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Cover

Consumer Behavior and Insights

First Edition

Diane Phillips, Maria Piacentini, and Isabelle Szmigin

Publication Date - July 2021

ISBN: 9780190857165

592 pages
Looseleaf

Retail Price to Students: $112.99

A holistic, research-based approach to how people consume in the US and abroad.

Description

Consumer Behavior presents a new approach to teaching consumer behaviour; Szmigin, Piacentini and Phillips move beyond traditional psychological learning to acknowledge more holistic perspectives of consumer behaviour and incorporate new areas of research, such as Consumer Culture Theory. The latest behavioral, psychological and sociological approaches are presented alongside emerging techniques, such as neuromarketing, with their application to marketing explicitly drawn out.
Theory is set in context for students through extensive use of US and international examples and extended cases.

New to this Edition

  • The addition of a chapter on social responsibility and ethics that also covers consumer activism and environmental awareness
  • Replacement of UK examples with a variety of American examples but maintain some of the better known international examples
  • Use American practitioners for all "Practitioner Insight" boxes
  • New coverage of these topics: affect, emotion, family decision-making process, irrational consumer behavior, choice architecture, nudging and defaults, celebrity endorsers, social media and eloyalty

Features

  • It includes coverage of topics including the history of consumer behavior, CCT and behavioral economics not found in other texts.
  • Unlike many other CB textbooks, this text brings real-examples from other countries which will appeal particularly to international students.
  • It does a better job highlighting important research than does other texts. Not only does this book provide more research references but the feature "Research Insights" looks more closely at key current research in the field.
  • Each chapter includes a Practitioner Insight from a professional working in marketing, advertising, government or a charity to provide real world views on the topics being discussed and the possible future direction of these areas.
  • Each chapter includes Consumer Insights covering topics such as social media marketing, repositioning, and finding the right celebrity endorser. These features bring together the themes discussed and encourage students to engage with the material on a more practical level.

About the Author(s)

Isabelle Szmigin is Professor of Marketing at the University of Birmingham. She has taught Consumer Behaviour at undergraduate and postgraduate level at universities in Britain and Asia, and has published her work in leading journals such as European Journal of Marketing, Psychology and Marketing, Sociology and Consumption, Markets and Culture.

Maria Piacentini is Professor of Consumer Research at Lancaster University, UK. She has taught Consumer Behaviour at undergraduate and postgraduate level at universities in Britain and in Europe, and has published her work in leading journals such as the Journal of Business Research, Journal of Marketing Management, Advances in Consumer Research, Sociology of Health and Illness, and the Journal of Consumer Behaviour.

Diane Phillips is a Professor in the Marketing Department at Saint Joseph's University since 2003. She has Ph.D. in Marketing from Pennsylvania State University and an M.S. in Marketing from Texas A&M. She serves on the editorial board of several journals and associations including Psychology & Marketing and the Association for Consumer Research.

Table of Contents

    Preface xiii
    Guided tour of the book xx
    Guided tour of the Ancillary Resource Center xxii
    Acknowledgements xxiv
    Part 1 Historical and current perspectives on consumption
    Chapter 1 A HISTORICAL CONTEXT FOR UNDERSTANDING CONSUMPTION
    BEFORE WE GET STARTED
    An early history of consumers and consumption
    Economists, philosophers, and consumption
    Consumption becomes part of everyday life
    Conspicuous consumption
    Key trends in the development of shopping
    New ways to shop
    From service to self-service
    RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
    Behavioral Research - a focus on what consumers do
    Cognitive Research - a focus on how consumers process information
    Motivational Research - a focus on a consumer's desires and feelings
    The rise of motivational research
    Critiques of motivational research
    FROM CONSUMERS TO CONSUMERISM: THE POLITICS OF CONSUMPTION CLASSIFYING CONSUMERS
    THE POSTMODERN CONSUMER
    Post postmodernism
    PERSPECTIVES ON STUDYING CONSUMERS
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Consumer Insight 1.1 How innovation changed the way we eat
    Consumer Insight 1.2 Status and consuming
    Consumer Insight 1.3 Consumers can buy some surprising things from vending machines
    Research Insight 1.1 When the going gets tough, the tough go shopping
    Research Insight 1.2 Why we want busy people around us
    Executive Insight 1 Getting deep insights takes some creativity
    Research Insight 1.3 So, this is your idea of fun?
    Consumer Insight 1.4 Sri Lanka's mod-tradi consumer
    Case Study 1 Consumers push for microbead ban
    Chapter 2 CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    THE CONTRIBUTION FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
    Value and exchange
    Automatic and reflective modes
    Mental accounting
    Incentives and loss aversion
    Norms
    Defaults
    Priming
    EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING
    CONSUMER CULTURE THEORY
    Companies using experiential, ethnographic, and CCT approaches
    INNOVATION AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    Technology in a sociocultural context
    Types of technological innovations
    Adoption of new technology
    Factors influencing technological impact on consumption
    SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 2.1 Pay your taxes on time. Your neighbor did!
    Consumer Insight 2.1 Nudging for better health?
    Consumer Insight 2.2 How easily are we influenced?
    Research Insight 2.2 So cute I could eat it up!
    Executive Insight 2 What is the authentic Fiji experience? It depends on who you ask.
    Research Insight 2.3 How many "likes" can I get for losing 5 pounds?
    Research Insight 2.4 Tailgating at the big game
    Consumer Insight 2.3 The empowered customer
    Consumer Insight 2.4 Wind farms: good or bad?
    Consumer Insight 2.5 LEGO and social networking
    Case Study 2 Virtual reality brings consumption closer

