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Community Policing in a Community Era

An Introduction and Exploration

Quint Thurman, Jihong Zhao, and Andrew Giacomazzi

Publication Date - September 2000

ISBN: 9780195329926

322 pages
7 x 10 inches

As it traces the historical development of American policing, this text emphasizes agency leadership, problem-solving, community engagement, coactive policing, organizational change, and strategic planning.


In the most understandable and comprehensive text to date on the subject of community policing, the authors trace the historical development of American policing through the community era of present day. They introduce readers to the concept of community in modern society and explore changes in the function and legitimacy of police organizations. The text offers numerous highlighted commentaries in every chapter from police officers, deputy sheriffs, chiefs, and other practitioners as well as noted police scholars. These real-world examples illustrate themes and issues to students. Community Policing in a Community Era emphasizes agency leadership, problem-solving, community engagement, coactive policing, organizational change, and strategic planning.

Key topics include:

* A history of American policing
* Policing at a time of change
* Why police organizations change
* Community policing in action
* The role of leaders and managers
* Community engagement
* Selecting and training employees for community policing
* Implementing community policing
* Evaluating community policing
* The future of community policing

Table of Contents

    Forward by Anthony V. Bouza
    1. An Introduction to the Idea of Community Policing
    Setting the Stage
    America Is Organized for Crime
    Community Policing: A Sensical Response to Social Problems
    Defining Community Policing According to Four Perspective
    Limitations in Defining Community Policingcing
    Criticisms of Community Policing
    Organization of This Book
    2. A History of American Policing
    The Concept of Policing in America
    The Difficulty of Policing in a Democracy
    The British Origins of Policing
    Modern Policing in England
    Police Corruption During the Political Era
    Reform and Police Professionalism
    The Effects of the Police Professionalization Movement
    Urban Racial Violence
    3. The Communityrom Team Policing to Community Policinging
    The Difficulty of Defining Community
    Social Evolution and the Need for Community
    Communitarianism as a Response to Individualism and the Problem of Careless
    Community Defined From a Communitarian Perspective
    Communitarianism as a Social Movementommunity Setting
    Great Expectations
    4. Policing at a Time of Change
    Setting the Stage for Change
    The Concept of Organizational Change
    Levels of Organizational Change
    Understanding Organizational Change as a Process
    Four Models of Change
    Three Eras of Change in the History of American Policing
    Seven Indicators
    The Political Era
    The Professional Era
    The Community Era
    Characteristics of Organizational Change
    5. Why Police Organizations Change
    The Role of Theory
    The Contingency School
    Typology of Organizations: Organic Versus
    Mechanic Organizations
    Primary Factors Identified in the External Environment
    Contingency Theories and Community Policing: Why Change?
    The Nature of Demand from the External Environment
    Community Policing as a Police Response to the Demands of the External
    Examples of Responses
    6. Community Policing in Action
    Is Community Policing Real?
    Acceptance and Support of Community Policing Philosophy Among Law Enforcement
    Community Policing Buy-In
    Structural and Managerial Change
    Community Policing Outcomes
    Executives' Attitudes Toward Community Policing
    Community Policing Implementation: Actual Programs
    Externally Focused Change
    Internally Focused Change
    The Role of the Federal Government in Promoting Community Policing
    Successful Cases of Community Policing Programs
    7. Organizational Environment and the Implementation of Community Policing Among
    Leaders and Management
    Research on the Organizational Environment of the Police
    The Role of the Chief
    The Role of Middle Management
    Organizational Structure
    Selling the Community Policing Model to the Troops
    Organizational Culture as a Determinant of Change
    8. Selecting and Training Employees to Do Community Policing
    Hiring for Success: What Kind of Officer Do We Really Want Anyway?
    Explaining the Law Enforcement Perspective Among Uniformed Personnel
    Traditional Hiring Practices
    Training for Success
    Field Training
    In-Service Training
    Concluding Remarks
    9. Motivational Strategies and Management Styles for Community Policing
    Viewing Citizens as Customers
    Motivational Theories for Understanding Police Personnel
    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    Herzberg's Motivation and Hygiene Factors
    McClelland's Achievement-Power Theory
    Adam's Equity Theory
    Vroom's Expectancy Theory
    How Employees Are Viewed: McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
    Ouchi's Theory Z
    ng to Increased Organizational Cultureicing: Factors
    The Nature of the Employee's Job
    Participatory Management Styles
    Total Quality Management
    Situational Leadership Theory
    10. Implementation: Doing Community Policing on Purpose
    Ingredients for Successful Community Policing Implementation
    The Strategic Plan
    Barriers to Strategic Planning
    Community Assessment
    Problem Solving
    Community Engagement
    11. Evaluating Community Policing Effectiveness
    Why Evaluation?
    The Nature of Evaluations: Outputs, Outcomes, and Impacts
    Types of Evaluations
    Intuitive Versus Scientific Evaluation
    Passive Versus Active
    Narrow Versus Broad Evaluations
    Summative Versus Formative Evaluations
    Insiders Versus Outsiders
    Redefining Success: The Emergence of Community Policing Outcome Measures
    New Outcome Measures for Community Policing: PERF's Perspectives Revisited
    Common Outcomes in the Community Policing Literature
    Common Methods of Data Collection to Determine Community Policing Effectiveness
    Direct Observation
    Focus Group Interviews
    Survey Research
    Official Records
    Social and Physical Disorder Inventory
    Was the PAR Program a Success?Evaluation: The El Paso Pol
    12. Predicting Long-Term Community Policing Success
    The Success of Community Policing in Four Cities
    Internal Changes Necessary for the Long-Term Success of Community Policing
    The Community Role in Community Policing
    Community Policing Among America's Poor
    Successful Community Efforts to Improve Quality of Life
    External Obstacles
    13. The Future of Community Policing
    Where Are We Now?
    Where Are We Going? The Future of Policing
    Positive Forces to the Institutionalization of Community Policing
    The Negative Forces of Change
    The Uncertain Forces of Institutionalization of Community Policing
    The Future Direction of Community Policing: Somewhere in the Middle of the Two

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