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Brain and Behavior

A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

David Eagleman and Jonathan Downar

Publication Date - 15 December 2015

ISBN: 9780195377682

688 pages
8-1/2 x 11 inches

In Stock

The story of the brain told in a way that matters to our lives


Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective addresses the central aims of cognitive neuroscience, seeking to examine the brain not only by its components but also by their functions. It highlights the principles, discoveries, and remaining mysteries of modern cognitive neuroscience.

Brain and Behavior covers a wide swath of territory critical for understanding the brain, from the basics of the nervous system, to sensory and motor systems, sleep, language, memory, emotions and motivation, social cognition, and brain disorders. Throughout the narrative, the authors emphasize the dynamically changing nature of the brain, through the mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Wherever possible, they refer to elements of neuroscience that are encountered in everyday life. Key points and concepts are illustrated using case studies of rare but illuminating brain disorders. Brain and Behavior pulls together the best current knowledge about the brain while acknowledging current areas of ignorance and pointing students towards the most promising directions for future research.


  • A principles-based approach relying on overarching principles-rather than lists or facts-to help students see the big picture
  • A progressive structure that begins with the basics of the nervous system before moving on to the brain's interaction with the world and then on to more complex interactions
  • An emphasis on case studies, surprising examples from everyday life, and examples in which advances in neuroscience can benefit society
  • A clear, modern art program that provides attractive biological drawings to help convey important concepts and information
  • Learning objectives in each chapter, based on Bloom's taxonomy, provide a guide to what students will read and learn, helping to focus on the most important points
  • 'Starting Out' scenarios begin each chapter with a gripping real-world example of chapter concepts
  • Three special features appear throughout each chapter to highlight key themes and concepts:
  • *"Neuroscience of Everyday Life" explains how neuroscience directly relates to our daily lives, like why people have difficulty multitasking
  • *The Bigger Picture" connects neuroscience to larger concepts and questions- social, legal, historical, and ethical
  • *"Research Methods" shows how we know what we know about the brain, presenting important research techniques and indicating the types of research questions that these techniques have been used to investigate
  • Both authors are active researchers who are using what we know about neuroscience to help people in their everyday lives

About the Author(s)

David Eagleman is a neuroscientist, New York Times best-selling author, and Guggenheim Fellow who holds joint appointments in the Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Dr. Eagleman's areas of research include time perception, vision, synesthesia, and the intersection of neuroscience with the legal system.

Jonathan Downar is the director of the MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic at the University Health Network Hospital in Toronto, Canada, and a scientist at the Toronto Western Research Institute. He currently holds appointments with the Department of Psychiatry and the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Toronto.

Table of Contents

    *Every chapter ends with the following: Conclusion, Key Principles, Key Terms, Review Questions, and Critical-Thinking Questions


    Part I: The Basics

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: A Spark of Awe in the Darkness
    Who Are We?
    The Mission of Cognitive Neuroscience
    Neuroscience Is a Relatively New Field
    In Pursuit of Principles
    The Functions behind the Form
    Which Parts Matter?
    What Is the Brain For?
    How We Know What We Know
    Connectional Methods
    Correlational Methods
    Research Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Lesion Methods
    Stimulation Methods
    A Toolbox of Complementary Methods
    Thinking Critically about the Brain
    Is the Brain Equipped to Understand Itself?
    Biases and Pitfalls in Human Cognition
    A Toolbox of Critical-Thinking Techniques
    The Big Questions in Cognitive Neuroscience
    Why Have a Brain at All? (Chapter 2)
    How Is Information Coded in Neural Activity? (Chapter 3)
    How Does the Brain Balance Stability against Change? (Chapter 4)
    Why Does Vision Have So Little to Do with the Eyes? (Chapter 5)
    How Does the Brain Stitch Together a Picture of the World from Different Senses? (Chapter 6)
    How Does the Brain Control Our Actions? (Chapter 7)
    What Is Consciousness? (Chapter 8)
    How Are Memories Stored and Retrieved? (Chapter 9)
    Why Do Brains Sleep and Dream? (Chapter 10)
    How Does the Human Brain Acquire Its Unique Ability for Language? (Chapter 11)
    How Do We Make Decisions? (Chapter 12)
    What Are Emotions? (Chapter 13)
    How Do We Set Our Priorities? (Chapter 14)
    How Do I Know What You're Thinking? (Chapter 15)
    What Causes Disorders of the Mind and the Brain? (Chapter 16)
    The Payoffs of Cognitive Neuroscience
    Healing the Disordered Brain
    Enhancing Human Abilities
    Blueprints for Artificial Cognition
    Brain-Compatible Social Policies

