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Cover

Anthropology

What Does it Mean to Be Human?

Fifth Edition

Author Robert H. Lavenda and Emily A. Schultz

Publication Date - October 2020

ISBN: 9780197534441

616 pages
Looseleaf

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $66.99

An accessible, affordable question-oriented approach that shows students the relevance of anthropology in today's world

Description

A unique alternative to more traditional, encyclopedic introductory texts, Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human?, Fifth Edition, takes a question-oriented approach that incorporates cutting-edge theory and new ways of looking at important contemporary issues such as power, human rights, and inequality. With a total of sixteen chapters, this engaging, full-color text is an ideal one-semester overview that delves deep into anthropology without overwhelming students.

New to this Edition

  • A discussion of the roots of anthropological scholarship around the world; of recent efforts to incorporate processes of biological development into discussions of biological evolution; new forms of ethnography; how contributions from science studies and cyborg anthropology suggest new ways to bring the fields of anthropology together (Chapter 1)
  • Includes discussion of theoretical pluralism in contemporary evolutionary theory, and addresses contemporary concerns about the Anthropocene (Chapter 2)
  • Expanded discussion of ancient DNA research and evidence of interspecies hybridization, as well as discussion of multispecies ethnographies (Chapter 3)
  • Updated discussion of fossil record for human evolution that incorporates evidence for multilevel selection and niche construction in the hominin lineage, as well as new evidence of varied early populations that migrated and interbred (Chapter 4)
  • Explicit focus on how the evolutionary study of human microevolution undermines notions of biological race; how niche construction contributes to developmental processes experienced by organisms; and how race becomes biology as the consequences of inequality become embodied over the life course (Chapter 5)
  • Expanded and revised discussion of subsistence strategies in relation to particular forms of human society; of domestication, niche construction and the Anthropocene; of fresh archaeological approaches to relationships linking humans, things, and other species. (Chapters 6 and 7)
  • Explores the central role of culture in biosocial becoming and how culture is something we "do"; discussion of how attention to developmental processes revises our understanding of socialization and enculturation; addresses issues of cultural borrowing and cultural authenticity (Chapter 8)
  • More on anthropological approaches to secularism; discussion of the anthropology of ontology (Chapter 10)
  • Chapter 16 ("What is Applied Anthropology?") now addresses applied anthropology in general, with emphases on medical anthropology and development anthropology

About the Author(s)

Robert H. Lavenda is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University.

Emily A. Schultz is Professor Emerita of Anthropology at St. Cloud State University.

Reviews

"Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human? does especially well at introducing more challenging--but important--theories and concepts. The focus on power and inequality, demonstrated through a discussion of important recent studies and perspectives, sets this book apart."--Kathe Managan, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

"I've really enjoyed Anthropology: What Does It Mean to Be Human? over the years. I like how all of the concepts have examples in a variety of cultures. My students often comment on how many new cultures and regions they've been introduced to simply because of the approach the authors have taken."--Susan Moore, Wayne State College

Table of Contents

    Boxes
    Preface

    Chapter 1. What Is Anthropology?
    What Is Anthropology?
    What Is the Concept of Culture?
    What Makes Anthropology a Cross-Disciplinary Discipline?
    Biological Anthropology
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Anthropology as a Vocation: Listening to Voices
    Cultural Anthropology
    Linguistic Anthropology
    Archaeology
    Applied Anthropology
    Medical Anthropology
    The Promise of Anthropology
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: What Can You Learn from an Anthropology Major?
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS
    MODULE 1: Anthropology, Science, and Storytelling
    Scientific and Nonscientific Explanations
    Some Key Scientific Concepts
    MODULE SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS

    Chapter 2. Why Is Evolution Important to Anthropologists?
    What Is Evolutionary Theory?
    What Material Evidence Is There for Evolution?
    Pre-Darwinian Views of the Natural World
    Essentialism
    The Great Chain of Being
    Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
    Transformational Evolution
    What Is Natural Selection?
    Population Thinking
    Natural Selection in Action
    How Did Biologists Learn about Genes?
    Mendel's Experiments
    The Emergence of Genetics
    What Are the Basics of Contemporary Genetics?
    Genes and Traits
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Investigating Human-Rights Violations and Identifying Remains
    Mutation
    DNA and the Genome
    Genotype, Phenotype, and the Norm of Reaction
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: How Living Organisms Construct Their Environments
    What Does Evolution Mean?
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 3. What Can the Study of Primates Tell Us about Human Beings?
    What Are Primates?
    How Do Biologists Classify Primates?
    How Many Categories of Living Primates Are There?
    Strepsirrhines
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Interbreeding
    Haplorhines
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Future of Primate Biodiversity
    What Is Ethnoprimatology?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Gombe, Tanzania, in the Twenty-First Century
    Are There Patterns in Primate Evolution?
    How Do Paleoanthropologists Reconstruct Primate Evolutionary History?
    Primates of the Paleocene
    Primates of the Eocene
    Primates of the Oligocene

