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Cover

Animal Physiology

Fourth Edition

Richard W. Hill, Gordon A. Wyse, and Margaret Anderson

Publication Date - April 2016

ISBN: 9781605354712

828 pages
Hardcover
9.5 x 11 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $209.99

Presents all the branches of modern animal physiology with a strong emphasis on integration of physiological knowledge, ecology, and evolutionary biology

Description

Animal Physiology, Fourth Edition, presents all the branches of modern animal physiology with a strong emphasis on integration of physiological knowledge, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Integration extends from genes to organ systems and from one physiological discipline to another. The book takes an entirely fresh approach to each topic. Its full-color illustrations include many novel, visually-effective features to help students learn. Each of the twenty-five main chapters starts with an animal example to engage student interest and demonstrate the value of the material that will be learned. The book includes five additional, briefer "At Work" chapters that apply students' newfound physiological knowledge to curiosity-provoking and important topics, including diving by marine mammals, the mechanisms of navigation, and muscle plasticity in use and disuse.

The book is committed to a comparative approach throughout. Whereas mammalian physiology is consistently treated in depth, emphasis is also given to the other vertebrate groups, arthropods, and molluscs. Concepts and integrative themes are emphasized while giving students the specifics they need.

The whole animal is the principal focus of this book. The book's extensive coverage of genomics and cellular-molecular biology is therefore carefully linked to whole-animal biology. With this edition, coverage of physiologically relevant genomics has been greatly expanded. The subject matter of animal physiology is also linked to topics in human affairs, such as athletic training and global warming. Always, the central organizing principle for the array of topics presented is to understand whole animals in the environments where they live.

Complex principles are developed clearly using classroom-tested pedagogy, often with carefully designed conceptual illustrations. Concepts from chemistry, physics, and mathematics are explained so that the book will be accessible to science students at the sophomore or higher level. Pedagogical aids include embedded summaries throughout chapters, study questions (with online answers), partially annotated reference lists, an extensive glossary, ten appendices (covering logarithms, phylogenetically independent contrasts, basic physics terms, etc.), and an upgraded index. Carefully worded balloons are used extensively to guide students through the interpretation of figures. For all three authors, teaching physiology to undergraduate students has been a lifelong priority.

RESOURCES

For Students

The Animal Physiology Companion Website includes content that expands on the coverage in the textbook as well as study and review resources for students.

*Chapter Outlines & Summaries provide quick overviews and reviews of each chapter
*Box Extensions expand on topics introduced in the textbook and cover important additional conceptual material
*Online Quizzes cover key material in each chapter. These can be assigned by the instructor or used as self-quizzes.
*Flashcards help students learn and review the many new terms introduced in the textbook
*Glossary

For Instructors (available to qualified adopters)


The Animal Physiology, Fourth Edition Instructor's Resource Library (IRL) contains a wealth of resources for use in lecture development and assessment. Contents include:

Presentation Resources
*Figures & Tables: All of the textbook's figures (both line art and photographs) are provided as JPEG files at two sizes: high-resolution (excellent for use in PowerPoint) and low-resolution (ideal for web pages and other uses). All the artwork has been reformatted and optimized for exceptional image quality when projected in class.
*Unlabeled Figures: Unlabeled versions of all figures are provided

PowerPoint Presentations:
*Figures & Tables: Includes all the figures and tables from the chapter, making it easy to insert any figure into an existing presentation
*Layered Art PowerPoints: Selected key figures throughout the textbook are prepared as step-by-step and animated presentations that build the figure one piece at a time

The Test Bank consists of a broad range of questions covering the key facts and concepts in each chapter. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions are provided. The Test Bank also includes the Companion Website online quiz questions.

The Computerized Test Bank is provided in the Diploma exam-creation program (software included). Diploma makes it easy to assemble quizzes and exams from any combination of publisher-provided questions and instructor-created questions. In addition, quizzes and exams can be exported to many different course management systems, such as Blackboard, WebCT, and Moodle.

Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions

New to this Edition

  • Key updates, expanded discussions, improved organization, and additional pedagogical aids are featured in this new edition, with specific attention paid to the introductory chapter, and the chapters on physiological development and epigenetics, nutrition and digestion, thermal relations, sensory processes, endocrinology, animal navigation, control of movement, muscle, breathing, and osmoregulation
  • Greatly enhanced genomics content is incorporated into all relevant chapters
  • All figures were reviewed for pedagogical effectiveness; more than 100 figures or tables have been revised, and thirty-three new figures incorporated
  • All chapters have been updated based on the latest literature and terminology
  • Embracing opportunities for a "less is more" approach, hundreds of sentences and dozens of paragraphs have been improved for efficiency and effectiveness
  • References to the scientific literature are in-depth and updated
  • Online answers for all study questions are provided to instructors

About the Author(s)

Richard W. Hill is Professor in the Department of Integrative Biology at Michigan State University and a frequent Guest Investigator at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Michigan. Apart from the multiple editions of Animal Physiology, Dr. Hill is a coauthor of Principles of Life, Second Edition, and has authored two other books on animal physiology, as well as numerous articles for scientific journals, encyclopedias, and edited volumes. Among the awards he has received are the Outstanding Faculty Award (Michigan State University Senior Class Council) and election as Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was a U.S. Senior Fulbright Scholar from 2000-2001. His research interests include: temperature regulation and energetics in birds and mammals, especially neonates; and environmental physiology of marine tertiary sulfonium and quaternary ammonium compounds, especially in the contexts of biogeochemistry and animal-algal symbioses.

Gordon A. Wyse is Professor of Biology Emeritus and Lecturer at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan, then did postdoctoral and sabbatical work at Stanford University and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Wyse helped found the graduate program in Neuroscience and Behavior at UMass Amherst. He has served as Associate Dean of the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and on the Editorial Board of Advances in Physiology Education. His research interests include the neural control of feeding behavior and other behavior patterns.

Margaret Anderson is Professor Emerita of Biological Sciences at Smith College. After completing her Ph.D. at Stanford University, she undertook postdoctoral studies at the Universidad Católica de Chile, Harvard University, and the University of Puerto Rico. At Smith, Dr. Anderson served as an Academic Dean, Director of the Program in Neuroscience, and premedical advisor. She is one of six founding members of the Consortium of Medical Schools and Women's Colleges, and she contributes to several efforts that encourage women and minorities in the sciences. Her research interests include the functional properties of excitable cells.

Previous Publication Date(s)

March 2012
April 2008
April 2004

Table of Contents

    PART I. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIOLOGY

    1. Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage
    The Importance of Physiology
    The Highly Integrative Nature of Physiology
    Mechanism and Origin: Physiology's Two Central Questions
    This Book's Approach to Physiology
    Animals
    Environments
    Evolutionary Processes individual Variation and the Question of "Personalities" within a Population

    2. Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology
    Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes
    Epithelia
    Elements of Metabolism
    Enzyme Fundamentals
    Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes
    Evolution of Enzymes
    Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames
    The Life and Death of Proteins
    Light and Color
    Reception and
    Use of Signals by Cells

    3. Genomics, Proteomics, and Related Approaches to Physiology
    Genomics
    Top-down versus Bottom-up Approaches to the Study of Physiology
    Screening or Profiling as a Research Strategy
    The Study of Gene Transcription: Transcriptomics
    Proteomics
    Metabolomics


    4. Physiological Development and Epigenetics
    The Physiology of Immature Animals Always Differs from That of Adults
    Introduction to Phenotypic Plasticity and Epigenetics
    Phenotypic Plasticity during Development
    Epigenetics

    5. Transport of Solutes and Water
    Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion
    Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion
    Active Transport
    Diversity and Modulation of Channels and Transporters
    Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions
    Osmosis

    PART II. FOOD, ENERGY, AND TEMPERATURE

    6. Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion
    Nutrition
    Feeding
    Digestion and Absorption
    Responses to Eating
    The Control of Hunger and Satiation
    Nutritional Physiology in Longer Frames of Time

