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American Horizons

US History in a Global Context, Volume One: To 1877

Fourth Edition

Michael Schaller, Janette Thomas Greenwood, Andrew Kirk, Sarah J. Purcell, Aaron Sheehan-Dean, and Christina Snyder

Publication Date - 09 October 2020

ISBN: 9780197518915

688 pages
6 1/2 x 9 1/4 inches

In Stock

Provides students with a balanced and inclusive account of U.S. History within a global context


In American Horizons: U.S. History in a Global Context, Fourth Edition, the authors use the frequent movement of people, goods, and ideas into, out of, and within America's borders as a framework. This unique approach provides a fully integrated global perspective that seamlessly contextualizes American events within the wider world. Presented in two volumes for maximum flexibility--and supplemented by two sourcebooks of primary documents--American Horizons illustrates the relevance of U.S. history to students by centering on the matrix of issues that dominate their lives.

Visit www.oup.com/he/schaller4e for a wealth of digital resources for students and instructors, including an enhanced eBook with embedded learning tools and the Oxford Insight Study Guide, which delivers custom-built adaptive practice sessions based on students' performance.

New to this Edition

  • Several chapters have been revised and updated with new content:
  • Chapter 1: Expanded coverage of African history
  • Chapter 2: A new chapter-opening vignette on Pocahontas
  • Chapter 4: More extensive coverage on how the Atlantic slave trade impacted Africa
  • Chapter 6: A new opening vignette on mob action and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson
  • Chapter 10: A new opening vignette on the experiences of Charles Ball, an enslaved man
  • Chapter 12: A revised discussion of the origins of abolition--which emphasizes the role of people of color in the more radical, post-1820s movement; and an expanded discussion of the global nature of the American Renaissance, which explores the ways in which Henry David Thoreau engaged with both European and Asian thinkers in his writing
  • Chapter 13: A new opening vignette that explains the role of Samuel Morse in creating the telegraph and also connects him to the anti-Catholic movement of the 1840s and 1850s; an emphasis on the commonalities of exploited workers in Gold-Rush-era California; and new material on Southern fears of British efforts to challenge slavery on the ocean
  • Chapter 14: A clarification of the language regarding Southerners' defense of slavery as the reason for secession; and new coverage of prisoner-of-war camps and contrabands
  • Chapter 15: A revised opening vignette that addresses the legal status of immigrants as it related to the 1790 Naturalization Act, Dred Scott, and the changes brought by the Fourteenth Amendment and birthright citizenship
  • The following "Global Passages" boxes have been refreshed with new examples of key global connections:
  • Chapter 1: New: The Doctrine of Discovery
  • Chapter 5: New: Freedom and evangelism in the Atlantic world
  • Chapter 8: Substantially revised: Revolutionary migrations
  • Chapter 14: New: A comparison of mid-century rebellions in the US, China, and India
  • Chapter 15: New: An examination of the increasingly diverse nature of immigrants coming to the US after the Civil War
  • Offers digital versions of the "America in the World" maps formerly located at the end of each chapter
  • Enhances each chapter outline with a Study Plan that includes study questions for each of the main subtopics
  • Uses larger typefaces in many of the maps in order to improve readability
  • Features a brighter and more accessible design, with new illustrations in each chapter
  • An Enhanced ebook--free with every purchase of a new book--with embedded learning tools, including: "Closer Look" videos that analyze selected artworks, accompanied by narration and self-assessment; interactive maps and timelines; flashcards; section and chapter quizzes; and primary sources
  • The Oxford Insight Study Guide--free with every purchase of a new book-- which delivers custom-built adaptive practice sessions based on students' performance


  • Incorporates insights from the authors--all acclaimed scholars in their specialties--who use their individual strengths to provide students with a balanced and inclusive account of U.S. history
  • Illustrates the relevance of U.S. history to American students by centering on the matrix of key issues that dominate their lives, including population movements and growth; the evolving definition of citizenship; cultural change and continuity; people's relationship to and impact upon the environment; political and ideological contests and their consequences; and Americans' five centuries of engagement with regional, national, and global institutions, forces, and events
  • Encourages students to consider the variety of pressures that spurred historical change, both within and outside of America
  • Uses a narrative style and structure that provide the flexibility to occasionally emphasize the global aspects of American history
  • Each chapter begins with a compelling story at the core of the chapter theme
  • Global Passages boxes feature unique stories illustrating America's connection to the world
  • A rich graphics program of maps and figures helps students explore essential chapter themes
  • Timelines highlighting significant happenings in North America and the rest of the world, presented in parallel, provide students with a global context for American events
  • Study Questions throughout each chapter test students' memory and understanding of content
  • Chapter-ending Review Questions ask students to think critically and analyze what they have learned
  • Reading American Horizons: This two-volume primary source collection (Volume I: 9780197531266, and Volume II: 9780197530894), expertly edited by the authors of American Horizons, provides a diverse set of documents (both textual and visual) that situate U.S. history in a global context. The more than 200 documents--forty-seven of which are new to this edition--cover political, social, and cultural history. Each document includes a headnote and discussion questions.