    Chapter 3 CONSUMER RESEARCH
    THE CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS
    Why conduct consumer research?
    Overview of the 5-step consumer research process
    Identify the problem
    Select the perspective
    Collect the data
    Analyze the data
    Develop consumer insights
    Create a feedback loop
    CONSUMER RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
    Behavioral research
    Cognitive research
    Motivational research
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Consumer Insight 3.1 Hotdogs, popcorn, or grasshoppers?
    Research Insight 3.1 Marketers learn more from brains than from people
    Consumer Insight 3.2 "We're dog people. Crazy dog people."
    Research Insight 3.2 "Obviously, all the cool kids have iPhones"
    Research Insight 3.3 Careful, your apps may be watching you!
    Executive Insight 3 Sometimes a research projects needs to be tackled with multiple methods
    Consumer Insight 3.3 Captain Kirk to Trekkies: Get a life!
    Case Study 3 Google Glass

    Part 2 Micro-view OF CONSUMPTION
    Chapter 4 PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES
    THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
    Exposure
    Sensation and the perceptual process
    Sight
    Sound
    Smell
    Touch
    Taste
    Sensory thresholds
    Adaptation
    Attention
    Getting the consumer's attention
    The use of shock to gain attention
    Interpretation
    Principle of closure
    Principle of similarity
    Principle of proximity
    Principle of figure and ground
    MARKETING AND PERCEPTION
    Perceived risk
    Perceptual/positioning maps
    Repositioning
    Price perception
    Semiotics
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 4.1 Want to look taller? Wear a bright color!
    Research Insight 4.2 It's just too pretty!
    Consumer Insight 4.1 Spotting your favorite coffee shop
    Consumer Insight 4.2 Are you an NFT (need for touch) consumer?
    Executive Insight 4 Guess who is coming to dinner?
    Research Insight 4.3 If you could feel or taste the color red, you might just purchase more red stuff!
    Consumer Insight 4.3 Gaining and retaining attention through social media
    Research Insight 4.4 Don't go shopping after a scary movie!
    Consumer Insight 4.4 Repositioning Lucozade
    Research Insight 4.5 Would you ever sell your grandma's wedding ring?

    Case Study 4 Real or fake: how consumers perceive brand symbolism for luxury brands

    Chapter 5 LEARNING AND MEMORY
    LEARNING
    BEHAVIORAL LEARNING
    Classical conditioning
    First-order conditioning
    Higher-order conditioning
    Stimulus generalization
    Stimulus discrimination
    Operant conditioning
    Reinforcement schedules
    Learning history
    COGNITIVE LEARNING
    Observational learning
    Incidental learning
    Information processing
    MEMORY
    Memory systems
    Sensory memory
    Short-term memory
    Long-term memory
    Types of long-term memory
    RETRIEVAL OF MEMORY
    Explicit and implicit memory
    Aiding memory
    Repetition and spacing
    Duration and position
    Pictorial and verbal cues
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 5.1 Too much information - I quit!
    Consumer Insight 5.1 Celebrity endorsers and classical conditioning
    Consumer Insight 5.2 Passing off: Penguin versus Puffin
    Research Insight 5.2 To return or not to return?
    Research Insight 5.3 That restaurant always has long linesEL it must be good!
    Research Insight 5.4 For green consumption, what type of learning matters!
    Executive Insight 5 What consumers say they're thinking is often quite different from what they're really thinking
    Consumer Insight 5.3 Bilingualism and the brain
    Research Insight 5.5 Your great memory means you are more likely to be bored
    Consumer Insight 5.4 'Dumb Ways to Die'-learning through songs
    Case Study 5 Learning Brazilian

