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Analysis of Tonal Music

A Schenkerian Approach

Fourth Edition

Allen Cadwallader, David Gagné, and Frank Samarotto

Publication Date - 15 July 2019

ISBN: 9780190846671

432 pages
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

The most complete introduction to Schenkerian analysis


In this highly anticipated new edition of Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach, authors Allen Cadwallader, David Gagné, and Frank Samarotto use specific, memorable compositions to explain structural principles. This approach teaches students how to think about, critically examine, understand, and perform great compositions of Western art music.

Part 1 covers principles fundamental to the study of Schenkerian analysis and includes discussions of melody, counterpoint, bass-line structures, the imaginary continuo, linear techniques, and the essential properties of the Ursatz (fundamental structure). Part 2 presents complete compositions by formal category, beginning with one-part forms; proceeding through binary, ternary, and rondo forms; and concluding with the sonata principle. The book includes more than 200 analytical graphs, an appendix on graphic notation, and a bibliography.

New to this Edition

  • A thoroughly revised and updated Student Workbook incorporating work by new coauthor Karen M. Bottge offers students clearer instructions and exercises that are more closely tied to the text. The Workbook is available for separate purchase (978-0-19-0846688) or in money-saving bundles with the text. Please contact your Oxford University Press sales representative or call 800.280.0280 for details.
  • New examples in Part 1 clarify bass-line structures and the role of the imaginary continuo in the analytical process
  • New examples in Part 2 expand coverage of one-part forms, binary forms, and the sonata principle
  • Several new pieces, including a Brahms Waltz, a Prelude by Bach, and an early sonata movement by Haydn, provide instructors with greater flexibility


  • Focuses primarily on the music, explaining how Schenkerian analytical ideas can be applied toward a better understanding of tonal music
  • Develops Schenkerian techniques through the practical analysis of specific compositions
  • Derives structural principles from real music rather than from newly composed models, allowing students to master a rich analytical vocabulary within the context of memorable musical works
  • Guides students systematically through the process of analysis, teaching by example

About the Author(s)

Allen Cadwallader is Professor Emeritus of Music Theory at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music.

David Gagné is Professor Emeritus of Music Theory at Queens College, City University of New York.

Frank Samarotto is Associate Professor of Music Theory at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music.


"Analysis of Tonal Music is simply the best and most musically sensitive text. By far, it has produced the finest results; students learn the 'how' and 'why' of putting together an analytical graph by absorbing the theoretical concepts, then applying them to well-chosen examples. I will always recommend this book over any others."--Joseph Kraus, Florida State University

"Of all the books on the market, Analysis of Tonal Music remains the clearest and most accurate introduction to graphic technique and analysis according to Schenker's method. I recommend this text heartily."--William Marvin, Eastman School of Music

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1, I
    Chapter 2: Melody and Counterpoint
    Some Characteristics of Melody
    Structural Melody
    Chapter 3: Bass Lines and Harmonic Structure
    Tonic Harmony (T Class)
    Intermediate Harmonies (Int Class)
    Dominant Harmony (D Class)
    Larger Contexts
    The Imaginary Continuo
    Chord Prolongation: Summary
    Chapter 4. Linear Techniques
    Linear Progressions
    Linear Intervallic Patterns
    The Neighbor Note
    Linear Intervallic Patterns: Summary
    Chapter 5. Tonal Structure
    Notational Symbols
    Tonal Structure and the Ursatz
    The Bass Arpeggiation (Bassbrechung)
    The Fundamental Line (Urlinie)
    Structural Levels
    The Principle of Interruption
    More on the Ursatz
    Chapter 6. Techniques of Melodic Prolongation
    The Initial Ascent
    The Arpeggiated Ascent
    Motion into an Inner Voice
    Motion from an Inner Voice
    Voice Exchange
    Shift of Register
    The Phrygian 2
    Mixture of Scale Degree 3
    Techniques in Combination
    Chapter 7. Some Basic Elaborations of Fundamental Structures
    Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 283, I, bars 1-16
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 31, No. 1, II, bars 1-8
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 14, No. 1, II, bars 1-16
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1, II, bars 1-8
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 10, No. 1, II, bars 1-16
    Mozart, Piano Concerto, K. 488, II, bars 1-12
    Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op. 14, No. 2, I, bars 26-47
    Some Points for Review
    Chapter 8. One-Part Forms
    Bach, Prelude in C Major (WTC I)
    Schubert, "Wandrers Nachtlied"
    Schumann, "Lieb' Liebchen," op. 24, no. 4
    Bach, "Little" Prelude in F major, BWV
    Chapter 9. Binary Forms
    Handel, Suite No. 5 in D minor, HWV 436, Menuetto
    Bach, "Little" Prelude in C Major, BWV 933
    Corelli, Violin Sonata, Op. 5, No. 10, Gavotte
    Bach, Flute Sonata, BWV 1033, Minuet 1
    Haydn, Piano Sonata, Hob. XVI/43, Minuet 2
    Haydn, String Quartet, Op. 33, No. 4, Scherzo
    Brahms, Waltz in Bflat major, Op. 39, No. 8
    Auxiliary Cadences
    Chapter 10. Ternary Forms and Rondo
    Beethoven, Bagatelle, Op. 119, No. 1
    Mendelssohn, Song Without Words, Op. 62, No. 1
    Schubert, Moment Musical, Op. 94, No. 2
    Haydn, Piano Sonata, Hob. XVI/37, III
    Brahms, Intermezzo in E Minor, Op. 119, No. 2: Some Observations on Form and Structure
    Chapter 11. Sonata Principle
    Haydn, Piano Sonata, Hob. XVI/10, III
    Mozart, Symphony No. 35 ("Haffner"), K. 385, II
    Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 457, I
    Chapter 12. Some Common Tonal Patterns and Procedures
    Binary Forms
    Ternary Forms
    Sonata Principle
    Prolongational Spans
    Mixture and Large-Scale Tonal Plans
    Correspondence Between Patterns and Musical Examples
    Appendix: Introduction to Graphic Notation
    Open Noteheads
    Slurs and Filled-In Noteheads
    Broken Ties
    Stems with Flags
    Diagonal Lines
    Diagonal Lines and Beams
    Rhythmic Notation at Lower Levels
    Roman Numerals
    Sample Graphic Analyses for Study
    Examples from Free Composition
    Selected Bibliography
    Index of Musical Examples
    Subject Index

Related Title

Student Workbook to Accompany Analysis of Tonal Music

Student Workbook to Accompany Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach

Fourth Edition

Karen Bottge, Allen Cadwallader, and David Gagné