    Chapter 2: The Brain and Nervous System
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Brains of Creatures Great and Small
    An Overview of the Nervous System
    Why Put Your Neurons in a Brain at All?
    The Common Features of Every Central Nervous System
    Getting Oriented in the Brain
    The Peripheral Nervous System
    Separate Systems for the Inner and Outer Environments
    A Nervous System with Segmental Organization
    The Spinal Cord
    Circuits within a Segment: Spinal Reflexes
    Case Study: Christopher Reeve, 1952-2004
    Complex Circuits across Segments: Central Pattern Generators
    The Bigger Picture: In Search of a Cure for Spinal Cord Injury
    The Brainstem
    Medulla Oblongata and Pons
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Why Do We Get the Hiccups?
    Most Cranial Nerves Emerge from the Brainstem
    The Cerebellum
    Circuitry of the "Little Brain"
    Functions of the Little Brain
    The Diencephalon: Hypothalamus and Thalamus
    Hypothalamus: A Keystone Structure in Homeostasis
    Case Study: Waking the Brain
    The Telencephalon: Cerebral Cortex and Basal Ganglia
    Cerebral Cortex
    Basal Ganglia
    Research Methods: Cytoarchitecture of the Cortex
    Uniting the Inside and Outside Worlds
    The Limbic System
    The Ventricular System and Brain Function
    Key Principles
    Key Terms
    Review Questions
    Critical-Thinking Questions

    Chapter 3: Neurons and Synapses
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Kabuki Actor and the Pufferfish
    The Cells of the Brain
    Neurons: A Close-Up View
    Many Different Types of Neurons
    Glial Cells
    Research Methods: Visualizing Neurons and Their Products
    Synaptic Transmission: Chemical Signaling in the Brain
    Release of Neurotransmitter at the Synapse
    Types of Neurotransmitters
    Postsynaptic Potentials
    The Bigger Picture: Psychoactive Drugs
    Spikes: Electrical Signaling in the Brain
    Adding Up the Signals
    How an Action Potential Travels
    Myelinating Axons to Make the Action Potential Travel Faster
    Action Potentials Reach the Terminals and Cause Neurotransmitter Release
    Case Study: Multiple Sclerosis
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: The Magic of a Local Anesthetic
    What Do Spikes Mean? The Neural Code

    Encoding Stimuli in Spikes
    Decoding Spikes
    Research Methods: Recording Action Potentials with Electrodes
    Individuals and Populations
    Populations of Neurons
    Forming a Coalition: What Constitutes a Group?
    Open Questions for Future Investigation

    Chapter 4: Neuroplasticity
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Child with Half a Brain
    The Brain Dynamically Reorganizes to Match Its Inputs
    Changes to the Body Plan
    Case Study: Phantom Sensation
    Research Methods: Mapping Out the Brain

    Changes to Sensory Input
    The Brain Distributes Resources Based on Relevance
    The Role of Behavior
    The Role of Relevance: Gating Plasticity with Neuromodulation
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Pianists and Violinists Have Different Brains
    Case Study: The Government Worker with the Missing Brain
    The Brain Uses the Available Tissue

    Maps Adjust Themselves to the Available Brain Tissue
    Cortical Reorganization after Brain Damage
    A Sensitive Period for Plastic Changes
    A Window of Time to Make Changes
    Case Study: Danielle, the Feral Child in the Window
    The Sensitive Period in Language
    Neuromodulation in Young Brains
    Hardwiring versus World Experience
    Aspects of the Brain Are Preprogrammed
    Experience Changes the Brain
    Brains Rely on Experience to Unpack Their Programs Correctly
    The Mechanisms of Reorganization
    Neurons Compete for Limited Space
    Competition for Neurotrophins
    Rapid Changes: Unmasking Existing Connections
    Slow Changes: Growth of New Connections
    Changing the Input Channels
    Case Study: The Man Who Climbs with his Tongue
    The Bigger Picture: Adding New Peripherals