    Chapter 6 PERSONALITY, SELF, AND MOTIVATION
    DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONALITY AND SELF
    Psychological perspectives on personality
    Psychoanalytic theories
    The trait-based view of personality
    Brand personality and traits
    A social perspective on personality
    Symbolic interactionism
    Multiplicity of self
    Personality and self in marketing practice
    Symbolic consumption
    Linking identity and values
    Psychographics
    MOTIVATION
    Needs and wants
    Motivational conflict
    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Motivation research
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Executive Insight 6 Don't even think about portraying older Americans as "old"
    Research Insight 6.1 Brand-aid
    Research Insight 6.2 Better go now before it's too late
    Consumer Insight 6.1 Virtual displays of self
    Consumer Insight 6.2 Why don't more men study abroad?
    Consumer Insight 6.3 It has never been about the clothing
    Research Insight 6.3 Going to the movies alone?
    Research Insight 6.4 Do you have enough self-control to eat kale?
    Research Insight 6.5 Bring your bag or pay a tax!
    Consumer Insight 6.4 The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    Case Study 6 What makes the Indian consumer tick?

    Chapter 7 ATTITUDE THEORY AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE
    WHAT IS AN ATTITUDE?
    MAIN COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
    The tri-component attitude model
    Hierarchy of effects
    THE PURPOSE AND ROLE OF ATTITUDES
    Balance Theory of Attitudes
    The Functional Theory of Attitudes
    THE THREE MAIN THEORIES OF ATTITUDES
    The Expectancy-Value Model
    The Theory of Reasoned Action
    The Theory of Planned Behavior
    Compensatory and non-compensatory models
    Critique of multi-attribute models of attitudes
    ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE
    Changing the basic motivational function
    Altering components of the multi-attribute model
    ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Consumer Insight 7.1 Attitudes to credit and debt
    Research Insight 7.1 Trust your gut
    Consumer Insight 7.2 Parents to coaches: No way!
    Research Insight 7.2 Want to help? Send stuff, not money.
    Consumer Insight 7.3 Attitudes towards tents from a Functional Theory perspective
    Executive Insight 7 Do we live in a melting pot or a salad bowl?
    Research Insight 7.3 Events are more enjoyable when you wait to post about them
    Consumer Insight 7.4 Attitudes towards road safety
    Case Study 7 So, you're buying a house

    Chapter 8 DECISION-MAKING AND INVOLVEMENT
    CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING
    Problem recognition
    Information search
    Evaluation of alternatives
    Choice
    Postpurchase behavior
    Satisfaction and attribution assessments
    Disposal of goods
    Other postpurchase behaviors
    INVOLVEMENT AND CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING
    Learning
    The choice context
    Other forms of involvement
    How to increase involvement
    SHOPPING BEHAVIOR
    Shopping motivations
    Personal motives for shopping
    Social motives for shopping
    Blended shopping
    Impulse purchasing
    WHEN CHOOSING IS A PROBLEM
    Satisficing and maximizing
    Heuristics
    Anchoring and framing
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 8.1 Do you think you're easily persuaded by advertising?
    Consumer Insight 8.1 Consumer Decision Journeys
    Consumer Insight 8.2 Unhappy with your purchase?
    Research Insight 8.2 Really? I don't remember that!
    Research Insight 8.3 Tell me a story!
    Consumer Insight 8.4 How to achieve enduring involvement through emotion
    Executive Insight 8 There is no such thing as a casual hockey fan
    Case Study 8 High involvement soap? Really?
    Part 3 Macro-view OF CONSUMPTION
    Chapter 9 PATTERNS OF BUYER BEHAVIOR
    TRACKING BUYER BEHAVIOR
    Repeat buying over time
    Purchase frequency
    The nature of the market
    Explaining why consumers buy
    The Pareto Principle
    The Law of Buyer Moderation
    The Duplication of Purchases Principle
    INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    Segmenting customers
    Differentiating the brand
    Making the brand distinctive
    Encouraging greater engagement with the brand
    Fostering relationships with the brand
    Brand affinity
    Brand love
    Brand addiction
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 9.1 When should apps be free?
    Research Insight 9.2 Organic consumers, please step forward!
    Research Insight 9.3 Copy-cat brands damage national brands
    Consumer Insight 9.1 Using consumer panels to explain green consumption
    Consumer Insight 9.2 Do consumers buy more soup in the winter?
    Consumer Insight 9.3 CEOs behaving badly: Does it change consumer attitudes & behaviors?
    Executive Insight 9 Marketing for the Denver Broncos: Easiest job in the NFL?
    Consumer Insight 9.4 This is not your mother's retail store
    Consumer Insight 9.5 When higher prices lead to higher sales
    Case Study 9 Shopping in China is different than you think

