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Cover

Archaeology and Humanity's Story

A Brief Introduction to World Prehistory

Second Edition

Deborah I. Olszewski

Publication Date - September 2019

ISBN: 9780190930127

600 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $84.99

A brief introduction to the archaeological past through key concepts and case studies

Description

This student-friendly textbook introduces the archaeological past from approximately seven million years ago through later politically complex societies. Now fully updated in its second edition, Archaeology and Humanity's Story: A Brief Introduction to World Prehistory does not attempt to discuss every archaeologically important site and development in prehistory and early history. Rather, it presents key issues from earlier prehistory and then organizes the chapters on politically complex societies using a similar framework. This allows students to easily compare and contrast different geographical regions. Each of these chapters also highlights a specific case study in which similar themes are examined, such as the written word; resource networks, trade, and exchange; social life; ritual and religion; and warfare and violence. Each chapter includes several sidebar boxes, a timeline showing the chronology relevant to that chapter, and "The Big Picture," "Peopling the Past," and "Further Reflections" features.

New to this Edition

  • A new Chapter 6 "Prehistoric Europe North of the Mediterranean" examines the archaeological background to changes in Europe, particularly in the period following the expansion of food producing economies from the Middle East, using the Bronze Age as a case study
  • A new section on the Aztecs in Chapter 13 "Mesoamerica, the Classic Maya, and the Aztec Empire"
  • A new feature "Further Reflections" discusses a variety of topics such as chiefdoms, the importance of "international" trade and exchange to early societies, the family structure of elites, and how elites consolidated their power or legitimacy
  • Part IV now contains all chapters on politically complex societies, including Chapter 14 "Andean South America and the Inka Empire" and Chapter 15 "Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe in Africa"
  • Detailed sections on early food production moved from Chapter 5 to the relevant chapters on Europe, North American Southwest, Eastern North America, China, Mesoamerica, and Andean South America
  • A new epilogue demonstrates how lessons from past societies could be useful for today's world
  • Map figures now include topography

About the Author(s)

Deborah I. Olszewski is Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. She is coauthor, with Robert J. Wenke, of Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million Years, Fifth Edition (OUP, 2006).

Reviews

"The approach of Archaeology and Humanity's History is thoughtful, well organized, and appropriately inclusive of archaeological topics. The extent and depth of the coverage is excellent for an introductory class."--John A. Nadolski, Sierra College

"What distinguishes Archaeology and Humanity's History is the emphasis on political complexity as the driving force to explain change in the past. There are also some good nods to making archaeology relevant for students living in the contemporary world."--Jane Eva Baxter, DePaul University

"Olszewski has done a good job of showing many different perspectives for some of the major issues in archaeology. I appreciated the very current--and often cutting-edge--information she provides. I also found the inclusion of more modern theory refreshing."--Christopher Barrett, Washtenaw Community College

Table of Contents

    Preface

    PART 1: THE BASICS OF ARCHAEOLOGY

    Chapter 1: Acquiring and Interpreting Data in Archaeology
    Why Archaeology Is Important
    Survey and Excavation Methods
    Research Design
    Finding and Recording Sites
    The Big Picture: Archaeological Survey in Practice
    Excavating Sites
    The Big Picture: Archaeological Excavation in Practice
    Multidisciplinary Data Sets
    How Old Is It?
    Relative Dating Methods
    Absolute Dating Methods
    Time Scales in Dating
    Theories and Interpretations
    Timeline: The Development of Archaeology
    Who Owns the Past?
    Peopling the Past: Indigenous Archaeology
    Summary
    Endnotes

    PART 2: PREHISTORY BEFORE POLITICAL COMPLEXITY

    Chapter 2: Humanity's Roots
    A Word About Classification
    Timeline: Early Hominins
    Bipedalism and the Earliest Hominins
    Why Is Bipedalism Important?
    --ADVANTAGES OF BIPEDALISM
    --ORIGINS OF BIPEDALISM
    Evolutionary Processes
    "Cousins" in the Early Hominin Lineage
    Tool Use and Manufacture
    Peopling the Past: Culture in the Prehistoric Record
    Stone Tools
    The Big Picture: Oldowan Industrial Complex
    Which Hominins Made and Used Stone Tools?
    Early Hominin Culture
    Peopling the Past: Hunting versus Scavenging
    Further Reflections: The Place of Ardipithecus ramidus in Human Evolution
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 3: Becoming Human
    Pleistocene Ice Ages
    Early Waves of Out of Africa
    Timeline: Later Hominins
    The Earliest Movement Out of
    Africa
    Meanwhile, Back in Africa
    The Big Picture: Acheulian, Middle Stone Age, and Middle Paleolithic Traditions
    Later Movement Out of Africa
    Modern Humans, Neandertals, and Homo floresiensis
    Multiregionalism, Recent Single Origin, and Assimilation Models
    --MULTIRETIONALISM?
    --RECENT SINGLE ORIGIN
    --ASSIMILATION MODEL?
    Peopling the Past: Genetics, Neandertals, and Modern Humans
    Isolation and a New Species
    The Origins of Modern Behaviors
    Peopling the Past: Defining and Identifying Modern Behavior
    Middle Stone Age Africa
    Language
    Middle Paleolithic and Chatelperronian Europe
    Disappearance of the Neandertals

