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Cover

American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership

Power, Principle, and the Constitution

Loch K. Johnson

Publication Date - December 2013

ISBN: 9780199733613

576 pages
Paperback
7-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches

In Stock

Retail Price to Students: $133.95

Emphasizing the underlying constitutional principles that drive American foreign policy, this text introduces the tools and process of foreign policy from an insider's perspective

Description

In American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership: Power, Principle, and the Constitution, preeminent scholar and renowned advisor on national security Loch K. Johnson offers students an insider's portrait of U.S. foreign policy that explores its underlying and driving constitutional principles. Featuring an engaging and accessible writing style, this unique book focuses on the fundamentals of foreign policy--its theory, historical evolution, institutions, and instruments--and offers an in-depth look at the tools that the U.S. uses to defend and advance its interests abroad, including diplomacy, trade, aid, war-making, moral suasion, spying, and covert action. It also shows how the personalities of people who hold high offices and other little-known, behind-the-scenes factors can influence foreign policy. Contemporary issues, including global terrorism, nuclear weapons proliferation, global environmental degradation, world population pressures, and migration issues, are addressed throughout.

FEATURES

Uses a levels-of-analysis approach, highlighting the significance of three levels where foreign policy is shaped: in the international setting, in domestic politics, and at the individual level

Chapter outlines, lists of learning objectives, and lists of key constitutional questions for each chapter help direct students' reading

Brief chapter-opening vignettes highlight historical events of significance to the study of U.S. foreign policy

"Perspectives on American Foreign Policy" text boxes present excerpts from key documents or insights from top experts

About the Author(s)

Loch K. Johnson is Regents Professor of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia. He is the author of more than 200 articles and the author or editor of twenty-eight books, including National Security Intelligence (2012) and The Threat on the Horizon: An Inside Account of America's Search for Security after the Cold War (OUP, 2011.)

Reviews

"American Foreign Policy and the Challenges of World Leadership provides a unique perspective on U.S. foreign policy, emphasizing the constitutional issues that emerge during the foreign policy process in an accessible and clearly written manner."--John G. Oates, The Ohio State University

"This is a strong text that emphasizes a unique theoretical presentation, the historical development of actors and processes, and the constitutional constraints and opportunities in American foreign policy, both in the past and the present."--Matthew M. Caverly, University of North Florida