    Chapter 10 GROUPS, SOCIAL PROCESSES, AND COMMUNICATIONS
    REFERENCE GROUPS
    Types of reference groups
    Reference group influence
    Mechanisms of reference group influence
    Public vs. private consumption
    Development of conformity
    SOCIAL POWER & REFERENCE GROUPS
    OPINION LEADERS AND OPINION SEEKERS
    Opinion leaders and information flow
    Expert influentials
    The search for cool
    SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS: THE IMPORTANCE OF WORD OF MOUTH
    The power of eWOM
    Crowdsourcing and user-generated content
    The role of social media
    THE FAMILY
    Family structure and roles
    Children and advertising
    Sociocultural trends and the impact on family consumption
    A more multicultural America
    More single parent households
    Older first-time parents
    Lower birth rates
    SOCIAL CLASS & CONSUMPTION
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 10.1 Are you a Coke or a Pepsi person?
    Research Insight 10.2 Does your product have a face?
    Consumer Insight 10.1 Social media tribes
    Consumer Insight 10.2 Endogenous and exogenous WOM in action
    Consumer Insight 10.3 You never actually own a Patek Philippe
    Research Insight 10.3 Should we order pizza or Thai tonight?
    Executive Insight 10 It's not the destination, it's the journey
    Case Study 10 Tobacco is the only product that, if used correctly, will kill you

    Chapter 11 CULTURE
    WHAT IS CULTURE?
    Culture is learned
    The basic principles of cultures
    MAKING SENSE OF CULTURE: THE ROLE OF MYTHS & RITUALS
    Myths are stories that convey meaning
    Rituals are behaviors that reinforce and move meaning
    Elements of the ritual
    The cultural production system
    The cultural system
    CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURES
    Individualism & collectivism
    Multidimensional view of cultural values
    Critiques of Hofstede
    CULTURE & CONSUMPTION
    Sacred and profane consumption
    Sacralization and desacralization
    SUBCULTURES
    Subcultures based on demographic characteristics
    Age-based subcultures
    Ethnic and racial subcultures
    Subcultures based on gender & gender identity
    Subcultures based on consumption communities
    Subcultures of consumption
    Brand communities
    Consumer tribes
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 11.1 Consumers caught in the middle
    Consumer Insight 11.1 Archetypes & myths at the gym
    Research Insight 11.2 Is graffiti really just a rite of passage?
    Research Insight 11.3 The branding of the queen
    Consumer Insight 11.2 Cultural innovations are opportunities for marketers
    Consumer Insight 11.3 Thought about growing a beard?
    Consumer Insight 11.4 Lost in translation
    Executive Insight 11 Any road will get you there if you're not sure where you're going
    Consumer Insight 11.5 'I Will What I Want'
    Case Study 11 Using tribal marketing to celebrate Oreo's 100th birthday
    Part 4 Where are we going?
    Chapter 12 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
    ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS
    Utilitarianism
    The Common Good
    The Tragedy of the Commons
    Marketing and the Common Good
    THE CONSUMER CONNECTION
    Trends that raise ethical questions or dilemmas
    Materialism
    Compulsive buying
    Theft
    Obesity
    Gambling disorder
    Excessive alcohol consumption
    Trends that are a reaction to ethical questions or dilemmas
    Mindful consumption
    Sustainable consumption
    Voluntary simplicity
    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
    Using vs. not using CSR to guide corporate behavior
    Do customers really care?
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Research Insight 12.1 Why do some consumers find an experience exciting and fun, while others find it ethically wrong?
    Consumer Insight 12.1 Ubuntu
    Research Insight 12.2 Brands that lie, cheat, and stealEL and the consumers who punish them for it
    Research Insight 12.3 Mom, if you love me, you'll buy this for me!
    Consumer Insight 12.2 The Free Hugs Project
    Consumer Insight 12.3 Do you recycle in the shower?
    Research Insight 12.4 Blue is greener than green
    Consumer Insight 12.4 Picture a warmer future
    Executive Insight 12 Vanilla gets no respect
    Case Study 12 Eliminating the idea of waste

    Chapter 13 FUTURE TRENDS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
    TRENDS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Use of new technologies
    Continuous data collection
    Expansion of research focus
    CONSUMER TRENDS
    The empowered consumer
    The sharing economy
    The frugal consumer
    Concerns about privacy
    Sustainable consumption
    Authentic consumption experiences
    TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS
    SUMMARY
    KEY INSIGHTS:
    Consumer Insight 13.1 So, you're thinking about a Pepsi? Yeah, we already knew that.
    Executive Insight 13 Baking 'optimization' into a customer's search experience
    Consumer Insight 13.1 Netflix knows when a movie is too scary for you to finish
    Consumer Insight 13.2 Living a life of borrowed luxury
    Research Insight 13.2 That's so me!
    Consumer Insight 13.3 Thinking outside the bottle
    Research Insight 13.3 New England BBQ? No thanks!
    Consumer Insight 13.4 Rembrandt and social media
    Research Insight 13.4 It was almost like I was there!
    Case Study 13 Your DNA can help catch a criminal

    Glossary

    Index

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