We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more
Cover

Alternate Processes in Photography

Technique, History, and Creative Potential

Brian Arnold

Publication Date - January 2017

ISBN: 9780199390397

224 pages
Paperback
8-1/2 x 11 inches

Retail Price to Students: $69.99

A practical guide to early and alternative photographic technique

Description

Alternate Process in Photography: Technique, History, and Creative Potential offers a unique, practitioner's perspective on the history and practice of photographic processes. The book emphasizes handmade, largely historical photographic techniques, and provides detailed information for both beginning and advanced photographers.

Features

  • A progressive organization provides an easy-to-use structure, starting with simpler techniques and advancing toward more complex techniques
  • Brief introductions provide the historical context for each subject
  • Each chapter stresses a hands-on approach, including practical information on chemistry, negatives, paper, application, and troubleshooting
  • Visual examples of historical and contemporary artists and their works, collected from the Eastman Museum of Photography, the Getty Museum, and the Colorado History Museum, provide students with further context and inspiration

About the Author(s)

Brian Arnold is a visiting research fellow in the Southeast Asia Program at Cornell University. He is a photographer, musician, and writer.

Reviews

"Alternate Processes in Photography is exciting and will make an excellent addition to the existing books in the field. As a faculty member who has taught classes in alternative processes in photography for more than thirty years, I welcome a book of this nature."--Laurie Snyder, Maryland Institute College of Art

"Where some alternative process books read like an intimidating technical manual and others are not technical enough, Arnold's text is clear, thorough, and to the point. It is worthwhile and written by a person who has actually done the techniques."--Heather Oelklaus, Colorado College

Table of Contents

    Contents

    Acknowledgments
    Introduction

    Chapter 1 Negatives
    Digital Negatives
    Required Materials
    Darkroom Negatives
    Required Materials
    The Importance of Making Good Negatives
    Historical Introduction
    Traditional Darkroom Options
    Digital Negatives

    Primary Photoshop Tools
    Contrast Controls: Levels and Curves
    Image Mode
    Invert
    Layer Adjustments
    Sharpening
    Image Size

    Negative Supports
    Acetate
    Paper and Vellum
    Pictorico and Other Inkjet Films
    Film

    Making the Negative
    File Types
    Wrapping It Up


    Chapter 2 Paper
    Historical Introduction
    Making Paper
    Paper
    Terminology
    Tooth
    Finish
    Sizing
    Acid-Free
    Deckle
    Grain
    Weight
    Handmade Paper
    Machine-Made Paper
    Moldmade Paper
    Types of Paper
    Writing Paper
    Drawing Paper
    Printmaking Paper
    Watercolor Paper
    Other Options
    Preshrinking
    Sizing

    Spray Starch
    Arrowroot Starch
    Gesso
    Gum Arabic
    Gelatin
    Other Supports
    Fabrics
    Canvas
    Wood, Glass, Ceramics, and Metal
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 3 Salted Paper (Calotype)
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Development
    Toner
    Fixer
    Clearing
    Making the Print
    Negatives
    Paper
    Coating
    Exposure
    Development
    Toning
    Fixing
    Clearing and Washing
    Troubleshooting
    Fading
    Weak Prints
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 4 Cyanotype
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Development
    Clearing Baths
    Other Chemicals
    Making the Print
    The Negative
    Papers
    Mixing the Sensitizer
    Exposure
    Development
    Clearing/Finishing
    Toning
    Tea and Coffee
    Borax
    Dektol/Print Developer
    Ammonia
    Sodium Carbonate
    Tannic Acid
    Troubleshooting
    Staining
    Weak Prints
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 5 Van Dyke Brown
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Development
    Toners
    Fixing
    Clearing Agents
    Contrast Control
    Making the Print
    The Negative
    Papers
    Coating
    Exposure
    Development
    Toning
    Fixing
    Clearing and Washing
    Troubleshooting
    Dark Prints
    Light Prints
    Streaking
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 6 Platinum and Palladium
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Development
    Ammonium Citrate Developer
    Potassium Oxalate Developer
    Cold Bath Developer

