This textbook takes a unique approach to explaining and demonstrating how to use and interpret statistics for the physiological, medical, and life sciences. The first third of the book presents an integrated overview and introduction to experimental design and statistical inference. The rest of the book provides an extensively cross-referenced set of 100 brief critiques of sample case studies embodying all the most common statistical errors or design problems found in the biological literature. These specific cases are effective for teaching the principles of biostatistics. The examples are drawn primarily from biomedicine, yet the book is also valuable to psychologists, social scientists, environmental scientists, ecologists, and any discipline employing statistics.