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Cover

Ancient Roman Civilization: History and Sources

753 BCE to 640 CE

Ralph W. Mathisen

Publication Date - September 2018

ISBN: 9780190849603

640 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $64.95

Combines an engaging narrative and extensive primary sources to make Roman history more accessible than ever before

Description

Ancient Roman Civilization: History and Sources: 753 BCE to 640 CE integrates in a single volume both a historical narrative and parallel translated primary sources. The book's unifying theme of cultural confrontation--how the Romans interacted or engaged with a multitude of other Mediterranean, Asiatic, and African cultures--is interwoven throughout.

Features

  • Sixty-five diverse primary sources, both textual and visual, that range widely, from Livy and Plutarch to Vergil, the New Testament, and Procopius
  • "A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words": Illustrations of distinctive material artifacts--including buildings, frescoes, pots, and statues--accompanied by brief essays
  • "In Their Own Words": Extended quotations that exemplify each chapter's main themes
  • "History Laboratory": Concise observations on how historians use different methodologies to interpret historical evidence and to debunk pseudoscience
  • "Digging Antiquity": Illustrated features discussing specific archaeological sites, many of which can still be visited today
  • "Mysteries of History": Selections that address puzzling and intriguing aspects of the past
  • "Historical Controversy": Reflections that explore conflicting modern interpretations of ancient phenomena
  • "Cultural Encounters": Selections that pay special attention to the peoples with whom the Romans interacted
  • "Sticky Notes" that focus on modern interpretations of ancient phenomena, present alternative histories, or ask students to consider issues of causality, race, ethnicity, gender, and culture
  • "Looking Back/Looking Ahead" sections summarizing the key takeaways of each chapter and outlining the main points that will be examined in the next chapter

About the Author(s)

Ralph W. Mathisen is Professor of History, Classics, and Medieval Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has authored, edited, or coedited thirteen books and has published 100 scholarly articles.

Reviews

"Ancient Roman Civilization provides a solid primary-source approach to Roman history--and much more. The text is particularly effective in contextualizing the rise and fall of Rome within the geographical and cultural limits of the greater Mediterranean basin and its various peoples from early Celts and Scythians to the emergence of the Muslim and Byzantine empires."--Brian Duvick, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

"The integration of sources into the narrative is an excellent idea!"--Timothy Doran, California State University, Los Angeles