    Further Reflections: Was There an Out of Africa Before 1.9 Million Years Ago?
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 4: A World of Modern Humans
    Modern Humans as Hunter-Gatherer-Foragers
    Timeline: Hunter-Gatherer-Foragers
    Later Stone Age Africa
    The Big Picture: Later Stone Age and Upper Paleolithic Technologies and Tools
    Upper Paleolithic Europe

    --EARLY UPPER PALEOLITHIC?
    --MID-UPPER PALEOLITHIC?
    Peopling the Past: The Role of Art in Late Pleistocene Cultures
    --LATE UPPER PALEOLITHIC?
    --INTERPRETING UPPER PALEOLITHIC CAVE ART?
    Worldwide Expansion
    Australia/New Guinea
    The Americas

    Paleoamericans
    Peopling the Past: Megafaunal Extinctions
    Clovis and Related Groups
    Later Paleoamericans
    Further Reflections: Megafauna in Australia
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 5: Hunting, Gathering, Foraging, Farming, and Complexity
    The End of the Ice Ages
    Timeline: Late Hunter-Gatherer-Foragers
    The Old World
    Middle East
    --EARLY EPIPALEOLITHIC?
    --MIDDLE EPIPALEOLITHIC?
    Peopling the Past: Aggregation Sites in the Levantine Epipaleolithic
    --LATE EPIPALEOLITHIC
    Transition to Food Production in the Middle East
    --PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC A
    --PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC B
    Peopling the Past: Ritual in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
    Asia
    Africa
    Europe
    The New World
    North America
    Mexico/Central America
    South America

    Why Food Production?
    Ideas
    The Big Picture: Niche Construction Theory and the Origins of Food Production

    Complexity in the Archaeological Record
    Social Complexity
    Political
    Complexity
    Social and Political Complexity in Pre-Contact Hawai?i
    The Rise of Political Complexity

    --THE AGENCY AND ECODYNAMICS FRAMEWORKS
    --THE NETWORKS AND BOUNDARIES FRAMEWORK
    Themes in Politically Complex Societies
    The Individual and the Group
    Cornering the Market
    Ideology
    Further Reflections: Thinking About Food Production
    Summary
    Endnotes

    PART 3: ON THE THRESHOLD OF POLITICAL COMPLEXITY

    Chapter 6: Prehistoric Europe North of the Mediterranean
    Timeline: Prehistoric Europe
    Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherer-Foragers
    Ertebølle Culture
    Early Food Production
    Cardial Ware Culture
    Linear Pottery Culture
    Funnel Beaker Culture
    Neolithic Megaliths and Other Monument Building

    Peopling the Past: Building Stonehenge
    --INTERPRETATIONS OF NEOLITHIC MEGALITHS AND OTHER MONUMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
    Bronze Age Europe
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Social Life
    Peopling the Past: Bronze Age Elites
    Warfare and Violence
    Peopling the Past: Violence, Ritual or Both in the Bronze Age?
    Iron Age Europe
    Hallstatt Culture
    La Tène Culture
    Further Reflections: Characterizing Social and Political Organization

    Chapter 7: The North American Southwest
    Early Food Production
    Timeline: The North American Southwest
    The Late Archaic Period
    The Basketmaker Phases of Ancestral Pueblo

    --BASKETMAKER II
    --BASKETMAKER III
    Pithouse-To-Pueblo Transition
    The Chaco Phenomenon
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Peopling the Past: Chaco Canyon and Mesoamerican Connections
    Social Life
    Peopling the Past: The Roles of Men and Women in Chaco Canyon
    Warfare and Violence
    The Late Bonito Phase in Chaco Canyon

    Ancestral Pueblo After the Chaco Phenomenon
    Peopling the Past: Oral Traditions and Archaeology in the North American Southwest
    Pueblo IV and Later

    Hohokam and Mogollon: Contemporaries of the Ancestral Pueblo
    Hohokam
    Mogollon
    Further Reflections: Elite Lineage at Pueblo Bonito
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 8: Eastern North America
    Timeline: Eastern North America
    Early Food Production
    Poverty Point Culture
    Shell Ring Complexes

    Woodland Period
    Early Woodland
    Middle Woodland

    --HOPEWELL INTERACTION SPHERE?
    Late Woodland
    Cahokia and the Early Mississippian Period
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Peopling the Past: Resources, Trade, and Exchange at Cahokia
    Social Life
    Peopling the Past: High-Status Burials at Cahokia
    Warfare and Violence
    The Mississippian After Cahokia
    The Late Mississippian
    Peopling the Past: Symbols in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
    Further Reflections: Cahokia: Paramount Chiefdom or State?
    Summary
    Endnotes
    Part 4 Politically Complex Societies