    Part II: How the Brain Interacts with the World

    Chapter 5: Vision
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: Vision Is More Than the Eyes
    Visual Perception
    What Is It Like to See?
    Signal Transduction
    Anatomy of the Visual System
    Sensory Transduction: The Eye and Its Retina
    Case Study: The Bionic Retina
    Path to the Visual Cortex: The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    The Visual Cortex
    Two Eyes Are Better Than One: Stereo Vision
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Random-Dot Stereograms
    Higher Visual Areas
    Secondary and Tertiary Visual Cortex: Processing Becomes More Complex
    Ventral Stream: What an Object Is
    The Bigger Picture: Reading the Movies in Our Minds
    Dorsal Stream: How to Interact with the World
    Case Study: The World in Snapshots
    Attention and the Dorsal Stream
    Comparing the Ventral and Dorsal Processing Streams
    The Bigger Picture of the Visual Brain
    Case Study: The Blind Woman Who Could See, Sort Of
    Perception Is Active, Not Passive
    Interrogating the Scene with Our Eyes
    The Blind Spot
    Seeing the Same Object Different Ways: Multistability
    Binocular Rivalry: Different Images in the Two Eyes
    We Don't See Most of What Hits Our Eyes: Fetching Information on a Need-to-Know Basis
    Vision Relies on Expectations
    Change Blindness
    Saving Resources by Embedding Prior Experience
    Unconscious Inference
    Activity from Within
    Feedback Allows an Internal Model

    Chapter 6: Other Senses
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Man with the Bionic Ear
    Detecting Data from the World
    Research Methods: Psychophysics
    The Outer and Middle Ear
    Converting Mechanical Information into Electrical Signals: The Inner Ear
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: The Undetectable Cell Phone
    The Auditory Nerve and Primary Auditory Cortex
    The Hierarchy of Sound Processing
    Sound Localization
    The Somatosensory System
    Case Study: The Pain of a Painless Existence
    The Somatosensory Pathway
    Chemical Senses
    The Sense of Flavor
    The Brain Is Multisensory
    Combining Sensory Information
    The Binding Problem
    The Internal Model of the World
    Case Study: The Paralyzed Supreme Court Justice Who Claimed He Could Play Football
    Time Perception

    Chapter 7: The Motor System
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: "'Locked-In Syndrome"'
    Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function
    The Neuromuscular Junction
    The Spinal Cord
    Lower Motor Neurons
    Spinal Motor Circuits: Reflexes
    Spinal Motor Circuits: Central Pattern Generators
    Descending Pathways of Motor Control
    The Cerebellum
    The Circuitry of the Cerebellum
    Motor Functions of the Cerebellum
    Nonmotor Functions of the Cerebellum
    The Motor Cortex
    Motor Cortex: Neural Coding of Movements
    Motor Cortex: Recent Controversies
    The Bigger Picture: Neural Implants for Motor Control
    The Prefrontal Cortex: Goals to Strategies to Tactics to Actions
    The Functional Organization of the Prefrontal Cortex in Motor Control
    Sensory Feedback
    Mirror Neurons in Premotor Cortex
    Control Stages of the Motor Hierarchy
    Basal Ganglia
    Components of the Basal Ganglia
    Circuitry of the Basal Ganglia
    Diseases of the Basal Ganglia
    Medial and Lateral Motor Systems: Internally and Externally Guided Movement Control
    Organization of Medial Motor Areas
    Functions of Medial and Lateral Motor Systems
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Why Can't I Multitask?
    Did I Really Do That? The Neuroscience of Free Will
    Research Methods: Neurosurgical Stimulation
    Case Study: Alien Hand Syndrome