Table of Contents

    List of Maps
    Special Feature s
    Preface
    Note on Spelling and Pronunciation
    Timeline
    About the Author
    PART I. THE ORIGINS OF ROME
    Chapter 1. The Wider World of Early Rome: Cultural Encounters
    The Peoples of Western Europe
    The Iberian Culture of Spain
    The Celts
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Dama de Elche
    Northern Europe
    The Peoples of North Africa
    The Saharan World
    The History Laboratory: Ancient Civilizations from Above
    Carthage
    Digging Antiquity: Carthage
    The Greeks
    The Wars of the Successors
    The Hellenistic Greek Kingdoms
    The Peoples of Western Asia
    The Jews
    The Nabataean Arabs
    Steppe Nomads: Scythians and Sarmatians
    The Parthians
    SOURCES
    Source 1.1: The Expansion of the Celts into Greece and Anatolia (279-277 BCE)
    Justin, Philippic Histories, Books 24-28
    Source 1.2: The Constitution of Carthage (ca. 340 BCE)
    Aristotle, Politics, Book 2, Chapter 11
    Source 1.3: The Wars of the Successors (323-301 BCE)
    Justin, Philippic Histories, Book 13
    Source 1.4: Revolt of the Maccabees (167 BCE)
    The Book of Maccabees
    Source 1.5: The Scythians (513 BCE)
    Herodotus, The Histories, Book 4
    Source 1.6: The Parthians (ca. 250-100 BCE)
    Justin, Philippic Histories, Book 41
    CHAPTER 2. ARCHAIC ROME (753-509 BCE)
    Cultural Encounters of the Early Romans
    The Peoples of Italy
    The Etruscans
    Mysteries of History: The Origin of the Etruscans
    The Western Greeks
    Rome of the Kings (753-509 BCE)
    The Founding of Rome
    Rome Becomes a City
    Early Roman Society
    The History Laboratory: Reconstructing Early Rome
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Lapis Niger
    The Fall of the Monarchy
    SOURCES
    Source 2.1: The Founding of Rome (753 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Romulus
    Source 2.2: Early Roman Law (ca. 550 BCE)
    The Lapis Niger
    Source 2.3: The Violation of Lucretia and the Founding of the Roman Republic (509 BCE)
    Livy, From The Founding of the City, Book 1, Chapters 57-60
    PART II. THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
    CHAPTER 3. THE EARLY ROMAN REPUBLIC (509-350 BCE)
    The Creation of the Roman Republic (509-246 BCE)
    Roman Republican Government
    Citizenship and Social Organization
    Historical Controversy: The Origins of Roman Social Relations
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Denarius of Marcus Junius Brutus
    The Conflict of the Orders (500-287 BCE)
    Strength in Numbers
    Social and Political Reforms
    Consolidation of Senate Authority
    Roman Law
    Struggling to Survive (509-350 BCE)
    Early Conflicts
    The Gallic Sack of Rome
    Digging Antiquity: The Servian Wall
    SOURCES
    Source 3.1: The Origins of Roman Law (451-450 BCE)
    The "Twelve Tables"
    Source 3.2: The Sack of Rome by the Gauls (390 BCE)
    Livy, From the Founding of the City, Book 5, Chapters 32-42
    CHAPTER 4. THE EXPANSION OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC (350-120 BCE)
    Wars in Italy (350-268 BCE)
    The Nature of Roman Warfare in the Middle Republic
    The First Samnite War (343-341 BCE)
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Denarius of Marcus Sergius Silus
    The Great Latin Revolt (340-338 BCE)
    The Second Samnite War (326-304 BCE)
    The Third Samnite War (298-290 BCE)
    The Pyrrhic War (280-275 BCE)
    Historical Controversy: The Nature of Roman Imperialism
    Wars in the Western Mediterranean (264-201 BCE)
    The First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
    The Illyrian and Celtic Wars (229-219 BCE)
    The Second Punic War (218-201 BCE)
    Warfare Spreads to the East (200-146 BCE)
    The Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE)
    The Syrian War (192-188 BCE)
    The Third Macedonian War (170-168 BCE)
    The Third Punic War (149-146 BCE)
    The Fourth Macedonian War and Achaean Revolt (149-146 BCE)
    The Wars in Spain (181-133 BCE)
    SOURCES
    Source 4.1: The Devotion of Decius Mus (295 BCE)
    Livy, From the Founding of the City, Book 10, Chapters 27-29
    Source 4.2: The Battle of Cannae (216 BCE)
    Livy, From the Founding of the City, Book 22, Chapters 34-57
    CHAPTER 5. THE IMPACT OF EXPANSION ON ROME IN THE SECOND CENTURY BCE
    Economic Developments
    Roman Coinage
    Public Expenses
    The Rise of the Equestrians
