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Cover

Comparative Politics

Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases

Fourth Edition

J. Tyler Dickovick, Author Jonathan Eastwood, Robin M. LeBlanc, and Zoila Ponce de Leon

Publication Date - October 2022

ISBN: 9780197633304

760 pages
Paperback
7 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches

Retail Price to Students: $114.95

An integrative approach to relationships between big themes and country case studies.

Description

An engaging and accessible introduction to the subject, Comparative Politics: Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases gives students the methodological tools they need to answer the "big questions" in the field. The authors introduce methods early in the text and integrate them throughout, in Thinking Comparatively features, to help students develop a systematic way of thinking about comparative politics. Offering a hybrid format, the text's unique structure offers the best of thematic and country-by-country approaches. Sixteen succinct thematic chapters--organized around the "big questions" in the field--are followed by a separate section at the end of the book offering full-length profiles and case studies for twelve countries. Examples of some of the "big picture questions discussed in the thematic chapters are, "Why do countries have different institutions and forms of government? Why do some social revolutions succeed and endure while others fail? Why are some societies subjected to terrorism and not others?" Each chapter integrates several standalone country case studies in Case in Context features; these features tie into the narrative, pose questions, and point students to the full case discussions in the country profiles section of the book.

New to this Edition

  • Country profiles and case studies have been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect recent developments
  • New country profiles of South Africa and Indonesia
  • Added additional discussion of race and racial inequality at key points in the text, along with updates to the existing chapter on race, ethnicity, and gender in politics.
  • Coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic

Features

  • A unique structure offers the best of thematic and country-by-country approaches. Sixteen succinct thematic chapters--organized around the "big questions" in the field--are followed by a separate section at the end of the book offering full-length profiles and case studies for fourteen countries.
  • Each chapter integrates several standalone country case studies in "Case in Context" boxes; these features tie into the narrative, pose questions, and point students to the full case discussions in the country profiles
  • "Thinking Comparatively" sections at the end of each chapter introduce new methodological tools and help students apply the theories and concepts covered in each chapter
  • "Thinking It Through" questions help students test their ability to apply comparative politics theories to cases
  • "Research Prompts" in every case study section help students develop comparative projects and papers

About the Author(s)

J. Tyler Dickovick was the Grigsby Term Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University.

Jonathan Eastwood is a Professor of Sociology at Washington and Lee University.

Robin LeBlanc is a Professor of Politics at Washington and Lee University and teaches classes on global politics, gender and politics, political philosophy, urban community, and protest.

Zoila Ponce de Leon is an Assistant Professor of Politics and a core faculty member of the Latin American and Caribean Studies Program at Washington and Lee University.

Reviews

"Comparative Politics is the best text on the market. It encourages critical thinking, promotes a hands-on comparativist experience, and thoroughly engages students with the major themes, debates, and discussions in comparative politics." --Anastasia Kuz-Grady, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

"The mix of theory, methodology, and case studies introduces comparative analysis in an accessible way. My students appreciate the text's readability." --Cheryl Van Den Handel, Northeastern State University

