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Behavioral Neuroscience

Eighth Edition

S. Marc Breedlove and Neil V. Watson

Publication Date - September 2016

ISBN: 9781605354187

Hardcover

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $166.95

Encompasses cutting-edge neuroscience, lucid descriptions of behavior, evolutionary and developmental perspectives, and clinical applications of research

Description

For 20 years, instructors have relied on the textbook Biological Psychology for a definitive and comprehensive survey of the neuroscience of behavior. Thanks to the explosion of work in the neurosciences, each of the seven editions has included more neural details than the one before. Thus the time has come to revise the title to reflect the evolution of both the book and the field: Behavioral Neuroscience.

Behavioral Neuroscience, Eighth Edition, provides undergraduates with a lively survey of the field. It offers a broad perspective, encompassing cutting edge neuroscience, lucid descriptions of behavior, evolutionary and developmental perspectives, and clinical applications of research. Despite this comprehensive range of material, the authors have striven in the latest revision to lay bare the neuroscience concepts underlying behavior with concision and clarity.

Special Features:

- Learning is supported by a best-in-class full-color art program, including hundreds of original illustrations that make it easy to understand structures, mechanisms, and processes in the brain. Many additional graphical elements have been reproduced from primary research sources, bringing the learner closer to the science behind the subject matter.

- Every chapter includes a special feature called "The Cutting Edge" that highlights an up-to-the-moment discovery or technical innovation, while illustrating the logic and methodology of experimentation and hypothesis testing

- Each chapter ends with a unique feature, the "Visual Summary," a poster-like layout that provides a graphical review of the major topics of the chapter and directs students to the figures and online animations that reinforce each point.

- The text is supported by a rich array of internet-based resources.

- Over 500 new citations keep the text current and an excellent resource.

Thorough and reader-friendly, Behavioral Neuroscience, Eighth Edition, reveals the fascinating relationships between the brain and behavior.


Biological Psychology Newslink

This continuously updated site provides links to thousands of news stories in the field, all organized by both keyword and textbook chapter. The site is designed to help instructors keep up with the latest news in the field and find interesting topics for lectures or discussions and to provide students with an appreciation of the wide-ranging applications of the material they are studying in the course.

For Students

Companion Website

Each new copy of the textbook includes 180-day access to the Companion Website.

The Behavioral Neuroscience Companion Website contains a wide range of study and review resources to help students master the material presented in the textbook, as well as coverage of additional topics. For each chapter of the textbook, the site includes:

* Chapter Outlines that outline each chapter and link to relevant Study Questions
* Visual Summaries that link to all of the Activities and Videos, forming a complete review of each chapter
* Study Questions that help the student master the full range of material in each chapter
* Animations & Videos that illustrate many of the complex, dynamic concepts and processes of biological psychology
* Activities that help the student review key structures and processes
* Online Quizzes (including both multiple-choice and essay questions) that test the student's grasp of the material, with results stored in the online gradebook (instructor registration required)
* Flashcards activities that review and reinforce the many new terms introduced in each chapter
* "A Step Further," offering advanced coverage of selected topics, allowing students to explore topics more deeply
* A Glossary that provides quick access to definitions of all the important terminology in the textbook

For Instructors

Instructor's Resource Library

The Behavioral Neuroscience, Eighth Edition, Instructor's Resource Library includes a variety of resources to aid you in the planning of your course, the development of your lectures, and the assessment of your students, including:

* Figures and Tables: All of the line-art illustrations, photographs, and tables from the textbook are provided as both high-resolution and low-resolution JPEGs, all optimized for use in presentation software (such as PowerPoint)

* PowerPoint Resources: Two different types of PowerPoint presentations are provided for each chapter of the textbook:
- All figures, photos, and tables
- A complete lecture presentation, including selected figures

* Videos: New for the eighth edition, a robust collection of video segments from the BBC and other sources bring to life may of the important concepts discussed in the textbook. Excellent as lecture-starters and discussion topics.
* Animations: These detailed animations help enliven lectures and illustrate dynamic processes.
* Instructor's Manual and Test Bank in Word format (details below)
* Computerized Test Bank: The entire Test Bank is provided in Diploma format (software included) making it easy to quickly assemble exams using any combination of publisher-provided and custom questions. Includes the Companion Website quiz questions.