    Primates of the Miocene

    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS
    MODULE 2: Dating Methods in Paleoanthropology and Archaeology
    Relative Dating Methods
    Numerical (or Absolute) Dating Methods
    Modeling Prehistoric Climates
    MODULE SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS

    Chapter 4. What Can the Fossil Record Tell Us about Human Origins?
    What Is Macroevolution?
    What Is Hominin Evolution?
    Who Were the First Hominins (6-3 mya)?
    The Origin of Bipedalism
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Finding Fossils
    Changes in Hominin Dentition
    Who Were the Later Australopiths (3-1.5 mya)?
    How Many Species of Australopith Were There?
    How Can Anthropologists Explain the Human Transition?
    What Do We Know about Early Homo (2.4-1.5 mya)?
    Expansion of the Australopith Brain
    How Many Species of Early Homo Were There?
    Earliest Evidence of Culture: Stone Tools

    Who Was Homo erectus (1.8-1.7 mya to 0.5-0.4 mya)?
    Morphological Traits of H. erectus
    The Culture of H. erectus
    H. erectus the Hunter?

    What Happened to H. erectus?
    How Did Homo sapiens Evolve?
    What Is the Fossil Evidence for the Transition to Modern H. sapiens?
    Where Did Modern H. sapiens Come from?
    Who Were the Neandertals (130,000-35,000 Years Ago)?
    What Do We Know about Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age Culture?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Bad Hair Days in the Paleolithic: Modern (Re)Constructions of the Cave Man
    Did Neandertals Hunt?
    What Do We Know about Anatomically Modern Humans (200,000 Years Ago to Present)?
    What Can Genetics Tell Us about Modern Human Origins?
    What Do We Know about the Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age (40,000?-12,000 Years Ago)?
    What Happened to the Neandertals?
    How Many Kinds of Upper Paleolithic/Late Stone Age Cultures Were There?
    Where Did Modern H. sapiens Migrate in Late Pleistocene Times?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Women's Art in the Upper Paleolithic?
    Eastern Asia and Siberia
    The Americas
    Australasia
    Two Million Years of Human Evolution
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 5. How Does the Evolutionary Study of Human Variation Undermine Notions of Biological Race?
    What Is Microevolution?
    What Is A Species?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Have We Ever Been Individuals?
    The Molecularization of Race?
    The Four Evolutionary Processes
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: DNA Tests Find Branches but Few Roots
    Microevolution and Patterns of Human Variation
    Adaptation and Human Variation
    The Molecularization of Race?
    Phenotype, Environment, and Culture
    Can We Predict the Future of Human Evolution?
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 6. How Do We Know about the Human Past?
    What Is Archaeology?
    Surveys
    Archaeological Excavation
    Archaeology and Digital Heritage
    How Do Archaeologists Interpret the Past?
    What Are Subsistence Strategies?
    What Are Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and States?
    Whose Past Is It?
    How Is the Past Being Plundered?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Rescue Archaeology in Europe
    What Are the Critical Issues in Contemporary Archaeology?
    Archaeology and Gender
    Collaborative Approaches to Studying the Past
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Archaeology as a Tool of Civic Engagement
    Cosmopolitan Archaeologies
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 7. Why Did Humans Settle Down, Build Cities, and Establish States?
    How Is the Human Imagination Entangled with the Material World?
    Is Plant Cultivation a Form of Niche Construction?
    How Do Anthropologists Explain the Origins of Animal Domestication?
    Was There Only One Motor of Domestication?
    How Did Domestication, Cultivation, and Sedentism Begin in Southwest Asia?
    Natufian Social Organization
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Çatalhöyük in the Twenty-First Century
    Natufian Subsistence
    Domestication Elsewhere in the World

