media
    Radio and Recorded Music
    Film and Television
    Digital-Media Grammar
    Implications of Commercial Media
    Commercial-Media Debate
    Concentration of Media Ownership
    Media Bias
    Developing Critical Media-Literacy Skills
    Media Careers
    Looking Back And Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Part 2: Mass-Communication Formats

    Chapter 3: Print Media: Books, Newspapers, and Magazines
    Functions of Print Media
    Transmission of Culture
    Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge
    Distinctive Functions of Books
    History of Books to Today
    Monastic Scribes
    Johannes Gutenberg
    Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy
    Cheaper and Smaller Books
    Dime Novels
    Mass-Market Paperbacks
    Current Book-Industry Issues
    Sales and Readership of Books
    Outlook fot Books
    Distinctive Functions of Newspapers

    Local Newspapers
    National Newspapers
    History of Newspapers to Today
    The Commercial Press and the Partisan Press
    Colonial Readership and Finances
    The Golden Age of Newspapers
    Current Newspaper-Industry Issues
    Newspaper Chains
    Benefits of Chains
    Problems With Chains

    Leading Newspaper Chains
    Declining Number of Daily Newspapers
    Sales and Readership of Newspapers
    Circulation and Readership
    Outlook for Newspapers
    Distinctive Functions of Magazines
    History of Magazines to Today
    Current Magazine-Industry Issues
    Sales and Readership of Magazines
    Outlook for Magazines
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 4: Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio
    The Recording Industry
    Distinctive Functions of the Recording Industry
    History of Recorded Music
    From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood
    Rootsof Rock and Roll
    Redefining Rock
    The Recording Industry Today
    Recording-Industry Business Model
    Pricing Structure
    Outlook for the Recording Industry
    Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing
    New Business Models Emerging
    What Is Broadcasting?
    Distinctive Functions of Radio
    History of Radio
    Wireless Telegraphy
    Exploring Radio's Early Potential
    Voice Transmission
    Radio Before, During, and After WWI
    Widespread Public Adoption of Radio
    Fm Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff
    Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio
    The Rise of Radio Networks
    Consolidation in Radio Station Ownership
    The Radio Industry Today
    Radio Station Programming
    Outlook for the Radio Industry
    Satellite Radio
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 5: Visual Media: Photography, Movies, and Television
    History of Photography
    Photographic Industry Today
    History of the Movie Industry
    Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
    Méliès and Griffith
    Murnau, Flaherty, and Eisenstein

    Sound and Color
    Hollywood Movie Moguls
    Warner Brothers
    Walt Disney
    Samuel Goldwyn
    Marcus Loew
    Louis B. Mayer
    Hollywood Star System

    The Director as Auteur
    Technological Influences on Movie Genres
    Other Entertainment Sources for Movies
    Dvds and Streaming
    Movie Industry Today
    Marketing and Distribution for Movies
    Movie-Industry Business Model
    Outlook for the Movie Industry
    History of Television
    Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
    Modern Television Takes Shape
    Programming and Genre Influences
    Pushing the Programming Envelope
    Cable Comes of Age
    Filling the Days
    Filling the Nights
    Reality Shows

    Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence
    The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays
    Television Distribution
    Broadcast TV
    Cable TV
    Satellite TV
    Television Industry Today
    Cable System Structure
    Satellite Vs. Cable
    Television-Industry Business Model
    Outlook for the Television Industry
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 6: Interactive Media: The Internet, Video Games, and Augmented Reality
    Interactivity Defined
    Interactive Media Vs. Mass Media
    Historical Development of User Interfaces
    Television Interfaces
    Intuitive Interfaces
    Computer Mouse
    Touch Screens
    Natural Input Methods

    Graphical User Interfaces
    Historical Development of the Internet and the World Wide Web
    Internet Protocol
    World Wide Web
    Graphical Web Browsers
    Distribution Dynamics
    Video Games
    Historical Development of Video Games
    Types of Video Games
    Video-Game Industry
    Trends in Video Games
    Augmented Reality
    Ethics of Interactive Media
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Part 3: Media Perspectives

    Chapter 7: The Impact of Social Media
    Defining Social Media
    Dialogic Commmunication
    Social Production
    What Is "Social" about Social Media?
    Types of Social Media
    Discussion Boards and Web Forums
    Chat Rooms
    Blogs and Microblogs
    Social-Networking Sites
    Producers and Produsers
    Reputation, Ratings, and Trust
    Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
    Are Social Media Making Us Less Social?
    Are Social Media Making Us Dumber?
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 8: Journalism: From Information to Participation
    What Is News?
    The Historical Development of Journalism

    News Values and the Associated Press
    Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, And Standards
    Joseph Pulitzer
    William Randolph Hearst

    The Rise of Electronic Journalism
    Murrow And News in TV's Golden Age
    Changes in Television News

    Foundations of Journalism
    The Hutchins Commission and a Free and Responsible Press
    Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
    Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
    Framing the News
    Expert Sources
    From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
    Gathering the News
    Producing the News
    Distributing the News
    Types of Journalism
    Alternative Journalism
    Public Journalism
    Citizen Journalism
    Constructive Journalism
    An International Perspective
    Journalism in the Digital World
    Nontraditional Sources
    Online User Habits
    The Business of Journalism
    Diversity in the Newsroom
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 9: Public Relations: Building Relationships with Strategic Communications
    Strategic Communications

    Persuasive Communications
    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    The Role of Media in Persuasion
    Public Relations
    The Historical Development of Public Relations
    Trends in the Development of Public Relations
    PR and Media Relations
    Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
    Finding Sources Online