Instructor's Manual (included in the Instructor's Resource Library)
The Behavioral Neuroscience Instructor's Manual and Test Bank includes useful resources for planning your course, lectures, and exams. For each chapter of the textbook, the IM includes the following:

* A Chapter Overview that gives a big-picture snapshot of what is covered in the chapter
* A complete Chapter Outline
* A set of Key Concepts that break the chapter down into its core elements
* Additional References for lecture/course development

Test Bank (included in the Instructor's Resource Library)
A comprehensive set of questions is provided for each chapter, including multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, matching, essay, definition, and paragraph development questions that cover the full range of material in the chapter (Companion Website quiz questions included).

Online Quizzing
The Companion Website includes online quizzes that can be assigned by instructors or used as self-review exercises. For each chapter of the textbook, a set of multiple-choice questions and a set of essay questions are provided. Quizzes can be customized with any combination of the default questions and an instructor's own questions, and can be assigned as desired. Results of the quizzes are stored in the online gradebook. (Instructors must register in order for their students to be able to take the quizzes.)

About the Author(s)

S. Marc Breedlove is the Barnett Rosenberg Professor of Neuroscience at Michigan State University. He has written over 130 scientific articles investigating the role of hormones in shaping the developing and adult nervous system, publishing in journals including Science, Nature, Nature Neuroscience, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. He is also passionate about teaching--in the classroom, and in the greater community through interviews with the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and Newsweek, as well as broadcast programs such as All Things Considered, Good Morning America, and Sixty Minutes. He has active grant support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Breedlove is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Association for Psychological Science.

Neil V. Watson and the members of his lab at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada study sex-related aspects of the structure and function of the nervous system, with ongoing grant support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. His research, which spans from the effects of hormones and pollutants on the structure of the nervous system to the relationships among social factors, cognition, and steroids in humans, has appeared in a variety of journals, including the Journal of Neuroscience, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, and Brain Research. Dr. Watson received his undergraduate and master's degrees from the University of Western Ontario and his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the faculty at SFU in 1996 where he is now Professor of Behavioral Neuroscience and Chair of Psychology. He teaches biological psychology to hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students each year.

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 2013
March 2010
April 2007

Table of Contents

    1. Behavioral Neuroscience: Scope and Outlook
    Human or Machine?
    The Brain Is Full of Surprises
    What Is Behavioral Neuroscience?
    Five Viewpoints Explore the Biology of Behavior
    Box 1.1. We Are All Alike, and We Are All Different
    Three Approaches Relate Brain and Behavior
    Neuroplasticity: Behavior Can Change the Brain
    Behavioral Neuroscientists Use Several Levels of Analysis
    The Brain and Behavior Are Reciprocally Related
    Behavioral Neuroscience Contributes to Our Understanding of Human Disorders
    Animal Research Makes Vital Contributions
    The History of Research on the Brain and Behavior?Begins in Antiquity
    Box 1.2. Bigger Better? The Case of the Brain and Intelligence
    The Cutting Edge: Behavioral Neuroscience Is Advancing at a Tremendous Rate
    Visual Summary

    PART I. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIOR

    2. Functional Neuroanatomy: The Nervous System and Behavior
    A Stimulating Experience
    Specialized Cells Make Up the Nervous System
    Box 2.1. Visualizing the Cells of the Brain
    The Nervous System Consists of Central and Peripheral Divisions
    Box 2.2. Three Customary Orientations for Viewing the Brain and Body
    The Brain Shows Regional Specialization of Functions
    Specialized Support Systems Protect and Nourish the Brain
    Brain-Imaging Techniques Reveal the Structure and Function of the Living Human Brain
    Box 2.3. Isolating Specific Brain Activity
    The Cutting Edge: Two Heads Are Better Than One
    Visual Summary

    3. Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals
    The Laughing Brain
    Electrical Signals Are the Vocabulary of the Nervous System
    Box 3.1. Voltage Clamping and Patch Clamping
    Box 3.2. Changing the Channel
    Synapses Cause Graded, Local Changes in the Postsynaptic Membrane Potential
    Synaptic Transmission Requires a Sequence of Events
    Box 3.3. Electrical Synapses Work with No Time Delay
    Neurons and Synapses Combine to Make Circuits
    Gross Electrical Activity of the Brain Is Readily Detected
    The Cutting Edge: Optogenetics: Using Light to Probe Brain-Behavior Relationships
    Visual Summary