    Clearing Baths
    Other Chemicals
    Gold Chloride
    Na2

    Making the Print
    The Negative
    Papers
    Mixing the Sensitizer
    Further Contrast Control
    Palladium Combined with Platinum
    Gold Chloride

    Exposing the Print
    Developing the Print
    Troubleshooting
    Fogging
    Solarization/"Bronzing"
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 7 Variations on Platinum and Palladium
    Kallitype: Required Chemicals
    Kallitype: Optional Chemicals
    Ziatype: Required Chemicals
    Ziatype: Optional Chemicals
    Kallitype: Historical Introduction
    Kallitype: Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Development
    Toning
    Clearing Baths
    Fixer
    Contrast Control
    Kallitype: Making the Print
    The Negative
    Papers
    Coating
    Exposure
    Development
    Clearing Baths
    Toning
    Fixing
    Final Wash
    Kallitype: Troubleshooting
    Yellow Highlights
    Streaking
    Weak or Faded Prints
    Ziatype: Historical Introduction
    Ziatype: Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Ammonium Ferric Oxalate
    Lithium
    Palladium Chloride
    Cesium Palladium Chloride
    Ammonium Dichromate
    Gold Chloride
    Sodium Tungstate

    Tween 20
    Clearing Baths
    Ziatype: Making the Print
    The Negative
    Paper
    Coating
    Exposure
    Development/Processing
    Ziatype: Troubleshooting
    Weak Prints
    Inconsistent Results
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 8 Gum Bichromate
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Chemistry

    Bichromates
    Gum Arabic
    Other Colloids
    Albumen
    Glue

    Watercolors
    Clearing: Sodium/Potassium Metabisulfite
    Making the Print
    The Basics: Working in Black and White

    Negatives
    Papers
    Preshrinking
    More on Sizing
    Mixing the Sensitizer
    Coating
    Exposure
    Development
    Registration
    Clearing
    Advanced Printing: Full Color
    Additive versus Subtractive Color
    Negatives
    Exposing the Print
    Troubleshooting
    Staining
    Development
    Sizing

    Paint
    Gum Arabic
    Base Layer

    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 9 Lifts and Transfers
    Required Materials
    Historical Introduction
    Ideas, Methods, and Techniques

    Tape Lifts
    Gesso or Gel/Matte Medium Transfers
    Acrylic Transfers as Transparencies
    Solvent Transfers
    Inkjet Transfer Prints
    Method One
    Method Two

    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 10 Wet Plate Collodion
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction
    Equipment

    Chemistry

    Sensitizer
    Developers
    Fixer
    Varnish
    Making the Photograph
    Preparing the Plates
    Glass for Ambrotypes
    Tin for Tintypes

    Sensitizing the Plates
    Exposure
    Development
    Fixing the Plates
    Washing the Plates
    Drying the Plates
    Varnishing the Plates
    Turning the Glass Image Positive
    Troubleshooting
    Wrapping It Up


    Chapter 11 Liquid Emulsions
    Required Chemicals
    Optional Chemicals
    Historical Introduction

    Plates and Negatives
    Photographic Papers and Printing
    Liquid Emulsions
    Making the Print
    Chemistry
    Emulsions
    Processing Chemisty
    Preparing a Surface for Coating
    Metal
    Glass and Ceramics
    Wood

    Coating the Emulsion
    Exposure and Development
    Fixing
    Clearing
    Washing
    Toning/Postdevelopment Processing
    Troubleshooting
    Image Density
    Emulsion Lacks Stability
    Peeling and Cracking
    Wrapping It Up

    Chapter 12 Combination Printing
    Gum Bichromate
    Platinum/Cyanotype
    Cyanotype/Van Dyke Brown
    Mixing with Printmaking and Transfer Techniques
    Wrapping It Up


    Appendix: Chemical Safety
    Bibliography
    Suggested Websites
    Glossary
    Index