    Part III: Higher Levels of Interaction

    Chapter 8: Attention and Consciousness
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Stream of Consciousness
    Awareness Requires Attention
    Change Blindness
    Inattentional Blindness
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Stage Magic
    Approaches to Studying Attention and Awareness
    Attentional Orienting Paradigms: Aiming the "Spotlight" of Attention
    The Oddball Paradigm: Monitoring a Physiological Measure of Attention
    Uncoupling Sensory Input from Perception: Sensory Rivalry
    Neural Mechanisms of Attention and Awareness
    Seeking the Correlates of Consciousness
    Hemineglect: A Disorder of Attention and Awareness
    Case Study: Unaware of Half of the World
    Neural Correlates of Attention: A Single Network, or Many?
    Case Study: Whose Arm Is This, Anyway?
    Sites of Attentional Modulation: Neurons and Neural Populations
    The Biased-Competition Model of Attention
    Attention and Single Neurons: Enhancing the Signal
    Attention and Local Groups of Neurons
    Synchronization, Attention, and Awareness
    Coma and Vegetative State: Anatomy of the Conscious State

    Why Should Synchronization Matter?
    Unconsciousness: Coma and Vegetative State
    Case Study: Waking the Brain
    Midbrain and Thalamus: Key Players in the Conscious State
    Anesthesia and Sleep: Rhythms of Consciousness
    Sleep: Unraveling the Rhythm of Consciousness
    Anesthesia: Reversible, Artificial Unconsciousness
    Theories of Consciousness
    Dualism: The Mind-Body Problem
    Functionalist Theories of Consciousness
    Consciousness and the Integration of Information

    Chapter 9: Memory
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: "The Woman Who Cannot Forget"
    The Many Kinds of Memory
    Working and Long-Term Memory
    Implicit Memory
    Explicit Memory
    Travels in Space and Time: The Hippocampus and Temporal Lobe
    Case Study: Gone but Not Forgotten: Henry Molaison, 1926-2008
    A Map of the Medial Temporal Lobe
    Episodic Memory
    Spatial Memory
    Theories of Hippocampal Function
    Unifying the Functions of the Hippocampus
    Remembering the Future: Prospection and Imagination
    How We Imagine Future Experiences
    Research Methods: Localizing Human Brain Function
    The Circuitry of Prospection and Recollection
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Simonides and the Champions of Memory
    Prospection in Other Species
    Models of Prospection
    The Confabulation of Reality
    Confabulation in the Injured Brain
    Case Study: The Woman with a Thirty-Year-Old Baby
    The Anatomy of Spontaneous Confabulation
    Confabulation in the Normal Brain
    The Anatomy of a False Memory
    The Bigger Picture: Scanning for the Truth
    The Mechanisms of Memory
    General Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
    Memory as Synaptic Change
    Long-Term Potentiation and Depression of Synaptic Connections
    The NMDA Receptor
    Consolidation and Reconsolidation
    Associative Neural Networks
    Beyond Synaptic Plasticity: The Frontiers of Memory Mechanisms
    Whole Neurons as a Substrate for Memory?
    New Neurons for New Memories
    Spines: Another Structural Basis for Memory?
    Looking inside the Cell: Memory in Chemical Reactions
    Case Study: The Flies with Photographic Memory
    Epigenetics: Making a Single Genome Play Different Tunes
    The Mysteries of Memory
    Are the Roles Of LTP and LTD Overstated?
    The Timing of Spikes
    The Limitations of Neural Networks
    Neural Networks: Solving the Wrong Problem?
    Remembering Relationships, Not Features
    The Future of Memory Research

    Chapter 10: Sleep
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: Caught between Sleeping and Waking
    Sleep and the Brain
    The Brain Is Active during Sleep
    Research Methods: Electroencephalography
    The Neural Networks of Sleep
    The Brain during REM Sleep
    The Circadian Rhythm
    Entrainment of the Circadian Rhythm by Light Cues
    The Circadian Rhythm Is Not Fixed
    Case Study: The Shifted Circadian Rhythm
    The Circadian Rhythm and Napping
    The Bigger Picture: Schools and Circadian Rhythms
    Why Do Brains Sleep?
    Four Theories of Sleeping: Restoration, Survival, Simulation, Learning
    Insight and the Restructuring of Information
    Dream Content
    The Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Lucid Dreaming
    Can Dreams Shed Light on Consciousness?
    Dreams of the Future and How to Study Them
    Sleep Deprivation and Disorders
    Sleep Deprivation
    Case Study: Staying Awake
    Case Study: The Family Who Couldn't Sleep