    4. The Chemistry Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
    The Birth of a Pharmaceutical Problem Child
    Synaptic Transmission Is a Complex Electrochemical Process
    Many Chemical Neurotransmitters Have Been Identified
    Neurotransmitter Systems Form a Complex Array in the Brain
    Box 4.1. Pathways for Neurotransmitter Synthesis
    The Effects of a Drug Depend on Its Site of Action and Dose
    Drugs Affect Each Stage of Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission
    Some Neuroactive Drugs Ease the Symptoms of Injury or Psychiatric Illness
    Some Neuroactive Drugs Are Used to Alter Conscious Experiences
    Drug Abuse and Addiction Are Widespread Problems
    Box 4.2. Terminology of Substance-Related Disorders
    The Cutting Edge: The Needle and the Damage Undone
    Visual Summary

    5. Hormones and?the Brain
    Crafting a Personality Through Hormones
    Hormones Have Many Actions in the Body
    Hormones Have a Variety of Cellular Actions
    Box 5.1. Techniques of Modern Behavioral Endocrinology
    Each Endocrine Gland Secretes Specific Hormones
    Box 5.2. Stress and Growth: Psychosocial Dwarfism
    Hormones Affect Behavior in Many Different Ways
    Hormonal and Neural Systems Interact to Produce Integrated Responses
    The Cutting Edge: Can Oxytocin Treat Autism?
    Visual Summary

    PART II. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    6. Evolution of the Brain?and Behavior
    We Are Not So Different, Are We?
    How Did the Enormous Variety of Species Arise on Earth?
    Why Should We Study Other Species?
    Box 6.1. Why Should We Study Particular Species?
    Box 6.2. To Each Its Own Sensory World
    All Vertebrate Brains Share the Same Basic Structures
    The Evolution of Vertebrate Brains Reflects Changes in Behavior
    Many Factors Led to the Rapid Evolution of a Large Cortex in Primates
    Box 6.3. Evolutionary Psychology
    Evolution Continues Today
    The Cutting Edge: Are Humans Still Evolving?
    Visual Summary

    7. Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
    Overcoming Blindness
    Growth and Development of the Brain Are Orderly Processes
    Development of the Nervous System Can Be Divided into Six Distinct Stages
    Box 7.1. Degeneration and Regeneration of Nervous Tissue
    Box 7.2. The Frog Retinotectal System Demonstrates Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Neural Development
    Developmental Disorders of the Brain Impair Behavior
    Box 7.3. Transgenic and Knockout Mice
    Genes Interact with Experience to Guide Brain Development
    Experience Is an Important Influence on Brain Development
    The Brain Continues to Change as We Grow Older
    The Cutting Edge: Genetically Reversing an Inherited Brain Disorder
    Visual Summary

    PART III. PERCEPTION AND ACTION

    8. General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain
    What's Hot? What's Not?
    Sensory Processing
    Sensory Receptor Organs Detect Energy or Substances
    What Type of Stimulus Was That?
    Sensory Processing Begins in Receptor Cells
    Sensory Information Processing Is Selective and Analytical
    Box 8.1. Synesthesia
    Touch: Many Sensations Blended Together
    Skin Is a Complex Organ That Contains a Variety of Sensory Receptors
    The Dorsal Column System Carries Somatosensory Information from the Skin to the Brain
    Pain: An Unpleasant but Adaptive Experience
    Human Pain Can Be Measured
    Social Rejection Hurts Too
    Pain Can Be Difficult to Control
    The Cutting Edge: Evolving an Indifference to Toxins
    Visual Summary

    9. Hearing, Vestibular Perception, Taste, and Smell
    No Ear for Music
    Hearing
    Pressure Waves in the Air Are Perceived as Sound
    Box 9.1. The Basics of Sound
    Auditory Signals Run from Cochlea to Cortex
    Pitch Information Is Encoded in Two Complementary Ways
    Brainstem Auditory Systems Are Specialized for Localizing Sounds
    The Auditory Cortex Processes Complex Sounds
    Hearing Loss Is a Major Disorder of the Nervous System
    Vestibular Perception
    An Inner Ear System Senses Gravity and Acceleration
    Nerve Fibers from the Vestibular Portion of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII) Synapse in the Brainstem
    Some Forms of Vestibular Excitation Produce Motion Sickness
    The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
    Chemicals in Foods Are Perceived as Five Basic Tastes
    Chemicals in the Air Elicit Odor Sensations
    The Cutting Edge: More Than a Matter of Taste
    Visual Summary

