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Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change

Edited by Guy P. Brasseur, John J. Orlando, and Geoffrey S. Tyndall

Publication Date - 04 March 1999

ISBN: 9780195105216

688 pages
7 x 10 inches


Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system. Taking a largely interdisciplinary approach, it features the collective efforts of a group of scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as well as other experts from several universities and national laboratories. Topics discussed include the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the atmospheric composition; the chemical mechanisms that affect the production and the fate of important chemical compounds; and the techniques used to investigate the chemical processes in the atmosphere. The book concludes with discussions on global problems related to the atmosphere (stratospheric ozone depletion, changes in greenhouse gases, and global chemical pollution), the relationship between the atmosphere and the global climate, and the long-term chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Each chapter features a brief essay by a leader in the field and includes a large number of current references. Ideal for graduate courses in atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change also serves as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere. Support materials for the book are available via the website http://acd.ucar.edu/textbook

Table of Contents

    Contributing Authors
    List of Frequently Used Symbols
    1. Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. The Earth System
    Further Reading
    Essay: Atmospheric Chemistry and the Earth System, Ralph J. Cicerone
    Part 1: Fundamentals
    2. Atmospheric Dynamics and Transport
    2,1. Introduction
    2.2. The Governing Equations
    2.3. Constraints on Atmospheric Motion
    2.4. Zonal Means and Eddies
    2.5. Atmospheric Waves
    2.6. Tropospheric Circulation and Transport
    2.7. Stratospheric Circulation and Transport
    2.8. Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange
    Further Reading
    Essay: Why Understand Dynamics -- And What Is "Understanding" Anyway?, Michael McIntyre
    3. Chemical and Photochemical Processes
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Radiation
    3.3. Photophysical and Photochemical Processes
    3.4. Chemical Reactions
    3.5. Catalytic Cycles
    3.6. Role of Excited States
    3.7. Measurements of Rate Coefficients
    3.8. The Steady State Approximation
    3.9. Lifetimes in the Atmosphere
    Further Reading
    Essay: When Do We Know Enough about Atmospheric Chemistry?, Harold Schiff
    4. Aerosols and Clouds
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Overview of the Atmospheric Aerosol
    4.3. The Role of Clouds in Tropospheric Chemistry
    4.4. Single-Particle Physical Characteristics
    4.5. Gas-to-Particle Conversion
    4.6. Acid-Base Reactions of Aerosol Particles
    4.7. Removal Processes Associated with Aerosols
    4.8. Solubility of Gases in Droplets
    4.9. Mass Transfer Rates
    4.10. Aqueous Reaction
    Further Reading
    Essay: Aerosols and Clouds: A Postscript, Richard Turco
    5. Trace Gas Exchanges and Biogeochemical Cycles
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Surface Exchanges
    5.3. The Global Water Cycle
    5.4. The Global Carbon Cycle
    5.5. The Global Nitrogen Cycle
    5.6. The Global Sulfur Cycle
    5.7. Halogens
    Further Reading
    Essays: The View from Outside, James Lovelock
    Part 2: Chemical Families
    6. Hydrogen Compounds
    6.1. Importance of Atmospheric Hydrogen Compounds
    6.2. Scope and Definitions
    6.3. Sources of Hydrogen to the Atmosphere
    6.4. Chemistry of Hydrogen Species in the Middle Atmosphere
    6.5. Chemistry of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere
    6.6. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere
    6.7. Concentrations of Hydrogen Compounds in the Troposphere
    6.8. Summary
    Further Reading
    Essay: Hydrogen Compounds, Dieter Ehhalt
    7. Nitrogen Compounds
    7.1. Importance of Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen
    7.2. Scope and Definitions
    7.3. The Role of Odd Nitrogen in the Stratosphere
    7.4. Odd Nitrogen in the "Contemporary" Stratosphere
    7.5. Odd Nitrogen in the Troposphere