    What to Do with the Provinces
    Provincial Administration
    Problems in the Provinces
    The Extortion Court
    Social and Cultural Consequences of Expansion
    Intellectual and Literary Development
    Religious Assimilation
    The Changing Status of Women
    The Agricultural-Military Crisis
    Tiberius Gracchus and the Distribution of Public Land
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Denarius of Publius Licinius Nerva
    What to Do with the Italian Allies?
    Gaius Gracchus and the Expansion of Popular Tactics
    SOURCES
    Source 5.1: The Bacchanalian Scandal and a Criminal Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Cultures on Rome (186 BCE)
    Livy, From the Founding of the City, Book 39, Chapters 5-19, and "The Recommendation of the Senate on the Bacchanalians"
    Source 5.2: A Roman "New Man" Confronts Greek Culture (234-149 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder
    Source 5.3: The Land Law of Tiberius Gracchus (133 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus
    CHAPTER 6. THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC (120-44 BCE)
    From One Crisis to the Next (113-88 BCE)
    Marius and the Volunteer Army
    The History Laboratory: Climate and History, The Cimbrian Flood
    The Revolt of the Italian Allies
    An Age of Generals (88-60 BCE)
    The Regnum Sullanum
    Crassus and the Revolt of Spartacus
    The Rise of Pompey
    Marcus Tullius Cicero and the Conspiracy of Catiline
    Julius Caesar and the First Triumvirate (60-44 BCE)
    The Rise of Julius Caesar
    The First Triumvirate
    Digging Antiquity: The Siege of Alesia
    The Civil War
    Late Republican Literature
    Late Republican Poets
    Politicians at Leisure
    SOURCES
    Source 6.1: Sulla's March on Rome (88 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Sulla
    Source 6.2: The Slave Revolt of Spartacus (73-71 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Crassus
    Source 6.3: The Catilinarian Conspiracy (63 BCE)
    Cicero, First Speech against Catiline
    Source 6.4: The Siege of Alesia (52 BCE)
    Caesar, Gallic Wars, Book 7, Chapters 68-89
    Source 6.5: Late Republican Poetry (ca. 60 BCE)
    Catullus, Poems
    PART III. THE PRINCIPATE
    CHAPTER 7. AUGUSTUS AND THE CREATION OF THE PRINCIPATE (44 BCE-14 CE)
    The Second Triumvirate (43-31 BC)
    The Advent of Octavian
    Discord among the Triumvirs
    Mysteries of History: Cleopatra, The Legend and the Reality
    The Establishment of the Principate (31-21 BCE)
    From Octavian to Augustus
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Caesarion and Cleopatra
    The Principate
    The Age of Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE)
    The Provinces: Expansion and Defense
    Provincial Administration
    Winning the Hearts and Minds of the People
    Dealing with the Army
    Propaganda
    The Augustan Golden Age of Golden Literature
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Gemma Augustea
    The Imperial Succession
    The History Laboratory: Reconstructing the Deeds of the Deified Augustus
    SOURCES
    Source 7.1: Cleopatra, Pharaoh and Queen of Egypt (48-31 BCE)
    Plutarch, Life of Caesar and Life of Antony
    Source 7.2: An Exemplary Roman Woman (ca. 20 BCE)
    The "Praise of Turia"
    Source 7.3: Anchises Prophesizes the Future of Rome (19 BCE)
    Vergil, Aeneid, Book 6
    Source 7.4: The Secular Games (17 BCE)
    Horace, "The Secular Hymn"
    Source 7.5: The Deeds of the Deified Augustus (14 CE)
    Res gestae divi Augusti
    CHAPTER 8. JULIO-CLAUDIANS, FLAVIANS, AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF EMPIRE (14-96 CE)
    The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BCE-96 CE)
    Tiberius (14-37)
    Caligula (37-41)
    Claudius (41-54)
    Nero (54-68)
    Cultural Encounters: Rome Confronts Charismatic Barbarian Leaders
    The Year of the Four Emperors
    The Flavian Dynasty (69-96 CE)
    Vespasian (69-79)
    Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96)
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Sack of Jerusalem (70 CE)
    Digging Antiquity: Pompeii
    The Origins of Christianity
    Jesus of Nazareth
    Christians and Jews
    SOURCES
    Source 8.1: The Emperor Caligula (37-41 CE)
    Suetonius, Life of Caligula
    Source 8.2: Expanding the Membership of the Senate (48 CE)
    The "Claudian Recommendation of the Senate Regarding the Right of Honors for the Gauls," and Tacitus, Annals, Book 11, Chapters 23-25