    10. Vision: From Eye to Brain
    When Seeing Isn't Seeing
    The Visual System Extends from the Eye to the Brain
    Box 10.1. The Basics of Light
    Neural Signals Travel from the Retina to Several Brain Regions
    Box 10.2. Eyes with Lenses Have Evolved in Several Phyla
    Neurons at Different Levels of the Visual System Have Very Different Receptive Fields
    Area V1 Is Organized in Columns
    Color Vision Depends on Special Channels from the Retinal Cones through Cortical Area V4
    Box 10.3. Most Mammalian Species Have Some Color Vision
    Perception of Visual Motion Is Analyzed by a Special System That Includes Cortical Area V5
    The Many Cortical Visual Areas Are Organized into Two Major Streams
    Visual Neuroscience Can Be Applied to Alleviate Some Visual Deficiencies
    The Cutting Edge: Seeing the Light
    Visual Summary

    11. Motor Control and Plasticity
    What You See Is What You Get
    The Behavioral View Considers Reflexes versus Plans
    The Control Systems View Considers Accuracy versus Speed
    The Neuroscience View Reveals Hierarchical Systems
    The Spinal Cord Is a Crucial Link in Controlling Body Movement
    Pathways from the Brain Control Different Aspects of Movements
    Box 11.1. Cortical Neurons Can Guide a Robotic Arm
    Extrapyramidal Systems Also Modulate Motor Commands
    Brain Disorders Can Disrupt Movement
    Box 11.2. Prion-Like Neurodegeneration May Be at Work in Parkinson's
    The Cutting Edge: Cerebellar Glia Play a Role in Fine Motor Coordination
    Visual Summary

    PART IV. REGULATION AND BEHAVIOR

    12. Sex: Evolutionary, ?Hormonal, and Neural Bases
    Genitals and Gender: What Makes Us Male and Female?
    Sexual Behavior
    Reproductive Behavior Can Be Divided into Four Stages
    The Neural Circuitry of the Brain Regulates Reproductive Behavior
    Pheromones Guide Reproductive Behavior in Many Species
    The Hallmark of Human Sexual Behavior Is Diversity
    For Many Vertebrates, Parental Care Determines Offspring Survival
    Sexual Differentiation
    Sex Determination and Sexual Differentiation Occur Early in Development
    How Should We Define Gender-by Genes, Gonads, Genitals, or the Brain?
    Gonadal Hormones Direct Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Behavior
    Box 12.1. The Paradoxical Sexual Differentiation of the Spotted Hyena
    Do Fetal Hormones Masculinize Human Behaviors in Adulthood?
    The Cutting Edge: Sex on the Brain
    Visual Summary

    13. Homeostasis: Active?Regulation of the Internal Environment
    Harsh Reality
    Homeostasis Maintains a Consistent Internal Environment: The Example of Thermoregulation
    Box 13.1. Physiological and Behavioral Thermoregulation Are Integrated
    Fluid Regulation
    Two Internal Cues Trigger Thirst
    Food and Energy Regulation
    Nutrient Regulation Helps Prepare for Future Needs
    Insulin Is Crucial for the Regulation of Body Metabolism
    The Hypothalamus Coordinates Multiple Systems That Control Hunger
    Box 13.2. Body Fat Stores Are Tightly Regulated, Even after Surgical Removal of Fat
    Obesity Is Difficult to Treat
    Eating Disorders Are Life-Threatening
    The Cutting Edge: Friends with Benefits
    Visual Summary

    14. Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Dreaming
    When Sleep Gets Out of Control
    Biological Rhythms
    Many Animals Show Daily Rhythms in Activity
    The Hypothalamus Houses a Circadian Clock
    Some Biological Rhythms Are Longer or ?Shorter than a Day
    Sleeping and Waking
    Human Sleep Exhibits Different Stages
    Different Species Provide Clues about the Evolution of Sleep
    Our Sleep Patterns Change across?the Life Span
    Manipulating Sleep Reveals an Underlying Structure
    Box 14.1. Sleep Deprivation Can Be Fatal
    What Are the Biological Functions of Sleep?
    At Least Four Interacting Neural Systems Underlie Sleep
    Sleep Disorders Can Be Serious, Even Life-Threatening
    The Cutting Edge: Can Individual Neurons Be
    Visual Summary