Table of Contents

    About the Author
    Preface
    Acknowledgments
    PART ONE. UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    Chapter 1. The Objectives And Instruments Of American Foreign Policy
    AMERICA UNDER ATTACK
    THE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    THE OBJECTIVES OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    Maintaining Peace and Security
    Securing Economic Prosperity
    Promoting Quality of Life
    Upholding Human Rights
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.1
    THE INSTRUMENTS OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    National Security Intelligence
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 1.2
    Diplomacy
    Military Force
    Covert Action
    Economic Statecraft
    Moral and Cultural Suasion
    PHILOSOPHIES OF FOREIGN POLICY
    Chapter 2. An Analytic Construct for the Study of American Foreign Policy
    HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI
    THREE PERSPECTIVES ON FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONS
    THE INTERNATIONAL SETTING
    Balance of Power
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.1
    Geopolitics
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 2.2
    Complex Interdependence
    THE DOMESTIC SETTING
    The Mirror of the Past
    Exceptionalism
    The Constitution
    Institutional Fragmentation
    Pluralist Politics
    THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION-MAKER
    Role-Playing
    Past Experience
    Distorted Perceptions
    Chapter 3. A Constitutional Framework for American Foreign Policy
    CONFLICT OVER PRESIDENTIAL WAR POWERS
    SHARED POWERS
    THE WAR POWER
    Defensive and Offensive Warfare
    Inherent Presidential Authority
    War by Blank Check
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.1
    THE TREATY POWER
    The Destroyers Deal
    Creeping Commitments
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.2
    THE SEEDS OF ACQUIESCENCE
    MONEY AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISPUTES
    The Purse Strings
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 3.3
    Diplomatic Recognition, Confirmation, Accountability
    CONFLICT AND COMITY
    PART TWO. THE INFLUENCES OF HISTORY
    Chapter 4. The Formative Years of American Foreign Policy
    THE SINKING OF THE MAINE
    NATION BUILDING, 1776-1898
    Apart from the World
    Ambivalence toward Europe
    Expansionist Stirrings
    Monroe Delivers a Lecture
    Westward Ho!
    Civil War
    A Nation Grown Bolder
    EMERGENCE AS A GREAT POWER, 1898-1920
    The Spanish-American War
    Spreading Democracy and Opening Markets
    Wilsonian Idealism
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 4.1
    AMERICA AS A RELUCTANT LEADER, 1920-1945
    The Fascist Threat
    Embracing Internationalism--Gingerly
    Chapter 5. The Cold War and the Doctrine Of Containment
    HIGH NOON IN CUBA, 1962
    THE NUCLEAR ERA
    Containment and the Cold War
    A New Militancy
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.1
    PERIL POINTS
    Korean War
    Crises in Cuba
    Vietnam
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 5.2
    DÉTENTE
    A Thawing in the Cold War
    Fresh Conflicts
    The Cold War Revived
    Chapter 6. American Foreign Policy in a Fractured World
    DEATH IN SOMALIA
    A FRACTURED WORLD
    NEW WORLD DISORDER
    Disintegration of the Soviet Union
    Bloodbath in the Balkans
    Fusion in Western Europe
    Desert Storm
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 6.1
    Chaos in Somalia
    WOLVES IN THE WOODS
    Weapons Proliferation
    Counternarcotics
    Immigration
    The Micro-States
    Other Transnational Challenges
    THE RISE OF GLOBAL TERRORISM
    The 9/11 Attacks
    "Preemptive" War in Iraq
    Drone Warfare
    PART THREE. INSTITUTIONS AND INDIVIDUALS
    Chapter 7. Institutional Conflict And Cooperation
    THE PRESIDENT, THE CONGRESS, AND DIEN BIEN PHU
    FRAGMENTS OF POWER
    Efficiency versus Freedom
    Presidents versus Lawmakers
    A Foreign Policy Compact
    THE PRESIDENCY AND LIMITS TO EXECUTIVE POWER
    Information and Time
    Permissibility
    Resources
    Previous Commitments
    Formal Powers
    THE FOREIGN POLICY BUREAUCRACY
    National Security Council
    The Departments of State and Defense
    Turf Battles
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.1
    THE CONGRESS
    Minnows and Whales
    Legislative Watchdogs
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.2
    THE COURTS
    Tilt Toward the President
    Curbing Presidential Excess
    FOREIGN POLICY POWER: A STUDY IN CUBISM
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 7.3
    Chapter 8. Foreign Policy and the American People
    A VICTORY FOR CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY
    PUBLIC OPINION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    Democracy versus Demoscopy
    The President and Public Opinion
    Opinion Leadership
    Congress and Public Opinion
    Vox Populi
    INTEREST GROUPS AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    Foreign Lobbies
    A Kaleidoscope of Domestic Pressures
    A Diversity of International Pressures
    THE INDIVIDUAL AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    The Lasswellian Hypothesis
    Psychological Pressures on Foreign Policy Leaders
    Operational Codes
    The Worth of the Individual
    PART FOUR. THE INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY
    Chapter 9. Intelligence Collection and Analysis
    INTELLIGENCE TO THE RESCUE
    INTELLIGENCE AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF FOREIGN POLICY
    THE ORIGINS OF AMERICA'S MODERN SPY AGENCIES
    The Coordination of Intelligence
    The Structure of Intelligence
    The Intelligence Community
    Inside the CIA