    Chapter 11: Language and Lateralization
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: The Stuttering King
    Speech, Language, and Communication
    Aphasia: The Loss of Language

    Case Study: The Woman Who Couldn't Find Her Words
    Broca's Aphasia
    Wernicke's Aphasia
    Case Study: The Woman Who Makes Up Words
    A Language Network
    The Larger Picture of Language-Specific Regions
    Lateralization: The Two Hemispheres Are Not Identical
    Tests for Dominance
    Hemispheric Differences
    Two Brains in One? The Case of the Split-Brain Patients
    Thinking about Cerebral Asymmetry
    Development of Language
    Learning Language from Experience
    Innate Language Tendencies
    Socially and Emotionally Directed Learning
    Research Methods: The Baby with No Privacy

    Part IV: Motivated Behaviors

    Chapter 12: Decision Making
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: A Fatal Mistake, at the Highest Place on Earth
    How Do We Decide What to Do?
    The Scorpion and the Frog
    The Search for a "Physics" of Human Decisions
    Homo economicus and Rational Choice Theory
    The Predictably Irrational Homo sapiens
    Homo sapiens versus Homo economicus
    Confused by Uncertainty
    The Framing Effect and the Endowment Effect
    The Illusory Value of Procrastination
    Where Do Our Irrational Decisions Come From?
    Decision Making in Other Species
    Do Irrational Decisions Come from Irrational People?
    One Brain, Two Systems
    How the Brain Decides
    The Neural Mechanisms of Delay Discounting
    Neural Mechanisms of Decisions under Risk
    The Neural Basis of the Endowment Effect
    The Neural Basis of the Framing Effect
    The Common Currency of Subjective Value
    Comparing Apples to Oranges
    Research Methods: Charting the Landscape of Subjective Value
    A Consistent Neural Basis for Subjective Value
    Evaluation and the Orbitofrontal Cortex
    One Currency, But Many Markets
    The Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Snack Food or Brussels Sprouts?
    A Hierarchy of Internally Guided Decision Making
    Internally and Externally Guided Decision Making
    Values into Goals
    Goals into Plans
    Plans into Behavior and Action
    Modulators of Decision Making
    Strategic Use of Decision-Making Systems
    Neurotransmitter Effects on Decision Making
    The Bigger Picture: How to Avoid the Scorpion's Sting

    Chapter 13: Emotions
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: Sadness, at the Flip of a Switch
    Early Theories of Emotion
    Emotional Expressions: Signposts on a Landscape of Inner States
    The James-Lange Theory of Emotion: A Bottom-Up Theory
    The Cannon-Bard Theory: A Top-Down Theory
    Case Study: Pathological Laughter and Crying
    Two-Factor Theories: Reconciling Central and Peripheral Influences on Emotion
    Core Limbic Structures: Amygdala and Hypothalamus
    Hypothalamus: Internal States, Homeostatic Drives
    Case Study: An Internal Growth of Rage
    Do Hypothalamic Circuits Generate Inner Emotional Experiences?
    Amygdala: Externally Generated States and Drives
    The Amygdala and Emotional Experience
    Case Study: The Woman Who Knows No Fear
    Hippocampus: Emotional Memories
    Ventral Striatum: Pleasure and Reward
    Bringing It All Together: The Circuit of Papez and the Ring of Limbic Cortex
    The Bigger Picture: The Ethics of Brain Stimulation in Human Beings
    The Limbic Cortex and Emotions
    The Interoceptive Insula: The "Feeling" Side of Emotions
    Cingulate Cortex: A Motor Cortex for the Limbic System
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: Mental Effort
    Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: A Generator of Gut Feelings
    Limbic Association Cortex: Modulation of Emotion
    The Mechanisms of Emotional Reappraisal
    Brain Injury, Brain Stimulation, and Emotion Regulation
    Neurochemical Influences on Emotion
    Case Study: A Cure Born of Desperation
    Serotonin and Mood
    Norepinephrine and Mood
    GABA and Anxiety