    Source 8.3: The Rebellion of Boudicca (60-61 CE)
    Tacitus, Annals, Book 14, Chapters 31-37
    Source 8.4: The Accession of the Emperor Vespasian (69 CE)
    "The Law on the Imperium of Vespasian"
    Source 8.5: The Fall of Masada (74 CE)
    Josephus, The Wars of The Jews, Book 7, Chapter 9
    Source 8.6: The Speeches of Agricola and Calgacus before the Battle of Mount Graupius (83 CE)
    Tacitus, Agricola, 29-32
    Source 8.7: The Trial of Jesus before Pontius Pilate (ca. 28/37 CE)
    The New Testament, Matthew 27:11-16; Mark 5:1-30; John 18:28-40 and 19:1-24; and Luke 23:1-25
    CHAPTER 9. THE ROMAN PEACE (96-192)
    The Antonine Dynasty (96-192)
    Nerva (96-98)
    Trajan (98-117)
    Hadrian (117-138)
    Antoninus Pius (138-161)
    Marcus Aurelius (161-180)
    Historical Controversy: The Dark Side of Romanization
    The Evolution of Roman Law
    The End of the Antonines
    The World of the Pax Romana
    Society and Culture
    Entertainment
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Female Gladiators
    Digging Antiquity: The Forma Urbis Romae
    The Economy
    The Silver Age of Roman Literature
    Cultural Encounters: Rome and the Far East
    Religious Diversity
    Traditional Religious Practices
    Judaism in the Roman World
    The Christians and Rome
    SOURCES
    Source 9.1: Hadrian Inspects The Troops (128 CE)
    The Lambaesis Inscription
    Source 9.2: Roman Misogyny (ca. 100 CE)
    Juvenal, Satire 6
    Source 9.3: Praise of the Roman Empire (ca. 155 CE)
    Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus, To Rome
    Source 9.4: The Jews Confront Rome (133-180 CE)
    Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 39a, Sabbath 33b, Me'ilah 17b
    Source 9.5: Dealing with Christians (ca. 112 CE)
    Pliny, Letters 10.96-97
    CHAPTER 10. THE SEVERANS AND THE THIRD-CENTURY CRISIS (192-284)
    The Severan Dynasty (193-235)
    Jockeying for Power
    The Reign and Policies of Septimius Severus
    A Restive Army
    Financial Collapse
    The History Laboratory: The Debasement of the Silver Coinage
    Imperial Women and Boy Emperors
    The Imperial Crisis (235-284)
    A Multitude of Emperors
    The Illyrian Emperors
    Hopeful Signs
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Christ as the Sun God
    SOURCES
    Source 10.1: The Antonine Constitution (212 CE)
    Papyrus Gissensis 40; and Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 78, Chapter 9
    Source 10.2: "The Vigil of Venus" (ca. 200/300 CE)
    Pervigilium Veneris
    Source 10.3: The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas (7 March 203 CE)
    The Passion of Saint Perpetua, Saint Felicitas, and their Companions
    Source 10.4: The New Persian Empire (ca. 270 CE)
    The Shapur I Inscription
    Source 10.5: Zenobia and the Empire of Palmyra (267-272 CE)
    The Augustan History, "Odenathus" and "Zenobia"
    PART IV. LATE ANTIQUITY
    CHAPTER 11. THE CREATION OF THE LATE ROMAN EMPIRE (284-337)
    Diocletian and the Late Roman Empire
    Diocletian and the Dominate
    Strategies for Survival
    Digging Antiquity: Piazza Armerina
    Constantine and the Late Roman Empire
    The Rise of Constantine
    Strategies for Survival
    Constantine and Christianity
    Using Religion to Support the Empire
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Arch of Constantine
    The Emperor's Role in the Christian Church
    Historical Controversy: Constantine's Christianity
    Thinking of the Future
    Constantine's Successors
    The Legacy of Diocletian and Constantine
    SOURCES
    Source 11.1: The "Edict on Maximum Prices" (301 CE)
    Edictum de pretiis rerum venalium
    Source 11.2: The Reforms of the Diocletian and the "Great Persecution" (303-311 CE)
    Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, 1-35
    Source 11.3: The Edict of Milan (312/313 CE)
    Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persectors, 45-48
    Source 11.4: The Council of Nicaea (325 CE)
    Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 2.61-71. 3.6-14
    CHAPTER 12. THE CHRISTIAN EMPIRE AND THE LATE ROMAN WORLD (337-395)
    The Successors of Constantine (337-395)
    The Dynasty of Constantine
    The Dynasty of Valentinian and Theodosius
    The Triumph of Christianity and the World of the Church
    Christian Competitors
    The Political Victory of Christianity
    The Christian Life