About the Author(s)

Michael Schaller is Regents Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Arizona, where he has taught since 1974. His areas of specialization include U.S. international and East Asian relations and the resurgence of conservatism in late 20th-century America.

Janette Thomas Greenwood is Professor of History at Clark University. She specializes in African American history and history of the U.S. South.

Andrew Kirk is Professor and Chair of History at University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He specializes in the history of the U.S. West and environmental history.

Sarah J. Purcell is L.F. Parker Professor of History at Grinnell College. She specializes in the early national period, antebellum United States, popular culture, politics, gender, and military history.

Aaron Sheehan-Dean is Chair and Fred C. Frey Professor of History at Louisiana State University. He specializes in the Civil War and Reconstruction, the history of the New South, and nineteenth-century America.

Christina Snyder is the McCabe Greer Professor of History at The Pennsylvania State University. She researches colonialism, race, and slavery, with a focus on Native North America from the pre-contact era through the nineteenth century.


"American Horizons does a great job of giving students a new perspective on a history they may think they know well. Situating North America in a broader global perspective helps challenge narratives of U.S. exceptionalism and introduce students to a much broader cast of historical characters, particularly Native American and African peoples."--Tessa Murphy, Syracuse University

"The text is excellent. Its incorporation of global materials makes it extremely valuable, especially in the current American cultural climate."--Mark Lewis Tizzoni, Angelo State University

Table of Contents

    About the Authors

    Chapter 1. The Origins of the Atlantic World, Ancient Times to 1565
    North America to 1500
    The First Americans
    Hunters, Gatherers, and Farmers
    Trade and the Rise of Native Cities
    North America on the Eve of Colonization
    Early Colonialism, 1000-1513
    European Expansion Across the Atlantic
    Iberians, Africans, and the Creation of an Eastern Atlantic World
    Columbus Invades the Caribbean
    Violence, Disease, and Cultural Exchange
    The Invasion of North America, 1513-1565
    The Fall of Mexica
    Early Encounters
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: The Doctrine of Discovery
    Religious Reformation and European Rivalries
    The Founding of Florida

    Chapter 2. Colonists on the Margins, 1565-1640
    Imperial Inroads and the Expansion of Trade, 1565-160
    Spain Stakes Claim to Florida
    New Spain into the Southwest
    England Enters Eastern North America
    The Fur Trade in the Northeast
    European Islands in a Native American Ocean, 1607-1625
    Tsenacomoco and Virginia
    New France, New Netherland, New Indian Northeast
    Pilgrims and Northeastern Natives
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Angela's Ordeal, the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Creation of African North American Cultures
    Seeking God, Seizing Land, Reaping Conflict, 1625 to c. 1640
    Missionaries and Indians in New France and New Mexico
    Migration and the Expansion of Dutch and English North America
    Dissent in the"City upon a Hill"
    Early Wars Between Colonists and Indians

    Chapter 3. Forging Tighter Bonds, 1640-1700
    Uncivil Wars, 1640-1660

    Smallpox and War Plague the Great Lakes
    English Civil Wars and the Remaking of English America
    Planters and Slaves of the Caribbean
    Missionaries and Indians in the Southeast and Southwest
    New Imperial Orders, 1660-1680
    The English Colonial Empire and the Conquest of New Netherland
    Quebec and the Expansion of French America
    Servitude and Slavery in the Chesapeake
    The Creation of South Carolina
    Metacom and the Battle for New England
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Global Catholicism, Indian Christianity, and Catherine/Kateri Tekakwitha
    Victorious Pueblos, a New Mid-Atlantic, and "Glorious" Revolutions, 1680 to the 1690s
    The Pueblo War for Independence
    Royal Charters for New Jersey and Pennsylvania
    English North America's "Glorious" Revolutions
    North America's Hundred Years' War Begins

