Which of the following is NOT one of the elements of a libel suit?
e. Clear and present danger
In order for a statement to be defamatory, it must
a. lower a person in the estimation of the community.
b. be the product of a diseased mind.
c. be highly offensive to a reasonable person.
d. expose another person to physical harm.
Which of the following is NOT among those kinds of statements that will almost always be considered capable of a defamatory meaning?
a. Insults phrased in exaggerated or wildly improbable terms.
b. Accusations of incompetence in one's profession.
c. Allegations of criminal conduct.
d. Allegations of sexual immorality.
In order for a libel plaintiff to establish that he or she has been identified by the allegedly libelous publication, the plaintiff must show that
a. the publication included the full name of the plaintiff.
b. the publication included the full name and address of the plaintiff.
c. reasonable readers or viewers would understand the publication to be about the plaintiff.
d. readers or viewers could understand the publication to be about the plaintiff, even if that understanding was not reasonable.
For a statement to be considered published for purposes of a libel suit, the plaintiff must show that the statement was
a. disseminated in the mass media.
b. disseminated to at least one person other than the person defamed.
c. disseminated to at least five people other than the person defamed.
d. disseminated to at least 20 people other than the person defamed.
The statute of limitations in most states for filing a libel suit is
a. five years.
b. four years.
c. three years.
d. one or two years.
Public officials and public figures who sue for libel must prove actual malice, which means the defamatory statement was published with
a. a clear and present danger of injuring the reputation of the plaintiff.
b. the knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard for whether it was false.
c. a high degree of awareness of the offensive nature of the publication.
d. ill-will or hatred toward the plaintiff.
The U.S. Supreme Court has said there are three possible types of public figures. They are
a. involuntary, general purpose and limited purpose.
b. nationally famous, nationally infamous and mildly notorious.
c. involuntary, nationally famous and locally famous.
d. general purpose, limited purpose and multipurpose.
The fair-report privilege is a defense that can be used when an allegedly libelous statement is
a. substantially true in that the sting or gist of the statement is true.
b. reported from official public documents or official public meetings.
c. true in every detail.
d. based entirely on the opinion of the writer.
Which of the following would be an example of the kind of conduct that could be the basis for a lawsuit for invasion of privacy by intrusion?
a. Entering a person's private office without permission and examining his or her private papers.
b. Examining public records about a person, such as property tax records.
c. Interviewing a person's close friends, relatives and enemies.
d. Observing a person with the naked eye while that person is in a public place.
Which of the following is NOT one of the elements of a lawsuit for publicity to private facts?
a. The information was published with the knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard for whether it was false.
b. The information was private.
c. The information was highly offensive to a reasonable person.
d. The information was not of legitimate public interest.
Because false light invasion of privacy is so similar to libel, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that false light plaintiffs must prove
a. actual malice.
c. they are not public figures.
d. severe emotional distress.
If an automobile dealer ran an advertisement that used the name or likeness of a movie star without the star's permission, this would be the basis for which type of invasion of privacy suit?
b. Publicity to private facts.
c. False light.
The U.S. Freedom of Information Act opens up to public inspection all federal records, unless the records fall into one of nine exemptions. Which of the following is not one of the nine exemptions?
a. Information that, if disclosed, would be an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.
b. Information that is classified for national security reasons.
c. Information that reveals trade secrets.
d. Information embarrassing to the president.
To impose a prior restraint on the media in order to protect a criminal defendant's right to a fair trial, the trial judge must have evidence that would support three findings. Which of the following is NOT one of those findings?
a. A prior restraint would be the easiest means available to the judge to protect the fairness of the trial.
b. The defendant's trial may be prejudiced by the publicity.
c. No alternative to a prior restraint would protect the fairness of the trial.
d. A prior restraint would be effective in protecting the fairness of the trial.
Shield laws are laws that allow journalists to protect confidential sources or confidential information or both from disclosure to courts, grand juries and other investigative bodies. Right now,
a. shield laws exist in a minority of the states, but the federal government has a shield law.
b. a minority of states have shield laws, but the federal government does not have one.
c. the majority of states have shield laws but not the federal government.
d. the majority of the states and the federal government have shield laws.
Reporters covering crimes, riots or natural disasters have sometimes been arrested by law enforcement agents. Which of the following is NOT one of the things recommended for reporters to do to minimize the risk of being arrested?
a. Carry a copy of the First Amendment.
b. Obey all orders from police, even if it interferes with getting the story or photo.
c. Have a government-issued photo ID.
d. Never cross clearly marked police lines.