    Asceticism and Monasticism
    The Late Roman World
    The Role of the State
    Late Roman Economy and Infrastructure
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Late Roman Governor Hears a Case
    Late Roman Society
    New Opportunities
    Late Antique Literary Culture
    The History Laboratory: The Creation of the Christian Biblical Canon
    SOURCES
    Source 12.1: The Imperial Oppression of Pagans, Jews, and Heretics
    The Theodosian Code (437 CE)
    Source 12.2: The Murder of Hypatia of Alexandria (415 CE)
    Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, Book 7, Chapter 15; and John of Nikiû, Chronicle, Chapter 84
    Source 12.3: Monastic Life on the Eastern Frontier (CA. 350/390 CE)
    Jerome, The Life of Malchus the Captive Monk
    Source 12.4: The Late Roman Criminal Legal Process (ca. 370 CE)
    Jerome, Letter 1
    Source 12.5: The Retreat to the Countryside (ca. 415 CE)
    The Inscription of Claudius Postumus Dardanus
    CHAPTER 13. THE FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE (375-476)
    A New Set of Problems
    Cracks in the Facade
    The Late Roman Empire and its Neighbors
    The Arrival of the Visigoths
    Cultural Encounters: The Huns
    The Final Separation
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Gold Medallion of Valens
    The Fall of the West
    The "Barbarian Invasions"
    Digging Antiquity: The Sack of Rome by the Visigoths
    Perceptions of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
    Historical Controversy: The Barbarian Settlement, Catastrophe Versus Transformation
    SOURCES
    Source 13.1: The Battle of Adrianople (378 CE)
    Ammianus Marcellinus, Histories, Book 31, Chapters 12-14
    Source 13.2: The Sack of Rome by the Visigoths (410 CE)
    Orosius, History against the Pagans, Book 7, Chapters 38-40
    Source 13.3: The Sack of Rome by the Visigoths in God's Plan (410 CE)
    Augustine, City Of God, Book 1
    Source 13.4: The Sack of Rome by the Vandals (455 CE)
    Procopius, History of the Wars, Book 3, Chapter 5
    Source 13.5: The Last Emperor in Rome (476 CE)
    CHAPTER 14. THE BARBARIAN SUCCESSOR KINGDOMS: THE END OF ANTIQUITY IN THE WEST (476-751)
    The Post-Roman West
    The Nature of Barbarian Rule
    Potential Problems
    The History Laboratory: Ethnicity versus History versus Culture
    Barbarian Kingdoms
    The Visigoths
    The Vandals
    The Ostrogoths
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Medallion of Theoderic the Great
    The Anglo-Saxons and Irish
    The Burgundians
    The Franks
    Classical Culture in Post-Roman Empire
    The Last Latin Classical Writers
    The Preservation of Classical Culture
    SOURCES
    Source 14.1: The Visigothic King and His Court (ca. 455/464 CE)
    Sidonius Apollinaris, Letters 2.1
    Source 14.2: The End of the Vandal Kingdom (533 CE)
    Procopius, History of the Wars, Book 3, Chapters 10-20
    Source 14.3: The Conversion of Clovis (496 CE)
    Gregory of Tours, Histories, Book 2, Chapters 28-31
    Source 14.4: The Persistence of the Classical Tradition of Barbarian Europe (ca. 575 CE)
    The Poem of Eucheria
    CHAPTER 15. BYZANTIUM AND ISLAM: THE END OF ANTIQUITY IN THE EAST (402-650)
    The Byzantine Empire
    The Age of Theodosius II
    Marcian and the Quarrel over the Nature of Christ
    The Dynasty of Leo
    The Age of Justinian
    The Policies of Justinian
    Digging Antiquity: Hagia Sophia
    The Successors of Justinian
    A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Court of Justinian and Theodora
    Heraclius and the Greek Empire
    The Rise of the Arabs and Islam
    Cultural Encounters: Desert Nomads, The Arabs and Saracens
    Arabia in the Classical World
    Muhammad and the Rise of Islam
    The Confrontation between Byzantium and the Arabs
    Mysteries of History: The Destruction of the Library of Alexandria
    The Expansion of the Muslim World
    The End of Antiquity
    SOURCES
    Source 15.1: The Acclamations of the Senate of Rome (438)
    Theodosian Code, "Acts of the Senate"
    Source 15.2: The Character of Justinian and Theodora (527-548 CE)
    Procopius, Secret History, Prologue, 1-12
    Source 15.3: The Rise of Islam (627-629 CE)
    al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, 1619
    Source 15.4: The Muslim Conquest of Egypt (640 CE)
    John of Nikiû, Chronicle, Chapters 111-120
    Glossary
    Credits
    Index

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