    Chapter 4. Accelerating the Pace of Change, c. 1690-1730
    Trade and Power

    An Economic Revolution on the Plains
    Accommodation in Tejas and the Southwest
    Native Nations, the French, and the Making of Louisiana
    Slaving Raids, Expansion, and War in the Carolinas
    Haudenosaunee Hegemony and Concessions in the Northeast
    Migration, Religion, and Empires
    The Africanization of North America
    The "Naturalization" of Slavery and Racism
    European Immigrants and Imperial Expansion
    Pietism and Atlantic Protestantism
    Imperial Authority and Colonial Resistance
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: New York, Madagascar, and Indian Ocean Piracy
    Laying Foundations in British North America
    An Industrious Revolution
    Improved Communications

    Chapter 5. Battling for Souls, Minds, and the Heart of North America, 1730-1763
    Natives and Newcomers

    The Growth of Slavery
    The Impact of Irish and German Immigration
    Slave Resistance and the Creation of Georgia
    Settler Colonialism and Eastern Indians
    Minds, Souls, and Wallets
    North Americans Engage the Enlightenment
    Becoming a Consumer Society
    Revivals and the Rise of Evangelical Christianity
    African, African American, and Indian Awakenings
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Freedom and Evangelism in the Atlantic World
    North America and the French and Indian War, 1754-1763
    The Struggle for the Ohio Valley
    The War in North America and in Europe
    Britain Claims Eastern North America

    Chapter 6. Empire and Resistance, 1763-1776
    English and Spanish Imperial Reform

    Transatlantic Trade as an Engine of Conflict
    Grenville's Program
    Pontiac's Rebellion
    Bourbon Reforms
    The Enlightenment and Colonial Identity
    Stamp Act and Resistance
    Parliamentary Action
    Protest and Repeal
    Empire and Authority
    Consumer Resistance
    Townshend Duties
    The Non-Importation Movement
    Men and Women: Tea and Politics
    The Boston Massacre
    Resistance Becomes Revolution
    Boston Tea Party and Coercive Acts
    Empire, Control, and the Language of Slavery
    War Begins
    Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Independence: Transatlantic Roots, Global Influence
    Declaring Independence
    The World's First Declaration of Independence
    Spanish Imperial Consolidation
    Ideology and Resistance
    Taking Stock of Empire

    Chapter 7. A Revolutionary Nation, 1776-1789
    The Revolution Takes Root

    Ideology and Transatlantic Politics
    Trying Times: War Continues
    Alliance with France
    The Structure of Authority
    State Governments
    Articles of Confederation
    Military Organization
    Diplomacy and International Finance
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Phillis Wheatley, Revolutionary Transatlantic Poet
    Securing Independence
    War at Sea
    War in the South
    Loyalists: Resistance and Migration
    Indian Warfare
    African Americans at War
    Peace and Shifting Empires
    Restructuring Political and Social Authority
    Power in the States
    Economic Change
    Women and Revolution
    Racial Ideology and Questioning Slavery
    A Federal Nation
    Debt and Discontent
    Constitutional Convention

    Chapter 8. A New Nation Facing a Revolutionary World, 1789-1815
    The United States in the Age of the French Revolution

    The New Nation and the New Revolution
    The Rise of Party Tensions
    Neutrality and Jay's Treaty
    The Popular Politics of Rebellion
    Indian Warfare and European Power
    Party Conflict Intensifies
    Adams in Power
    Quasi-War with France
    Alien and Sedition Acts
    Slave Rebellions: Saint-Domingue and Virginia
    The "Revolution" of 1800 and the Revolution of 1804
    Jefferson Elected
    Democracy: Limits and Conflicts
    Haitian Revolution
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Revolutionary Migrations
    The Louisiana Purchase
    Trade, Conflict, Warfare
    Transatlantic and Caribbean Trade
    Mediterranean Trade: Barbary Wars
    Western Discontents
    European Wars and Commercial Sanctions
    The War of 1812
    War Declared
    U.S. Offensives in Canada
    Tecumseh and Pan-Indian Resistance
    Naval War
    British Offensive
    The War Ends

    Chapter 9. American Peoples on the Move, 1789-1824
    Exploration and Encounter
    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    Zebulon Pike
    Plains Indian Peoples
    Astor and the Fur Trade
    Asian Trade
    Shifting Borders
    Jeffersonian Agrarianism
    Northwest, Southwest, and New States
    The Missouri Compromise
    African American Migration and Colonization
    Spanish Expansion in California
    Social and Cultural Shifts
    Native Americans and Civilization Policy
    Gender in Early Republican Society
    Literature and Popular Culture
    African American Culture: Slaves and Free People
    Roots of the Second Great Awakening
    Financial Expansion
    Banks and Panics
    Corporations and the Supreme Court
    Politics and Hemispheric Change
    First Seminole War
    Transcontinental (Adams-Onís) Treaty
    The United States and Latin American Revolutions
    The Monroe Doctrine
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Francisco de Miranda, the United States, and Latin American Independence