Table of Contents

    Brief Contents
    PART I: Comparative Political Analysis
    1 The Comparative Approach: An Introduction
    2 Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence
    PART II: The State, Development, -Democracy, and Authoritarianism
    3 The State
    4 Political Economy
    5 Development
    6 Democracy and Democratization
    7 Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Breakdown
    PART III: Institutions of Government
    8 Constitutions and Constitutional Design
    9 Legislatures and Legislative Elections
    10 Executives
    11 Political Parties, Party Systems, and Interest Groups
    PART IV: Politics, Society, and Culture
    12 Revolutions and Contention
    13 Nationalism and National Identity
    14 Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
    15 Ideology and Religion in Modern Politics
    PART V: The Comparative-International Nexus
    16 Comparative Politics and International Relations
    PART VI: Country Profiles and Cases
    Brazil
    China
    France
    Germany
    India
    Indonesia
    Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)
    Japan
    Mexico
    Nigeria
    Russia (Russian Federation)
    South Africa
    United Kingdom
    United States
    Contents
    Insights xv
    Preface xvii
    Maps of the World xxx
    PART I: Comparative Political Analysis
    Chapter 1
    The Comparative Approach: An -Introduction
    Asking Why: Research Questions in Comparative Politics
    Major Questions in Comparative Politics
    Empirical Arguments Versus Normative Arguments
    Solving Intellectual Puzzles: A Contemporary Analogy
    Concepts
    Features of Good Concepts
    Conceptualization
    Operationalizing: From Concepts to Measures
    Empirical Evidence
    Facts and Evidence
    Cases and Case Studies
    The Comparative Method
    Variables and Comparison
    Most-Similar-Systems Design
    Most-Different-Systems Design
    Comparative Checking
    Within-Case Comparison
    Is the Study of Politics a Science? The Limits of the -Comparative Method
    Chapter 2
    Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence
    Introduction to Theories, Hypotheses, and Evidence
    Theories
    Hypotheses
    How Theories Emerge and Are Used
    Types of Evidence
    Hypothesis Testing
    Correlation
    Causation
    Critiques: Using Theories and Evidence
    Empirical Critiques: Using Deviant Cases
    Theoretical Critiques: Improving Theories and Hypotheses
    The Challenges of Measurement: Biases, Errors, and Validity
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Qualities of Good Analysis and Argumentation
    Step 1: Asking Good Questions: Why?
    Step 2: Hypothesis Testing: Generating Good Hypotheses and Testing Them Fairly
    Step 3: Balancing Argumentation: Evidence, Originality, and Meaningfulness
    PART II: The State, Development, -Democracy, and Authoritarianism
    Chapter 3
    The State
    Concepts
    The Modern State
    State Capacity
    Fragile States
    The State-Society Relationship
    Types
    Characteristics of Modern States
    Bureaucracy
    Impersonality
    Sovereignty
    Traditional Functions of States
    Defense
    Policing
    Taxation
    Order, Administration, and Legibility
    Causes and Effects: Why Did States Emerge and -Expand?
    Political or Conflict Theories
    Economic Theories
    Cultural Theories
    Diffusion Theories
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Great Britain, the United -Kingdom, or Neither? State and Nation in England and Scotland
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Mexico
    France
    United Kingdom
    Nigeria
    Chapter 4
    Political Economy
    Concepts
    Inequality
    Employment and Inflation
    Types
    Markets and States in Modern Economies
    Markets and Economic Performance
    States and Economic Performance
    Economic Functions of Modern States
    States and Economic Management
    Investments in Human Capital: Education and Health
    Infrastructure and Other Public Goods
    Welfare State Functions
    Causes and Effects: Why Do Welfare States Emerge?
    Cultural Changes
    Industrial Capitalism
    Mobilization and Political Action
    International Learning Effects
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Welfare States in the Nordic Countries: What Can We Learn and How?
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    United States
    United Kingdom
    Japan
    Germany
    Chapter 5
    Development
    Concepts
    Types
    Poverty
    Social Outcomes and Human Development
    Migration and Development
    Gender Relations and Racial and Ethnic Identities
    Satisfaction and Happiness
    Cultural Development
    Sustainability
    Causes and Effects: Why Does Development Happen?
    Institutions: The Market-State Debate, Revisited
    Institutions: Beyond the Market-State Debate
    Culture and Development
    Civil Society, Social Capital, and Trust