    What Were the Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Food Revolution
    How Do Anthropologists Define Social Complexity?
    Why Is It Incorrect to Describe Foraging Societies as "Simple"?
    What Is the Archaeological Evidence for Social Complexity?
    Why Did Stratification Begin?
    How Can Anthropologists Explain the Rise of Complex Societies?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Ecological Consequences of Social Complexity
    Andean Civilization
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 8. Why Is the Concept of Culture Important?
    How Do Anthropologists Define Culture?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Paradox of Ethnocentrism
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Culture and Freedom
    Culture, History, and Human Agency
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Human-Rights Law and the Demonization of Culture
    Why Do Cultural Differences Matter?
    What Is Ethnocentrism?
    Is It Possible to Avoid Ethnocentric Bias?
    What Is Cultural Relativism?
    How Can Cultural Relativity Improve Our Understanding of Controversial Cultural Practices?
    Genital Cutting, Gender, and Human Rights
    Genital Cutting as a Valued Ritual
    Culture and Moral Reasoning
    Did Their Culture Make Them Do It?
    Does Culture Explain Everything?
    Cultural Change and Cultural Authenticity
    The Promise of the Anthropological Perspective
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS
    MODULE 3: On Ethnographic Methods
    A Meeting of Cultural Traditions
    Classic Single-Sited Fieldwork
    How Do Anthropologists Think about the Ethics of Their Work?
    What Is Participant Observation?
    Multisited Fieldwork
    Collecting and Interpreting Data
    The Dialectic of Fieldwork: Interpretation and Translation
    Interpreting Actions and Ideas
    The Dialectic of Fieldwork: An Example
    The Effects of Fieldwork
    The Production of Anthropological Knowledge
    Anthropological Knowledge as Open-Ended
    MODULE SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 9. Why Is Understanding Human Language Important?
    What Makes Language Distinctively Human?
    How Are Language and Culture Related?
    How Do People Talk about Experience?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Cultural Translation
    What Does It Mean to "Learn" a Language?
    How Does Context Affect Language?
    How Does Language Affect How We See the World?
    Pragmatics: How Do We Study Language in Contexts of Use?
    Ethnopragmatics
    What Happens When Languages Come into Contact?
    What Is the Difference between a Pidgin and a Creole?
    How Is Meaning Negotiated?
    What Does Linguistic Inequality Look Like?
    What Is Language Ideology?
    How Have Language Ideologies Been at Work in Studies of African American Speech?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Varieties of African American English
    What Is Raciolinguistics?
    What Is Lost If a Language Dies?
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Language Revitalization
    How Are Language and Truth Connected?
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS
    MODULE 4: Components of Language
    Phonology: Sounds
    Morphology: Word Structure
    Syntax: Sentence Structure
    Semantics: Meaning
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS

    Chapter 10. How Do We Make Meaning?
    What Is Play?
    How Does Play Encourage Reflexivity?
    What Are Some Effects of Play?
    What Is Art?
    Is There a Definition of Art?
    "But Is It Art?"

    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Tango
    "She's Fake": Art and Authenticity
    How Does Hip-Hop Become Japanese?
    What Is Myth?
    How Does Myth Reflect-and Shape-Society?
    Do Myths Help Us Think?
    What Is Ritual?
    How Can Ritual Be Defined?
    How Is Ritual Expressed in Action?
    What Are Rites of Passage?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Video in the Villages
    How Are Play and Ritual Complementary?
    How Are Symbolic Practices And Society Related?
    What Are Symbols?
    What Is Religion?
    How Do Anthropologists Understand the Relations between Religion and Secularism?
    How Do People Communicate in Religion?
    Two Case Studies
    Coping with Misfortune: Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic among the Azande
    Are There Patterns of Witchcraft Accusation?
    Coping with Misfortune: Listening for God among Contemporary Evangelicals in the United States
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: For All Those Who Were Indian in a Former Life
    How Do People Cope with Change?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Custom and Confrontation
    How Are Symbolic Practices Used as Instruments of Power?
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 11. Why Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Relations?
    What Are the Connections between Culture and Livelihood?
    Self-Interest, Institutions, and Morals
    How Do Anthropologists Study Production, Distribution, and Consumption?
    How Are Goods Distributed and Exchanged?
    Capitalism and Neoclassical Economics
    What Are Modes of Exchange?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: "So Much Work, So Much Tragedy . . . and for What?"
    The Maisin and Reciprocity
    Does Production Drive Economic Activities?
    Labor
    Modes of Production

    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Producing Sorghum and Millet in Honduras and the Sudan
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Solidarity Forever
    What Is the Role of Conflict in Material Life?
    Why Do People Consume What They Do?
    The Internal Explanation: Malinowski and Basic Human Needs
    The External Explanation: Cultural Ecology

    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Questioning Collapse
    How Is Consumption Culturally Patterned?
    How Is Consumption Being Studied Today?

    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Fake Masks and Faux Modernity
    The Anthropology of Food and Nutrition
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 12. How Do Anthropologists Study Political Relations?
    How Are Culture and Politics Related?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Politics?
    Is Political Power Nothing More Than Coercion?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Protesters Gird for Long Fight over Opening Peru's Amazon
    What Are Domination and Hegemony?
    What Are Biopower and Governmentality?

