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Chapter 6

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. It is virtually impossible to avoid using nonverbal communication.
    1. The definition of nonverbal covers messages expressed through nonlinguistic means.
    2. There is communicative value in nonverbal behavior, but it is primarily relational in interpretation measures.
    3. Because nonverbal behavior is often difficult to interpret, it is ambiguous; sometimes it is presented without conscious effort, and at other times the communicator has not intended to send the message that has been received.
  2. There are influences affecting the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication.
    1. Cultural differences and gender differences do exist
    2. Control and the power of insight influence accuracy of interpretation.
  3. Several functions of nonverbal communication relate to the verbal forms.
    1. Actions such as repeating, substituting, complementing, and accenting highlight verbal messages
    2. Regulating, contradicting, and deceiving functions of nonverbal communication result from microexpressions.
  4. Our bodies, artifacts, environments, and the way we use time all send nonverbal messages.
    1. Kinesics and the ability to interpret ambiguous manipulators are tools used to send messages.
    2. The face, the eyes, and the affect blends presented combine to show messages.
    3. Paralanguage originating from the voice, with its disfluency and accent, is a nonverbal vehicle.
    4. Appearance and clothing are perception agents used strongly in nonverbal communication.
    5. Touch communicates; and the study of space, proxemics, has context relating to intimate distance, personal distance, social distance, and public distance.
    6. The environment and the use and structure of time, chronemics, can and often do send nonverbal messages.



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