    Religion
    Value Systems
    Systems and Structures: Domestic and International
    Domestic Economic Structures and Class Interests
    International Economic Structures and Class Interests
    Geography
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Explaining the Development of North and South Korea
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    India
    Nigeria
    China
    Brazil
    Chapter 6
    Democracy and Democratization
    Concepts
    Democracy and Democratic Regimes
    Procedural (Minimal) Definitions of Democracy
    Substantive Definitions of Democracy
    Regime Change and Democratization
    Types
    Types of Democracy
    Representative Democracy
    Direct Democracy
    Types of Democratization
    Democratic Transitions
    Democratic Consolidation
    Causes and Effects: What Causes Democratization?
    Modernization
    Culture and Democracy
    The International System
    Domestic Institutions
    Agents and Actors: The Role of Individuals and Groups
    Combining Arguments and Theories: Multiple Causes
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Is American Democracy a Model?
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Brazil
    China
    India
    United States
    Chapter 7
    Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Breakdown
    Concepts
    Authoritarianism and Authoritarian Regimes
    Transitions to Authoritarian Regimes
    Types
    Types of Authoritarianism
    Totalitarian Regimes
    Theocracies
    Personalistic Dictatorships
    Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes
    Hybrid and Semi-authoritarian Regimes
    Types of Transition (or Nontransition) to Authoritarianism
    Authoritarian Persistence
    Democratic Breakdown
    Transition to Hybrid or Semi-authoritarian Regime
    Causes and Effects: What Causes Authoritarian Regimes to Emerge and Persist?
    Historical Institutionalist Theories
    Poverty and Inequality
    State Weakness and Failure
    Political Culture Theories of Authoritarian Persistence
    Barriers to Collective Action
    Special Causal Circumstances Surrounding Hybrid and -Semi-authoritarian Regimes
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Why Did Zimbabwe Become and Remain Authoritarian?
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Iran
    Russia
    Mexico
    Germany
    France
    PART III: Institutions of Government
    Chapter 8
    Constitutions and Constitutional -Design
    Concepts
    Constitutions
    Constitutional Design
    Types
    Flexible and Rigid Constitutions
    Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and Parliamentary -Sovereignty
    Federalism and Unitarism
    Federalism
    Unitarism
    Authoritarian and Democratic Constitutions
    Causes and Effects: What Are the Effects of Federal and Unitary Constitutions?
    What Constitutional Designs Support Social Stability?
    What Constitutional Designs Support Democratic Rights?
    What Constitutional Designs Support the Economy?
    Judicial Review and Democracy
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY What Explains the -Similarities Between the Brazilian and South African -Constitutions?
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    United Kingdom
    Iran
    Nigeria
    India
    United States
    Chapter 9
    Legislatures and Legislative Elections
    Concepts
    What Legislatures Are
    What Legislatures Do
    Types
    Unicameral and Bicameral Legislatures
    Electoral Systems
    District Systems
    Proportional Representation (PR)
    Mixed or Hybrid
    Executive-Legislative Relations
    Causes and Effects: What Explains Patterns of -Representation?
    Patterns of Representation
    Electoral Systems and Representation
    Legislative Decision Making and Representation
    Executive-Legislative Relations and Representation
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Representation in New Zealand and Beyond
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    United Kingdom
    Brazil
    Japan
    Germany
    United States
    Chapter 10
    Executives
    Concepts
    Types
    Executive Structures: Presidential and Parliamentary
    Formal Powers
    Partisan Powers
    Coalitions
    Informal Powers
    Causes and Effects: What Explains Executive -Stability?
    Stable and Unstable Regimes: Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy
    Stable and Unstable Executives: Styles of Presidential Rule
    Stable and Unstable Executives: Patterns of Parliamentary Rule
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Beyond the American and British Models
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    France
    United States
    Russia
    China
    Nigeria
    Chapter 11
    Political Parties, Party Systems, and Interest Groups
    Concepts
    Political Parties
    Party Systems
    Interest Groups
    Types
    Political Parties: Elite, Mass, and Catch-All Parties