    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Reforming the Crow Constitution
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Advertising
    How Do Anthropologists Study Politics of the Nation-State?
    Nation Building in a Postcolonial World: The Example of Fiji
    How Does Globalization Affect the Nation-State?
    Migration, Trans-Border Identities, and Long-Distance Nationalism
    Anthropology and Multicultural Politics in the New Europe

    What Happens to Citizenship in a Globalized World?
    How Can Citizenship Be Flexible?
    What Is Territorial Citizenship?
    What Is Vernacular Statecraft?

    Global Politics in the Twenty-First Century
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 13. What Can Anthropology Teach Us about Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?
    How Did Twentieth-Century Feminism Shape the Anthropological Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?
    How Do Anthropologists Organize the Study of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Consequences of Being a Woman
    How Are Sex and Gender Affected by Other Forms of Identity?
    How Do Ethnographers Study Gender Performativity?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Connections Among Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and the Body?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Connections between Bodies and Technologies?
    How Do Anthropologists Study Relations between Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?
    How Does Ethnography Document Variable Culture Understandings Concerning Sex, Gender, and Sexuality?
    Female Sexual Practices in Mombasa
    Male and Female Sexual Practices in Nicaragua
    Transsexuality and Same-Sex Desire in Iran

    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 14. Where Do Our Relatives Come from and Why Do They Matter?
    How Do Human Beings Organize Interdependence?
    What Is Friendship?
    What Is Kinship?
    What Is the Role of Descent in Kinship?
    Bilateral Kindreds
    What Role Do Lineages Play in Descent?
    Lineage Membership
    The Logic of Lineage Relationships
    What Are Patrilineages?
    What Are Matrilineages?

    What Are Kinship Terminologies?
    What Criteria Are Used for Making Kinship Distinctions?
    What Is Adoption?
    Adoption in Highland Ecuador
    What Is the Relation between Adoption and Child Circulation in the Andes?
    How Flexible Can Relatedness Be?
    Negotiation of Kin Ties among the Ju/'hoansi
    European American Kinship and New Reproductive Technologies
    Assisted Reproduction in Israel
    Compadrazgo in Latin America
    Organ Transplantation and the Creation of New Relatives
    What Is Marriage?
    Toward a Definition of Marriage
    Woman Marriage and Ghost Marriage among the Nuer
    Why Is Marriage a Social Process?
    Patterns of Residence after Marriage
    Single and Plural Spouses

    What Is the Connection between Marriage and Economic Exchange?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Outside Work, Women, and Bridewealth
    What Is a Family?
    What Is the Nuclear Family?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Dowry Too High. Lose Bride and Go to Jail
    What Is the Polygynous Family?
    Extended and Joint Families

    How Are Families Transformed over Time?
    Divorce and Remarriage
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Law, Custom, and Crimes against Women
    How Does International Migration Affect the Family?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Survival and a Surrogate Family
    Anthropology in Everyday Life: Caring for Infibulated Women Giving Birth in Norway
    Families by Choice
    The Flexibility of Marriage
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Why Migrant Women Feed Their Husbands Tamales
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Two Cheers for Gay Marriage
    Love, Marriage, and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 15. What Can Anthropology Tell Us about Social Inequality?
    Class
    Class and Gender in Indonesia
    Class and Caste in the United States?
    Caste
    Caste in India
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Burakumin: Overcoming Hidden Discrimination in Japan
    How Do Caste and Class Intersect in Contemporary India?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: As Economic Turmoil Mounts, So Do Attacks on Hungary's Gypsies
    Race
    Colorism in Nicaragua
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: On the Butt Size of Barbie and Shani: Dolls and Race in the United States
    Ethnicity
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Politics of Ethnicity
    How Do Anthropologists Study Human Rights?
    Are Human Rights Universal?
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Anthropology and Indigenous Rights
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: How Sushi Went Global
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 16. What is Applied Anthropology?
    What Is Medical Anthropology?
    What Makes Medical Anthropology "Biocultural"?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: American Premenstrual Syndrome
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: The Madness of Hunger
    How Do People with Different Cultures Understand the Causes of Sickness and Health?
    Kinds of Selves
    Decentered Selves on the Internet
    ANTHROPOLOGY in Everyday Life: Lead Poisoning among Mexican American Children
    Self and Subjectivity
    Subjectivity, Trauma, and Structural Violence
    How Are Human Sickness and Health Shaped by the Global Capitalist Economy?
    IN THEIR OWN WORDS: Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions
    Health, Human Reproduction, and Global Capitalism
    Medical Anthropology and HIV/AIDS
    The Future of Medical Anthropology
    CHAPTER SUMMARY
    FOR REVIEW
    KEY TERMS
    SUGGESTED READINGS

    Glossary
    References
    Credits
    Index