    7.6. Experimental Summary of the Influence of Odd Nitrogen in the Continental Boundary Layer
    7.7. NO3 Chemistry
    7.8. Gaseous Acid and Particulate Nitrate Formation
    7.9 Chemistry of Organic Nitrates.
    Further Reading
    Essay: Time's Arrow, Ian Galbally
    8. Halogen Compounds
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Scope and Definitions
    8.3. Sources of Halogens
    8.4. Loss Processes of Halogen Source Gases
    8.5. Inorganic Chemistry of Halogen Species
    8.6. Controlling the Detrimental Effects of Halogens on the Atmosphere; Future Outlook
    Further Reading
    Essay: CFCs and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Mario Molina
    9. Carbon-Containing Compounds
    9.2. Scope and Definitions
    9.3. Atmospheric Photochemistry of Hydrocarbons
    9.4. Distribution of Hydrocarbons
    Further Reading
    Essay: Hydrocarbons, Hanwant Singh
    10. Sulfur Compounds
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Scope and Definitions
    10.3. Sulfur Compounds
    10.4. Tropospheric Chemistry of Sulfur Compounds
    10.5. Measurements of Sulfur Gas Abundances and Distributions
    10.6. SO2 and Acid Precipitation
    10.7. Stratospheric Sulfur Chemistry
    10.8. Gas Phase Ionic Chemistry in the Statosphere
    Further Reading
    Essay: Sulfur, Aerosols, Clouds and Rain, Robert J. Charlson
    Part 3: Tools
    11. Observational Methods: Instruments and Platforms
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Instrumentation for Constituent Measurements
    11.3. Flux Measurements
    11.4. Measurements of Atmospheric Radiation
    11.5. Instrumentation for Aerosol andrCloud Measurements
    11.6. Observing Platforms
    Further Reading
    Essay: From Individual Measurements to Scale Integration Strategies, Gerard Megie
    12. Modeling
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Model Equations
    12.3. Modeling Chemical Processes
    12.4. Modeling Atmospheric Transport
    12.5. Examples and Illustrations
    12.6. Modeling Global Budgets and Biogeochemical Cycles
    12.7. Data Assimilation
    12.8. Inverse Modeling
    12.9 Chemical-Transport Models in the Future.
    Further Reading
    Essay: How Complex Do Models Need to Be?, Henning Rodhe
    Part 4: Ozone, Climate and Global Change
    13. Tropospheric Ozone
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Distribution and Trends
    13.3. Production and Loss of Ozone
    13.4. Major Uncertainties and Research Needs
    Further Reading
    Essay: Tropospheric Ozone, Paul Crutzen
    14. Middle Atmospheric Ozone
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. The Ozone Distribution
    14.3. Ozone Production
    14.4. Ozone Destruction
    14.5. Transport Effects
    14.6. Polar Ozone
    14.7. Ozone Peturbations
    14.8. Imapct of Ozone Depletion on UV Radiation
    Further Reading
    Essay: Ozone Depletion: From Pole to Pole, Susan Solomon
    15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. Radiation in the Atmosphere
    15.3. Natural Variations: Past Climates
    15.4. Impact of Anthropogenic Trace Gases on Climate
    15.5. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs)
    15.6. Radiative Effects of Aerosols
    15.7. Response of the Climate System to Radiative Forcing
    Further Reading
    Essay: Can Climate Models be Validated?, Stephen H. Schneider
    16. Atmospheric Evolution and Global Perspective
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. Atmospheric Evolution on Geological Timescales
    16.3. Human Influences on the Atmosphere
    16.4. Future Trends
    16.5. Global Perspective
    Further Reading
    Essay: The Atmospheric Humankind: Our Related Futures, Daniel L. Albritton
    A: Physical Constants and Other Data
    B: Units, Conversion Factors, and Multiplying Prefixes
    C: Atmospheric Parameters and Mixing Ratios of Chemical Constituents
    D: Chemical Species in the Atmosphere
    E: Rate Coefficients for Second-Order Gas Phase Reactions
    F: Rate Coefficients for Association Gas Phase Reactions
    G: Mass Accomidation Coefficients
    H: Surface Reaction Probability
    I: Atmospheric Humidity
    J: Henry's Law Coefficients
    K: Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
    L: Rate Coefficients for Aqueous Phase Reactions
    M: Spectrum of Solar Extraterrestrial Actinic Flux (120-730 nm)
    N: Photolysis Frequencies
    Sample Problems