    Party Systems: Dominant-Party, Two-Party, and Multiparty -Systems
    Interest Groups: Pluralism and Corporatism
    Causes and Effects: Why Do Party Systems Emerge, and What Effects Do They Have?
    Party Systems and Representation
    What Factors Shape Party Systems?
    How Do Party Systems Shape Political Outcomes?
    Interest Groups and Representation
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Party Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    China
    Japan
    Germany
    Russia
    Mexico
    PART IV: Politics, Society, and Culture
    Chapter 12
    Revolutions and Contention
    Concepts
    What Is "Contention?
    Revolutionary and Non-Revolutionary Contention 2
    Types
    Social Movements
    Revolutions
    Insurgencies and Civil Wars
    Terrorism
    "Everyday Resistance"
    Thinking About Contention: Summary
    Causes and Effects: Why Do Revolutions Happen?
    Relative Deprivation
    Resource Mobilization and Political Opportunities
    Rational Choice
    Culture or "Framing" Explanations
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY The "Arab Spring " of 2011 and Its Legacy
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Brazil
    France
    Russia
    China
    Iran
    Chapter 13
    Nationalism and National Identity
    Concepts
    Identity
    Nationalism, National Identity, and the Nation
    Types
    Types of Nationalism
    Civic and Ethnic Nationalism
    Jus Sanguinis and Jus Soli
    Limits of Typologies in the Study of National Identity
    Causes and Effects: What Causes Ethno-National -Conflict?
    Primordial Bonds
    Cultural Boundaries
    Material Interests
    Rational Calculation
    Social Psychology
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Ending Ethnic and National -Violence
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    United Kingdom
    Mexico
    Japan
    Germany
    Nigeria
    Chapter 14
    Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
    Concepts
    Race and Ethnicity
    Gender
    Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
    Types
    Disentangling Race and Ethnicity
    Discrimination Based on Race and Ethnicity
    Gender Discrimination
    Empowerment of Women and Minority Groups
    Causes and Effects: What Factors Influence the Political Representation of Women and Minority Groups?
    Social Movement Mobilization
    Political Parties Based on Gender or Ethnicity
    Institutions for Promoting Women's and Minority Group -Representation
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Measuring Gender -Empowerment
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Iran
    Japan
    Brazil
    Mexico
    India
    Chapter 15
    Ideology and Religion in Modern -Politics
    Concepts
    Modernity and Modernization 3
    Ideology
    Religion
    Secularization, Religion, and Modern Politics
    Religious Conflict
    Types
    Modern Ideologies
    Liberalism
    Fascism
    Socialism
    Modern Forms of Religion in Politics
    Lay and Religious States
    Denominationalism
    Causes and Effects: Why Does Ideology Remain Prevalent in Modern Politics?
    Why Didn't Ideology (and History) End?
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY Is Twenty-First-Century Populism an Ideology?
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    Nigeria
    United Kingdom
    Russia
    France
    Iran
    PART V: The Comparative-International Nexus
    Chapter 16
    Comparative Politics and International -Relations
    Concepts
    Issues
    Globalization and Trade
    International Institutions and Integration
    Immigration
    Environment and Sustainability
    Transnational Networks
    Nuclear Threats and Terrorism
    Causes and Effects: What Are the Main Causes in -International Relations?
    Realism
    Liberalism
    Constructivism
    Marxism
    THINKING COMPARATIVELY The EU and Levels of -Analysis
    CASES IN CONTEXT
    United States
    France
    Japan
    Iran
    India
    PART VI: Country Profiles and Cases
    Brazil
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Does the Global Economy Help or Hurt Developing Nations like Brazil? (Chapter 5)
    Democratic Consolidation in Brazil (Chapter 6)
    Electoral Rules and Party (In)Discipline in Brazil's Legislature (Chapter 9)
    Brazil's Landless Movement (Chapter 12)
    Gender and Political Representation in Brazil: Where Has Progress Come From? (Chapter 14)
    China
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    How Did China Become an Economic Power? (Chapter 5)
    Is China Destined for Democracy? (Chapter 6)
    Who Governs China? (Chapter 10)
    The Chinese Party System (Chapter 11)
    The Chinese Revolution (Chapter 12)
    France
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    The State in France (Chapter 3)
    Authoritarian Persistence in Nineteenth-Century France (Chapter 7)
    Electing the French President: What Do Runoffs Do? (Chapter 10)