    Chapter 14: Motivation and Reward
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: "More Important Than Survival Itself"
    Motivation and Survival
    Addiction: An Illness of Motivation
    Why Motivation Matters
    Feelings: The Sensory Side of Motivation
    The Circuitry of Motivation: Basic Drives
    Hypothalamus and Homeostatic Drives
    Amygdala and External-World Drives
    Midbrain Dopamine Neurons and the Common Currency of Motivation
    Reward, Learning, and the Brain
    Defining Reward
    Learning from Reward Using Prediction Error
    "Liking" Is Different from "Wanting"
    Opioids and the Sensation of Pleasure
    Opioids, Opioid Receptors, and Opioid Functions
    Opioids and Reward
    Dopamine, Learning, Motivation, and Reward
    Dopamine Functions in Motivation and Reward
    Unifying the Functions of Dopamine
    Research Methods: Measuring Neurotransmitter Levels in the Brain
    Neurotransmitters Are Messengers, Not Functions
    Addiction: Pathological Learning and Motivation
    Addictive Substances Have Distorted Reward Value
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: The Pursuit of Happiness
    Addiction Is a Result of Pathological Learning
    The Circuitry and Chemistry of Addiction
    Unlearning Addiction
    The Challenge of Treatment
    Case Study: Pathological Gambling in a Patient with Parkinson's Disease
    Existing Approaches to Treatment
    Future Approaches to Treatment
    The Bigger Picture: Finding the Motivation to Change

    Chapter 15: Social Cognition
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: Why Risk Your Life for a Yellow T-shirt?
    Social Perception
    What's in a Face?
    Do I Look Like a Liar to You?
    Neuroscience of Everyday Life: A Poker Face
    Social Knowledge and the Temporal Pole
    Social Signals and the Superior Temporal Sulcus
    Social Thinking: Theory of Mind
    What Is Theory of Mind?
    Neural Mechanisms of Theory of Mind
    Mirror Neurons and Theory of Mind
    Disorders of Theory of Mind
    Social Feelings: Empathy and Its Many Components
    An Emotional Theory of Mind
    Empathy, Sympathy, and Compassion
    Neural Mechanisms of Emotional Mimicry and Contagion
    Neural Mechanisms of Empathy, Sympathy, and Antipathy
    Disorders of Empathy
    Social Emotions, Motivations, and Behavior
    Social Emotions from Theory of Mind
    Case Study: Acquired Sociopathy
    Social Emotions from Social Values
    Social Reward and Social Aversion
    The Anatomy of a Lie
    Neurotransmitters and Social Behavior
    Research Methods: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
    An Ancient and Fundamental System
    The Bigger Picture: The Brave New World of the "Cuddle Hormone"?
    The Social Self
    The Wondrous Self-Awareness of the Human Brain
    Forms of Self-Awareness
    Why Bother with Self-Awareness?
    Neural Correlates of Self-Awareness
    Disorders of Self-Awareness
    Self-Awareness and Social Cognition
    Case Study: The Man in the Mirror

    Part V: Disorders of Brain and Behavior

    Chapter 16: Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
    Learning Objectives
    Starting Out: Epilepsy: "The Sacred Disease"
    Alzheimer's Disease: Burning Out with Age?
    Frontotemporal Dementia: Like a Cancer of the Soul
    Case Study: Ravel and "Bolero"
    Huntington's Disease: A Genetic Rarity, in Two Senses
    Tourette Syndrome: A Case of Involuntary Volition?
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neurological or Psychiatric?
    Research Methods: Voxel-Based Morphometry
    Schizophrenia: A Dementia of the Young
    Bipolar Disorder
    Depression: A Global Burden
    Impact of Depression
    Case Study: A Lifetime Studying, and Living with, Bipolar Disorder
    Causes of Depression
    Neurochemical Effects of Depression on the Brain
    Functional Effects of Depression on the Brain
    Treatment of Depression

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