    Chapter 10. Market Revolutions and the Rise of Democracy, 1789-1832
    The Market System

    Internal and External Markets
    Technology: Domestic Invention and Global Appropriation
    Water and Steam Power
    Transportation and Communication
    Markets and Social Relationships
    Manufacturing and the Factory System
    Slavery and Markets
    Urban and Rural Life
    Democracy and the Public Sphere
    Voting and Politics
    Election of 1824
    John Quincy Adams
    Andrew Jackson, "The People," and the Election of 1828
    Jackson and the Veto
    Economic Opportunity and Territorial Expansion
    Texas Colonization
    Santa Fe Trail
    The Black Hawk War
    Expanding Markets
    The Legal Structures of Capitalism
    The Erie Canal
    The Industrial Revolution

    Chapter 11. New Boundaries, New Roles, 1820-1856
    An Expanding Nation
    The Trail of Tears
    Settler Colonialism in the West
    Latin American Filibustering and the Texas Independence Movement
    Pacific Explorations
    The New Challenge of Labor
    White Workers, Unions, and Class Consciousness
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Middlemen Abroad
    Foreign-Born Workers
    The New Middle Class
    The Expansion of Slavery and Slaves as Workers
    Men and Women in Antebellum America
    Gender and Economic Change
    Ladies, Women, and Working Girls
    Masculinity on the Trail, in the Cities, and on the Farm
    Freedom for Some
    The Nature of Democracy in the Atlantic World
    The Second Party System
    Democracy in the South
    Conflicts over Slavery

    Chapter 12. Religion and Reform, 1820-1850
    The Second Great Awakening

    Spreading the Word
    Building a Christian Nation
    Interpreting the Message
    Northern Reform
    The Temperance Crusade
    The Rising Power of American Abolition
    Women's Rights
    Love and Sex in the Age of Reform
    Southern Reform
    Sin, Salvation, and Honor
    Pro-Slavery Reform
    Nat Turner and Afro-Christianity
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Celebrating the Black Atlantic
    Southern Antislavery Reformers
    Challenges to the Spirit of the Age
    Emerson, Thoreau, and the American Soul
    The First Mass Culture
    The American Renaissance
    A New Politics

    Chapter 13. A House Dividing, 1844-1860
    The Expansion of America

    The American Invasion and Conquest of Mexico
    The Emergence of the New American West
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Making Boundaries
    Conestogas, Comanches, and Californios
    Contested Citizenship
    The Patterns of Migration
    New Immigrants and the Invention of Americanism
    The Know-Nothing Movement
    Slavery and Antebellum Life
    The Paradox of Slavery and Modernity
    The West Indies, Brazil, and the Future of Slavery
    Inside the Quarter
    The Creation of African America
    The Rise of the Republicans
    Free Soil and Free Labor
    The Politics of Slave Catching
    Western Expansion and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Rising Sectionalism

    Chapter 14. The Civil War, 1860-1865
    Secession, 1860-1861

    The Secession of the Lower South
    Fort Sumter and the Secession of the Upper South
    Mobilization for War
    From the Ballot to the Bullet
    War in Earnest, 1862-1863
    The North Advances
    Stalemate in the East
    Southern and Northern Home Fronts
    The Struggle for European Support
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: Civil Wars Around the World
    A New Birth of Freedom
    Slaves Take Flight
    From Confiscation to Emancipation
    Government Centralization in Wartime
    The Hard War, 1863-1864
    Invasion and Occupation
    Black Soldiers, Black Flags
    The Campaigns of Grant and Sherman
    Victory and Defeat, 1865
    American Nationalism, Southern Nationalism
    The New Challenge of Race
    Environmental and Economic Scars of War
    The Last Best Hope of Man?

    Chapter 15. Reconstructing America, 1865-1877
    The Year of Jubilee, 1865

    African American Families
    Southern Whites and the Problem of Defeat
    Emancipation in Comparative Perspective
    Shaping Reconstruction, 1865-1868
    Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction
    The Fight over Reconstruction
    The Civil War Amendments and American Citizenship
    GLOBAL PASSAGES: America the Diverse
    Congressional Reconstruction
    Reconstruction in the South, 1866-1876
    African American Life in the Postwar South
    Republican Governments in the Postwar South
    Cotton, Merchants, and the Lien
    The End of Reconstruction, 1877
    The Ku Klux Klan and Reconstruction Violence
    Northern Weariness and Northern Conservatism
    Legacies of Reconstruction

    Appendix A: Historical Documents
    Appendix B: Historical Facts and Data


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