    The French Revolution (Chapter 12)
    Religion and Secularism in France (Chapter 15)
    Globalization and Culture in France (Chapter 16
    Germany
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    The German State: Unification and Welfare (Chapter 4)
    Democracy and Authoritarianism in Germany (Chapter 7)
    Institutional Design: Germany's Bundestag and Bundesrat (Chapter 9)
    Consensus-Based Politics in Germany (Chapter 11)
    Ethnic Boundaries of the German Nation? (Chapter 13)
    India
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    What Explains India's Recent Growth? (Chapter 5)
    Democracy's Success in India: What Can We Learn from a "Deviant Case"? (Chapter 6)
    Federalism and Differences in Development in India (Chapter 8)
    Ethnicity and Political Parties in India (Chapter 14)
    India in the Twenty-First Century: Domestic Politics, Identity, and Security (Chapter 16)
    Indonesia
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Democratization in Indonesia
    Populism in Contemporary Indonesia
    Pancasila, Ethnic Pluralism, and Cultural Diversity Alongside Nation-State Consolidation
    Gender in Indonesia
    Islam and Public Life
    Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Democratic Features of Authoritarian Systems? The Case of Iran (Chapter 7)
    Constitutional Design: Theocracy in Iran (Chapter 8)
    Iran's Islamic Revolution and "Green Revolution"? (Chapter 12)
    Gender in Post-Revolutionary Iranian Politics (Chapter 14)
    Religion and Politics in Iran (Chapter 15)
    Iran and the Politics of Nuclear Proliferation (Chapter 16)
    Japan
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    State-Led Development in Japan (Chapter 4)
    The Hybrid Electoral System of the Japanese Diet (Chapter 9)
    How Has Japan's Dominant Party Won for So Long? (Chapter 11)
    Importing National Identity in Japan? (Chapter 13)
    Gender Empowerment in Japan? (Chapter 14)
    Resource Management in Japan (Chapter 16)
    Mexico
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Democratic Quality
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    Migration
    CASE STUDIES
    The Mexican State and Rule of Law (Chapter 3)
    Mexico's “Perfect Dictatorship” and Its End (Chapter 7)
    The PRI and Corporatism in Mexico (Chapter 11)
    Industrialization, Modernity, and National Identity in Mexico (Chapter 13)
    Why Aren't There Major Ethnic Parties in Mexico? (Chapter 14)
    Nigeria
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    What Is a Weak State, and Can It Be Changed? The Case of Nigeria (Chapter 3)
    Why Are Natural Resources Sometimes a Curse? The Nigerian Case (Chapter 5)
    Federalism and the States in Nigeria: Holding Together or Tearing Apart? (Chapter 8)
    The Presidency in Nigeria: Powers and Limitations (Chapter 10)
    The Nigerian Civil War or Biafran War: Nationalism and -Ethno-National Conflict in a Post-colonial Society (Chapter 13)
    Religious Difference and Conflict in Nigeria: Disentangling -Ethnicity and Religion? (Chapter 15)
    Russia (Russian Federation)
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Oligarchy, Democracy, and Authoritarianism in Russia (Chapter 7)
    Executives in Russia: Formal and Informal Powers (Chapter 10)
    Personalism and the Party System in Russia (Chapter 11)
    The Russian Revolution (Chapter 12)
    Communist Ideology in Practice: Russia and the Soviet Union (Chapter 15)
    United Kingdom
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    The State in the United Kingdom (Chapter 3)
    Political Economy of Britain (Chapter 4)
    No Constitution? No Supreme Court? Constitutionality in the United Kingdom (Chapter 8)
    The Mother of Parliaments: The United Kingdom and the -Westminster Model (Chapter 9)
    National Identity in the United Kingdom (Chapter 13)
    Liberal Ideology in the United Kingdom (Chapter 15)
    South Africa
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Democratization and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Race and Gender in South Africa
    One-Party Dominance in South Africa
    Neoliberalism and Inequality in South Africa
    United States
    PROFILE
    Introduction
    Historical Development
    Regime and Political Institutions
    Political Culture
    Political Economy
    CASE STUDIES
    Did Free Markets Help the United States Get Rich? Will They in the Future? (Chapter 4)
    Is American Democracy in Trouble? (Chapter 6)
    Is Judicial Activism in the United States a Problem? (Chapter 8)
    The United States Congress: Dysfunctional or Functioning by Design? (Chapter 9)
    "The Most Powerful Person in the World"? Checks on American Presidents (Chapter 10)
    The United States and the World: A Love-Hate Relationship? (Chapter 16)
    Notes
    Glossary
    References and Further Reading
    Credits
    Index

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