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Chapter 14

This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and the relationship of ideas.  Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.

  1. Persuasion is the process of motivating someone, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior.
    1. Implicit in the definition of persuasion is the principle that coerciveness is unethical.
    2. Persuasion usually occurs in increments; normally results are neither instant nor dramatic.
    3. To be effective, persuasion must be interactive.
    4. Ethical persuasion avoids coercion and communicates in the best interest of the audience without the use of false or misleading information.
  2. To present persuasive topics, one must keep in mind the proposed change, focusing on subject, results, and method of achieving those results.
    1. Proposition of fact messages ask listeners to choose between two or more sides.
    2. Proposition of value speeches explore the worth  of an idea, person, or object.
    3. Proposition of policy persuasions recommend a specific course of action.
    4. Whether the speaker attempts to persuade through convincing or by stimulating a result to actuate the desired outcome depends on the speaker's appreciation of the listener's receptivity to a direct or indirect approach.
  3. To create an effective persuasive speech, the speaker must structure a message with strong reason-giving justification.
    1. A clear and definite persuasive purpose must be obvious.
    2. The message must be structured carefully with the desired outcome in mind.
    3. Solid evidence is essential.
    4. A speaker should always avoid logical fallacies. These errors in logic will ruin a persuasive argument and eliminate any rapport the speaker might have had with the listener.
  4. Advance knowledge of the audience and anticipated responses gives the speaker the opportunity to adapt to the audience.
    1. The speaker has to establish common ground with the audience.
    2. Always organize the speech according to the expected response.
    3. Be prepared to neutralize potential hostility. Given the general reluctance to change, it is essential for the speaker to anticipate disagreement.
  5. The strongest support a persuasive speaker possesses is credibility.
    1. Perception in the minds of listeners determines a speaker's believability.
    2. Credibility has the three components of competence, character, and charisma.


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