    PART V. EMOTIONS AND MENTAL DISORDERS

    15. Emotions, Aggression,?and Stress
    The Hazards of Fearlessness
    What Are Emotions?
    Broad Theories of Emotion Emphasize Bodily Responses
    Box 15.1. Lie Detector?
    Emotions from the Evolutionary Viewpoint
    How Many Emotions Do We Experience?
    Do Distinct Brain Circuits Mediate?Different Emotions?
    Neural Circuitry, Hormones, and Synaptic Transmitters Mediate Violence and Aggression
    Stress Activates Many Bodily Responses
    Stress and Emotions Affect the Immune System
    The Cutting Edge: Synaptic Changes during Fear Conditioning
    Visual Summary

    16. Psychopathology: Biological Basis of Behavioral Disorders

    The Toll of Psychiatric Disorders Is Huge
    Schizophrenia Is the Major Neurobiological?Challenge in Psychiatry
    Box 16.1. Long-Term Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs
    Mood Disorders Are a Major Psychiatric Category
    Box 16.2. The Season to Be Depressed?
    There Are Several Types of Anxiety Disorders
    Box 16.3. Tics, Twitches, and Snorts: The Unusual Character ?of Tourette's Syndrome
    The Cutting Edge: Are Abnormal Eye Movements an Endophenotype for People at Risk for Schizophrenia?
    Visual Summary

    PART VI. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

    17. Learning and Memory
    Trapped in the Eternal Now
    Functional Perspectives on Learning?and Memory
    There Are Several Kinds of Learning and Memory
    Different Forms of Nondeclarative Memory Involve Different Brain Regions
    Successive Processes Capture, Store, and Retrieve Information in the Brain
    Box 17.1. Emotions and Memory
    Neural Mechanisms of Memory Storage
    Memory Storage Requires Physical Changes in the Brain
    Invertebrate Nervous Systems Show Plasticity
    Some Simple Learning in Mammals Relies on Circuits in the Cerebellum
    Synaptic Plasticity Can Be Measured in Simple Hippocampal Circuits
    In the Adult Brain, Newly Born Neurons May Aid Learning
    Learning and Memory Change as We Age
    The Cutting Edge: Artificial Activation of an Engram
    Visual Summary

    18. Attention and Higher Cognition
    One Thing at a Time
    Attention
    Attention Selects Stimuli for Processing
    Attention Is Deployed in Several Different Ways
    Box 18.1. Reaction Time Responses, from Input to Output
    Attention Affects the Functioning of the Brain
    A Network of Brain Sites Creates and Directs Attention
    Disorders Provide Clues about the Organization of Attention
    Consciousness, Thought, and Executive Function
    Consciousness Is a Mysterious Product of the Brain
    Box 18.2. Phineas Gage
    The Cutting Edge: Building a Better Mind Reader
    Visual Summary

    19. Language and?Lateralization
    Silencing the Inner Voice
    Brain Asymmetry and the Lateralization?of Function
    The Left Brain Is Different from the Right Brain
    Box 19.1. The Wada Test
    Right-Hemisphere Damage Impairs Spatial Cognition
    Language Disorders Result from Region-Specific?Brain Damage
    Competing Models Describe the Left-Hemisphere Language System
    Brain Mapping Provides Information about the Organization of Language in the Brain
    Verbal Behavior: Speech and Reading
    Language Has Both Learned and?Unlearned Components
    Box 19.2. Williams Syndrome Offers Clues about Language
    Box 19.3. Vocal Behavior in Birds and Other Species
    Reading Skills Are Difficult to Acquire?and Frequently Impaired
    Recovery of Function
    Stabilization and Reorganization Are Crucial?for Recovery of Function
    Box 19.4. The Amazing Resilience of a Child's Brain
    The Cutting Edge: Contact Sports Can Be Costly
    Visual Summary

    Appendix
    Glossary
    Illustration Credits
    References
    Author Index
    Subject Index

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