    7. Energy Metabolism
    Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement
    Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates

    Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate
    Metabolic Scaling: The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size

    8. Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism
    Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications
    Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production
    Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types
    The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise
    Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment

    9. The Energetics of Aerobic Activity
    How Active Animals Are Studied
    The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise
    The Maximum Rate of Oxygen Consumption
    The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life
    Long-Distance Migration
    Ecological Energetics

    10. Thermal Relations
    Temperature and Heat
    Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments
    Poikilothermy (Ectothermy)

    Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds
    Warm-Bodied Fish
    Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects
    Coda

    11. Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in Frigid Places
    Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult Reindeer
    Newborn Reindeer
    The Future of Reindeer: Timing and Ice
    Thermoregulatory Development: Small Mammals Compared with Large
    The Effect of Body Size on Mammals' Lives in Cold Environments: An Overview
    Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries

    PART III. INTEGRATING SYSTEMS

    12. Neurons
    The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared
    Neurons Are Organized into Functional Circuits in Nervous Systems

    The Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue
    The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
    The Action Potential
    The Propagation of Action Potentials

    13. Synapses
    Synaptic Transmission is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical
    Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability

    Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Are Exemplified by the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction
    Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets
    Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds
    Postsynaptic Receptors for Fast ionotropic Actions: Ligand-Gated Channels
    Postsynaptic Receptors for Slow, Metabotropic Actions: G Protein-Coupled Receptors
    Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity

    14. Sensory Processes
    Organization of Sensory Systems
    Mechanoreception and Touch

    Vestibular Organs and Hearing
    Chemoreception and Taste
    Olfaction
    Photoreception
    Visual Sensory Processing

    15. Nervous System Organization and Biological Clocks
    The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems
    The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of Nervous Systems

    Biological Clocks

    16. Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
    Introduction to Endocrine Principles
    Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones
    Types of Endocrine Cells and Glands
    Control of Endocrine Secretion: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland
    The Mammalian Stress Response
    Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals
    Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates
    Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism in Mammals
    Endocrine Principles in Review
    Chemical Signals along a Distance Continuum
    Insect Metamorphosis

    17. Reproduction
    The Two Worlds of Reproductive Physiology
    What Aspects of Reproduction Do Physiologists Study?

    The Environment as a Player in Reproduction
    Reproduce Once or More Than Once?
    Eggs, Provisioning, and Parental Care
    External or Internal Fertilization?
    The Timing of Reproductive Cycles
    Sex Change
    Reproductive Endocrinology of Placental Mammals

    18. Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation
    The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation
    Navigational Strategies
    Innate and Learned Components of Navigation

    PART IV. MOVEMENT AND MUSCLE

    19. Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior
    Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle is the Basis of Animal Behavior
    Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior
    Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement

    20. Muscle
    Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Cells
    Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    Whole Skeletal Muscles
    Muscle Energetics
    Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle
    Vertebrate Smooth (Unstriated) Muscle
    Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle

    21. Movement and Muscle at Work: Plasticity in Response to Use and Disuse
    Muscle Phenotypes
    Atrophy
    Regulating Muscle Mass
    Summary

    PART V. OXYGEN, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND INTERNAL TRANSPORT

    22. Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology
    The Properties of Gases in Gas Mixtures and Aqueous Solutions
    Diffusion of Gases
    Convective Transport of Gases: Bulk Flow
    The Oxygen Cascade
    Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units
    The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water
    Respiratory Environments

    23. External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing
    Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration
    Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation
    Low O2: Detection and Response
    Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing
    Breathing by Fish
    Breathing by Amphibians
    Breathing by Reptiles Other than Birds
    Breathing by Mammals
    Breathing by Birds
    Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups
    Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods

    24. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids (with an Introduction to Acid-Base Physiology)
    The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments
    The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments

    The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals
    Carbon Dioxide Transport
    Acid-Base Physiology