    PR Firms and the PR Industry
    Changing Trends in PR
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 10: Advertising: The Power of Persuasion

    The Historical Development of Advertising
    Advertising Agencies
    Commercial Television
    The Rise of Branding
    Selling Products, Selling Ideas
    Advertising Channels
    Print Media
    Electronic Media
    Direct Mail

    Advertising in a Digital World
    Email Marketing
    Banner Ads
    Pop-Ups and Video
    Classifieds nd Auction Sites
    Search-Engine Ads
    Mobile Advertising
    In-Game Advertising
    Behavioral Advertising
    Viral Marketing
    Native Advertising

    The Advertising Business
    Advertising Agencies
    Changing Trends in Advertising
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Part 4: Media and Society

    Chapter 11: Media Ethics
    Ethics, Morals, and Laws
    Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning
    Character, or Virtue Ethics
    The Golden Rule
    The Golden Mean
    Virtue Ethics in Action

    The Categorical Imperative
    Discourse Ethics
    Duties-Based Ethics in Action
    Social Justice
    Consequence-Based Ethics in Action

    Relationships, or Dialogical Ethics
    Ethics of Care
    Dialogical Ethics in Action

    Moral Relativism
    Issues in Ethical Decision Making
    Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics
    Media Types Influencing Content
    Ethics in Journalism
    Privacy Rights Versus the Public's Right to Know
    Going Undercover
    Victimizing the Victims
    Mispresentation and Plagiarism
    Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics
    Ethical Issues in Advertising
    Deceptive Advertising
    Conflicts of Interest in Advertising
    Advertising Codes of Ethics
    Ethics in Public Relations
    Conflicts of Interest in PR
    Public Relations Codes of Ethics
    Ethics in Entertainment
    Stereotypes in Entertainment
    Sex and Violence
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 12: Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age
    The Legal Framework
    The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
    National Security
    Clear and Present Danger
    Prior Restraint

    New York Times V. Sullivan (1964)
    Protecting Journalists against
    Shield Laws

    The Censorship of Comics
    The Hays Code
    Indecent Content
    Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor

    Regulating Electronic Media
    Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
    Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
    The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
    The Telecommunications Act and the Internet (1996- Present)
    International Electronic Media Regulation
    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    Universal Service
    The FCC, License Renewal, and Regulatory Power
    Spectrum Auction
    Regulating Commercial and Political Speech
    Commercial Speech
    Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Advertising
    Unclear Regulatory Boundaries

    Political Speech
    Equal-Time Rule
    Fairness Doctrine

    Children's Programming Protections
    The Children's Television Act
    Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip
    Intellectual Property Rights
    Fair Use
    Legal Issues in the Digital World
    Digital Rights Management
    Content Rights and Responsibilities
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 13: Media Theory and Research
    Role of Theory and Research
    Mass Society, Mass Communication
    Media-Effects Research

    Propaganda and the Magic Bullet
    Payne Fund
    Radio's Wider Impact
    Television and Violence
    Limited Effects
    Cultivation Analysis
    Spiral of Silence
    Third-Person Effect

    Criticisms of Media-Effects Research
    Understanding the Audience
    Audiences Creating Meaning
    Uses and Gratifications
    Reception Analysis

    Cultural Studies
    Ideology and the Culture Industry
    Criticisms of Cultural Studies
    Sociohistorical Frameworks
    Information Society
    Political Economy
    Media Ecology
    Agenda Setting
    New Directions in Media Research
    Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
    Quantitative Research
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 14: Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age
    Journalism And Political Coverage

    Politicians Using the News
    Sound Bites and Horse Races
    The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage
    Opinion Polls
    Political Advertising
    Impact of Negative Advertising
    Effectiveness of Negative Advertising
    Politics and Entertainment
    Political Campaigns and Entertainment
    Political Debates
    Social Media and Political Campaigns
    Changes with Social Media
    Changing Rules for Politicians
    Social Media and Civic Engagement
    Databases and Government Transparency
    Smart Mobs
    Political Polarization and Media Habits
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading

    Chapter 15: Global Media in the Digital Age
    Four Theories of International Mass Communication

    Authoritarian Theory
    Libertarian Theory
    Social Responsibility Theory
    Soviet Theory
    The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
    Political and Socioeconomic Issues with Global Media
    Media in Developing Countries
    Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
    The Digital Divide
    Global Media, Local Values
    New Worlds--or Cultural Imperialism?
    Convergence and its Discontents
    Globalization of Media Production
    Global Media Flow
    Protecting Local Voices
    Some Developing Nations
    A Neighbo(U)Ring Nation

    Promoting Global Voices
    Cybersecurity and Media
    Media Careers
    Looking Back and Moving Forward
    Further Reading


Teaching Resources

Ancillary Resource Center (ARC): at www.oup-arc.com is a convenient, instructor-focused single destination for resources to accompany your text. Accessed online through individual user accounts, the ARC provides instructors with access to up-to-date ancillaries at any time while guaranteeing the security of grade-significant resources. In addition, it allows OUP to keep instructors informed when new content becomes available. To be available on the Converging Media Ancillary Resource Center (ARC):

·         The Instructor’s Manual provides discussion topics, lecture outlines, learning objectives, teaching tips, sample activities, and test questions to make class preparation simple

·         The customizable Computerized Test Bank offers hundreds of exam questions in multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay formats

·         PowerPoint lecture slides incorporate images from the text along with key concepts, terms, and examples.

·         Course Cartridges combine all of the instructor and student resources—including test banks, lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, and the Instructor’s Manual—for use in a variety of Learning Management Systems

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