    Chapter 9: Early Dynastic Mesopotamia
    Timeline: Mesopotamia
    Early Food Production
    Pre-Pottery Neolithic
    Pottery Neolithic

    Before the Early Dynastic
    The Uruk Period
    Early Dynastic Mesopotamia
    The Big Picture: Early Dynastic Political Organization
    The Written Word
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange

    --SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND WEALTH?
    Social Life
    Peopling the Past: Roles of Women and Men in Mesopotamia
    Ritual and Religion
    The Big Picture: Ideology and Art in the Early Dynastic
    Warfare and Violence

    Later Mesopotamia
    Further Reflections: Archaeology and Politics
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 10: Pharaonic State and Old Kingdom Egypt
    Timeline: Egypt
    Early Food Production
    The Nabta Playa
    Predynastic
    Pharaonic State
    Old Kingdom Egypt
    The Written Word
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange

    --SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND WEALTH
    Peopling the Past: Building the Pyramids of Egypt
    Social Life
    The Big Picture: Political Organization in Old Kingdom Egypt
    Ritual and Religion
    The Big Picture: Art and Ideology in Old Kingdom Egypt
    Warfare and Violence

    After the Old Kingdom
    Further Reflections: Egypt's Multiple Rises and Falls
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 11: Shang China
    Timeline: China
    Early Food Production
    Before Shang
    Yangshao Culture
    Longshan Culture
    Erlitou Culture
    Shang China
    The Big Picture: Political Organization in the Shang Period
    The Written Word
    Peopling the Past: Oracle Bones, Divination, and the Origins of Writing
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Social Life
    Ritual and Religion
    The Big Picture: Art and Ideology in Shang China

    Warfare and Violence

    After Shang
    Further Reflections: Consolidating the Western Zhou State Identity
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 12: The Indus Valley
    Timeline: The Harappan
    Early Food Production
    Early Harappan
    The Mature Harappan
    The Written Word
    Peopling the Past: Deciphering the Indus Script
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    The Big Picture: Trade and Exchange in the Mature Harappan
    Ideology
    Urbanization and Its Consequences
    The Big Picture: Urbanism in the Mature Harappan
    After the Mature Harappan
    Further Reflections: Importance of Trade and Exchange Networks
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 13: Mesoamerica, the Classic Maya, and the Aztec Empire
    Timeline: Mesoamerica
    Early Food Production
    Formative Mesoamerica
    The Olmec in the South Gulf Coast Lowlands
    Early and Middle Preclassic Maya
    The Valley of Oaxaca
    The Basin of Mexico
    Late Preclassic Maya
    The Lowlands Classic Maya
    The Maya Written Word
    Maya Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Social Life
    The Big Picture: Political Organization in the Classic Maya
    Maya Ritual and Religion
    The Big Picture: Art and Ideology in the Classic Maya

    Maya Warfare and Violence
    Peopling the Past: Politics and Warfare
    After the Classic Maya
    Terminal Classic and Postclassic Maya
    The Aztec Empire
    The Triple Alliance
    Aztec Trade and Exchange Networks
    Aztec Social Life
    Aztec Religion and Ritual
    Aztec Warfare and
    Violence
    Arrival of the Spanish
    Further Reflections: Warfare and the Classic Maya
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 14: Andean South America and the Inka Empire
    Timeline: The Andean Region
    Early Food Production
    Late Preceramic Period
    Initial Period

    Before The Inka
    Early Horizon
    Early Intermediate Period/Early Middle Horizon

    Middle Horizon
    --WARI EMPIRE?
    --TIWANAKU EMPIRE?
    --LATE INTERMEDIATE PERIOD?
    The Inka Empire
    The Nonwritten or Written (?) Word
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    Peopling the Past: The Inka Road System
    Social Life
    The Big Picture: Political Organization in the Inka Empire
    The Big Picture: Art and Ideology in the Inka Empire
    Ritual and Religion

    Warfare and Violence
    After the Inka
    Further Reflections: Challenges to the State / Empire
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Chapter 15: Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe in Africa
    Timeline: Southeast Africa
    Food Production
    Metallurgy
    The Rise of Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe
    Resource Networks, Trade, and Exchange
    The Big Picture: Trade and Exchange in the Shashe-Limpopo and Plateau Region
    Social Life

    Ritual and Religion
    The Big Picture: Art and Ideology at Great Zimbabwe
    Oral Traditions
    Peopling the Past: The Role of Oral History and Historical Documents
    After Great Zimbabwe
    Further Reflections: The Bantu Expansion
    Summary
    Endnotes

    PART 5: EPILOGUE

    Epilogue
    All Good Things Come to an End
    Lessons From the Past?
    Summary
    Endnotes

    Glossary
    References
    Credits
    Index