    25. Circulation
    Hearts
    Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems
    Circulation in Mammals and Birds
    Circulation in Fish
    Circulation in Amphibians and in Reptiles Other than Birds
    Concluding Comments on Vertebrates
    Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems
    Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems

    26. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by Marine Mammals
    Diving Feats and Behavior
    Types of Dives and the Importance of Method
    Physiology: The Big Picture

    The Oxygen Stores of Divers
    Circulatory Adjustments during Dives
    Metabolism during Dives
    The Aerobic Dive Limit: One of Physiology's Key Benchmarks for Understanding Diving Behavior
    Decompression Sickness
    A Possible Advantage for Pulmonary O2 Sequestration in Deep Dives

    PART VI. WATER, SALTS, AND EXCRETION

    27. Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms
    The Importance of Animal Body Fluids
    The Relationships among Body Fluids
    Types of Regulation and Conformity
    Natural Aquatic Environments
    Natural Terrestrial Environments
    Organs of Blood Regulation
    Food and Drinking Water
    Metabolic Water
    Cell-Volume Regulation
    From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts

    28. Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments
    Animals in Freshwater
    Animals in the Ocean
    Animals That Face Changes in Salinity
    Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals
    Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles
    Animals on Land: Case Studies
    Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals

    29. Kidneys and Excretion (with Notes on Nitrogen Excretion)
    Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function
    Urine Formation in Amphibians
    Urine Formation in Mammals
    Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates
    Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans
    Urine Formation in Molluscs
    Urine Formation in Insects
    Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion

    30. Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of Deserts and Dry Savannas
    Desert and Dry-Savanna Environments
    The Relations of Animals to Water
    The Dramatic Adaptations of Particular Species

    Appendix A. The système international and other Units of measure
    Appendix B. Prefixes indicating orders of magnitude
    Appendix C. Gases at Standard Temperature and Pressure
    Appendix D. Fitting Lines to Data
    Appendix E. Logarithms
    Appendix F. Exponential and Allometric Equations
    Appendix G. Phylogenetically independent Contrasts
    Appendix H. Mitosis and Meiosis
    Appendix I. The Standard Amino Acids
    Appendix J. Basic Physics Terms
    Appendix K. Summary of Major Bloodborne Hormones in Mammals
    Glossary
    Photograph Credits
    Figure and Table Citations
    Additional References
    Index

Teaching Resources

For Students

The Animal Physiology Companion Website includes content that expands on the coverage in the textbook as well as study and review resources for students.

*Chapter Outlines & Summaries provide quick overviews and reviews of each chapter
*Box Extensions expand on topics introduced in the textbook and cover important additional conceptual material
*Online Quizzes cover key material in each chapter. These can be assigned by the instructor or used as self-quizzes.
*Flashcards help students learn and review the many new terms introduced in the textbook
*Glossary

For Instructors (available to qualified adopters)


The Animal Physiology, Fourth Edition Instructor's Resource Library (IRL) contains a wealth of resources for use in lecture development and assessment. Contents include:

Presentation Resources
*Figures & Tables: All of the textbook's figures (both line art and photographs) are provided as JPEG files at two sizes: high-resolution (excellent for use in PowerPoint) and low-resolution (ideal for web pages and other uses). All the artwork has been reformatted and optimized for exceptional image quality when projected in class.
*Unlabeled Figures: Unlabeled versions of all figures are provided

PowerPoint Presentations:
*Figures & Tables: Includes all the figures and tables from the chapter, making it easy to insert any figure into an existing presentation
*Layered Art PowerPoints: Selected key figures throughout the textbook are prepared as step-by-step and animated presentations that build the figure one piece at a time

The Test Bank consists of a broad range of questions covering the key facts and concepts in each chapter. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions are provided. The Test Bank also includes the Companion Website online quiz questions.

The Computerized Test Bank is provided in the Diploma exam-creation program (software included). Diploma makes it easy to assemble quizzes and exams from any combination of publisher-provided questions and instructor-created questions. In addition, quizzes and exams can be exported to many different course management systems, such as Blackboard, WebCT, and Moodle.

Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions

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