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Analysis of Tonal Music

A Schenkerian Approach

Third Edition

Allen Cadwallader and David Gagne

Publication Date - September 2010

ISBN: 9780199732470

432 pages
7 x 10 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $103.95

An authoritative, logically organized introduction to Schenker's ideas with corresponding workbook


Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive, logically organized introduction to the fundamental principles of Schenkerian technique.

Rather than relying on stereotypical models or formulas, authors Allen Cadwallader and David Gagné use specific, memorable compositions to explain structural principles. This approach teaches students how to think about and critically examine music in ways that will inform their understanding and performance of great compositions of Western art music.

Part 1 covers principles fundamental to the study of Schenkerian analysis and includes discussions of melody, counterpoint, bass-line structures, the imaginary continuo, linear techniques, and the essential properties of the Ursatz (fundamental structure). Part 2 presents complete compositions by formal category, beginning with one-part forms; proceeding through binary, ternary, and rondo forms; and concluding with the sonata principle. The book includes more than 200 analytical graphs--some new to this edition--an appendix on graphic notation, and a bibliography.


* Makes more frequent reference to the principles of strict counterpoint introduced in Chapter 2
* Provides enhanced discussions of harmonic structure and of the imaginary continuo as a tool for analysis (Chapter 3)
* Places greater emphasis throughout Part 2 on Schenker's ideas on musical form
* Reorders Chapter 9 to present the typical formal structures for binary form in a way that parallels Schenker's ideas about form and structure
* Includes a new analysis of a Brahms Intermezzo (a composite ternary form) in Chapter 10
* Features a completely revised concluding chapter that discusses Schenker's ideas on form in relation to common tonal patterns (i.e., structural "paradigms")

The third edition is supplemented by a thoroughly revised Student Workbook that guides students systematically through the process of analysis.

About the Author(s)

Allen Cadwallader is Professor of Music Theory at the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music. He is the editor of Essays from the Fourth International Schenker Symposium, Volume 1 (2008) and Trends in Schenkerian Research (1990). His articles have appeared in Music Theory Spectrum, Music Analysis, Intégral, Theory and Practice, and Journal of Music Theory.

David Gagné is Associate Professor of Music Theory at Queens College, City University of New York. He is the coeditor of Structure and Meaning in Tonal Music: Festschrift in Honor of Carl Schachter (2006). His articles and reviews have appeared in journals and books including The Music Forum, Music Theory Spectrum, Indiana Theory Review, Intégral, Schenker Studies 2, and Trends in Schenkerian Research.

Previous Publication Date(s)

September 2010
December 2006
January 1998


"The third edition of Analysis of Tonal Music brings improvements and clarifications to a textbook that already is the most well-grounded, authoritative source. . . . The text presents an authentic understanding of the tradition of Schenker's theory; it far supersedes any competitors, and it is the only Schenkerian text I recommend."--Frank Samarotto, Indiana University

"The greatest strengths of this textbook are its attractive and engaging writing style, its well-paced introduction to essential concepts, its care and attention to musical details beyond reduction to archetype, and its well-chosen excerpts for analytical demonstration. . . . The book covers all the topics I introduce to students and does so in a thoughtful, clear manner. It provides a firm foundation upon which students can develop their hearing and thinking about music from a Schenkerian perspective."--Michael Baker, University of Kentucky

Table of Contents



    1. Introduction

    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1, I

    2. Melody and Counterpoint
    Some Characteristics of Melody
    Structural Melody

    3. Bass Lines and Harmonic Structure
    Tonic Harmony (T Class)
    Intermediate Harmonies (Int Class)
    Dominant Harmony (D Class)
    Larger Contexts
    Chord Prolongation: Summary

    4. Linear Techniques
    Linear Progressions
    Linear Intervallic Patterns
    The Neighbor Note
    Linear Intervallic Patterns: Summary

    5. Tonal Structure
    Notational Symbols
    Tonal Structure and the Ursatz
    The Bass Arpeggiation (Bassbrechung)
    The Fundamental Line (Urlinie)
    Structural Levels
    The Principle of Interruption
    More on the Ursatz

    6. Techniques of Melodic Prolongation
    The Initial Ascent
    The Arpeggiated Ascent
    Motion into an Inner Voice
    Motion from an Inner Voice
    Voice Exchange
    Shift of Register
    Descending and Ascending Register Transfer
    Reaching Over
    Cover Tone
    The Phrygian 2
    Mixture of Scale Degree 3
    Techniques in Combination

    7. Some Basic Elaborations of Fundamental Structures
    Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 283, I, bars 1-16
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 31, No. 1, II, bars 1-8
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1, II, bars 1-8
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 10, No. 1, II, bars 1-16
    Mozart, Piano Concerto, K. 488, II, bars 1-12
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 14, No. 3, Second Theme, bars 26-47
    Some Points for Review


    8. One-Part Forms

    Bach, Prelude in C major (WTC I)
    Schubert, "Wandrers Nachtlied"
    Schumann, "Lieb' Liebchen"

    9. Binary Forms
    Handel, Suite No. 5 in D minor, HWV 436, Menuetto
    Bach, "Little" Prelude in C major, BWV 933, Menuetto
    Corelli, Violin Sonata, Op. 5, No. 10, Gavotte
    Bach, Flute Sonata No. 2, Minuet 1
    Haydn, Piano Sonata, Hob. XVI/43, Minuet 2
    Mozart, Symphony No. 35, K. 385, Trio
    Auxiliary Cadences

    10. Ternary Forms and Rondo
    Beethoven, Bagatelle, Op. 119, No. 1
    Mendelssohn, Song Without Words, Op. 62, No. 1
    Schubert, Moment Musical, Op. 94, No. 2
    Haydn, Piano Sonata, Hob XVI/37, III
    Brahms, Intermezzo, Op. 119, No. 2

    11. Sonata Principle
    Clementi, Sonatina, Op. 36, No. 1, I
    Mozart, Symphony No. 35, ("Haffner"), K. 385, II
    Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 457, I

    12. Some Common Tonal Patterns and Procedures
    Binary Forms
    Ternary Forms
    Sonata Principle
    Prolongational Spans
    Mixture and Large-Scale Tonal Plans

    Appendix: Introduction to Graphic Notation
    Open Noteheads
    Slurs and Filled-in Noteheads
    Broken Ties
    Stems with Flags
    Diagonal Lines
    Diagonal Lines and Beams
    Rhythmic Notation at Lower Levels
    Roman Numerals
    Sample Graphic Analyses for Study

    Selected Bibliography
    Index of Musical Examples
    Index of

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