    The Intelligence Missions
    COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
    Planning and Direction
    Collection
    Targeting
    Types of Intelligence
    Gathering Intelligence
    Processing
    Analysis
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.1
    Dissemination
    SECRECY AND FOREIGN POLICY
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 9.2
    Secrets Good and Bad
    Executive Privilege
    The Cloak of Executive Secrecy
    Delay and Deceit
    Prior Restraint
    Chapter 10. Diplomacy
    THE ATTACK OF THE BRICKERITES
    TALKING INSTEAD OF FIGHTING
    THE WIKILEAKS PAPERS: THE PRIVATE FACE OF DIPLOMACY
    THE BREADTH OF DIPLOMACY
    Counterterrorism and the Islamic World
    Russia and China
    Europe
    Global Hot Spots
    THE MAKING OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
    The Hidden Side of Diplomacy
    Military Agreements
    THE DANGERS OF DIPLOMACY BY EXECUTIVE FIAT
    Constitutional Diplomacy
    Stirrings on the Fulbright Committee
    The Case-Zablocki Act
    The Treaty Powers Resolution
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 10.1
    Two Houses Do Not Make a Home
    DIPLOMACY'S FAR REACH
    Chapter 11. Military Force
    THE CAMBODIAN "INCURSION"
    THE LAST FULL MEASURE
    USES OF THE WAR POWER
    WEAPONS OF WAR IN THE NUCLEAR AGE
    Backpacks and City Busters
    The Effects of Nuclear Weapons
    Blast and Heat
    Radioactivity
    Atmospheric Alterations
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 11.1
    Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Weapons
    Star Wars
    Deterrence and the Triad
    Ground-Launched Missiles
    Bombers
    Submarines
    Command and Control
    The Arsenals
    Strategic Nuclear Weapons
    Tactical Nuclear Weapons
    Conventional Weapons
    How Much Is Enough?
    Arms Control
    DECIDING TO USE THE WAR POWER
    The War Powers Resolution
    Wrestling Over the Resolution
    The Mayaguez Rescue
    Multinational Peacekeeping Force in Lebanon
    US Air and Intelligence Support to NATO in Libya
    A House of Cards
    The Use of Nuclear Weapons
    Chapter 12. COVERT ACTION
    THE SPY AND THE SLEEPY WATCHDOG
    COVERT ACTION: AMERICA'S SECRET FOREIGN POLICY
    Legal Underpinnings
    Policy Rationale
    THE METHODS OF COVERT ACTION
    Propaganda
    Political Manipulation
    Economic Disruption
    Paramilitary Operations
    Paramilitary Authority
    Secret Wars
    Assassination Plots
    Large-Scale Paramilitary Operations
    LIMITS FOR COVERT ACTION
    A LADDER OF ESCALATION FOR COVERT ACTION
    Threshold One: Routine Options
    Threshold Two: Modest Intrusions
    Threshold Three: High-Risk Options
    Threshold Four: Extreme Options
    AN EVALUATION OF COVERT ACTION
    COVERT ACTION DECISION MAKING
    Executive Branch Decision Procedures
    Reporting to Congress
    Legislative Prerogatives
    Accountability versus Micromanagement
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.1
    INTELLIGENCE AND PROPRIETY
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 12.2
    Chapter 13. Economic Statecraft
    A KING BUYS A SPECIAL AIRPLANE
    TRADE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    A Portrait of US Trading Partners
    North and South of the Border
    Mosel Wine and BMWs
    China Rising
    PROTECTIONISM VERSUS FREE TRADE
    GATT
    NAFTA
    The United States: No Longer the Solitary Economic Behemoth
    Trade Barriers
    ECONOMIC FRAGMENTATION AT HOME AND ABROAD
    The Multinationals
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.1
    Fragmentation of Economic Power at Home
    Divisions with the Executive Branch
    Fission on Capitol Hill
    THE USE OF TRADE SANCTIONS
    Economic Carrots and Sticks
    The Limits of Economic Sanctions and Inducements
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.2
    FOREIGN AID
    A Portrait of Foreign Aid
    A Pound of Containment and a Dash of Altruism
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 13.3
    Souring on Aid
    Foreign Aid Successes
    Chapter 14. Cultural And Moral Suasion
    AMERICA VEERS OFF COURSE
    CULTURAL VALUES AND ETHICS IN FOREIGN POLICY
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.1
    ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF THE 20TH CENTURY
    The Munich Pact
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Nuclear Deterrence
    Kant and the Consequentialists
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.2
    The Pastoral Letter
    ESPIONAGE
    Domestic Intelligence Restraints
    Intelligence Restraints Abroad
    Deutch Rules
    Covert Action
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.3
    Counterintelligence
    HUMAN RIGHTS
    Freedom and Human Dignity
    Quality of Life
    CHARTING A MORAL COURSE
    Three-Dimensional Ethics
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 14.4
    Muscle and Morality
    PART FIVE. FOREIGN POLICY CHALLENGES
    Chapter 15. New Directions For American Foreign Policy
    CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND TRUTH-TELLING
    A FRESH AGENDA FOR THE UNITED STATES ABROAD
    Improved Citizen Awareness of Global Affairs
    Overcoming Institutional Fragmentation
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.1
    Toward Greater International Empathy
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.2
    An End to Compulsive Interventionism
    EMBRACING A MORE DISCRIMINATING FOREIGN POLICY
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.3
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.4
    Perspectives on American Foreign Policy 15.5
    MAXIMS FOR AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
    Foreign Policy Abbreviations
    Glossary
    Notes
    Credits
    Index

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