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Chapter Outline

  1. Nonverbal communication - messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.

  2. Characteristics of nonverbal communication:
    1. All behavior has communicative value because much of what is communicated is done so nonverbally.
    2. Nonverbal communication is primarily relational, in that it allows us to define the kind of relationships we want to have with others as well as allowing us to convey emotions that we are either unable or unwilling to express vocally.
    3. Nonverbal communication is ambiguous; an action can be interpreted many different ways.
    4. Nonverbal communication occurs in mediated messages.
      1. Emoticons – way to represent nonverbal expressions in type. Can clarify meaning.

    5. Nonverbal communication is influenced by culture and gender.

      1. Emblems are culturally understood substitutes for verbal expressions.
      2. Culture affects how nonverbal cues are monitored
      3. Some nonverbal behaviors are universal but way they are used varies
      4. Differences between culture hold true across cultures
      5. Females more nonverbally expressive and better at interpreting other’s nonverbal behavior
      6. Men’s and women’s nonverbal communication has a lot in common
  3. Functions of nonverbal communication:

    1. Creating and maintaining relationships is a function of nonverbal communication; we observe nonverbal cues in the early stages of a relationship, and nonverbal cues provide a clear sign of relational satisfaction.
    2. Regulators are cues that help control verbal interaction, such as the turn-taking signals in conversation.
    3. We use nonverbal behavior to influence others:
      1. Capture attention
      2. Show or increase liking
      3. Generate power
      4. Boost credibility
    4. Concealing/deceiving

      1. Majority of messages we exchange aren’t completely truthful
      2. Not easy to tell when someone is lying.
      3. Liars have more speech disturbances, pause longer, pupils dilate
      4. True feelings revealed in brief, unconscious microexpressions
      5. Beware of jumping to conclusions!
    5. Managing impressions is getting others to see us as we want to be seen; there are several ways of managing identity nonverbally.

      1. "Manner" refers to the way we act.
      2. "Appearance" involves the way we dress, artifacts we wear, etc.
      3. "Setting" involves the physical items we surround ourselves with.
  4. Types of Nonverbal Communication

    1. Body movement is a primary type of nonverbal communication. Kinesics: study of how people communicate through body movement.

      1. Face and eyes are the most noticeable part of the body; the study of how eyes communicate is known as oculesics.
      2. Posture reveals how people feel about themselves and others.
      3. Gestures, like manipulators consist of fidgeting, or one part of the body manipulating another.
    2. Touch

      1. Haptics is the term used to describe the study of touching.
      2. Plays a large part in how we respond to others.
      3. Touch improved infants development, improves compliance, related to career effectiveness.
      4. In U.S. touching more appropriate for women than men.
    3. Voice

      1. Paralanguage describes the way a message is spoken; vocal rate, pronunciation, pitch, tone, volume, and emphasis can give the same word or words many meanings.
      2. Disinfluencies (e.g. “um” “uh” “like”): reduce credibility so should be avoided
      3. Can use sarcasm to contradict verbal message.
      4. People often miss vocal nuances of sarcasm.
      5. Young children have difficulty making sense of mixed messages.
    4. Distance

      1. Proxemics is the study of how communication is affected by the use, organization, and perception of space and distance.
      2. Personal space refers to the invisible bubble that puts distance between ourselves and others.
      3. Intimate distance is skin contact to about 18 inches and is reserved for people who are emotionally close to us and in mostly private situations.
      4. Personal distance ranges from 18 inches to 4 feet.
      5. Social distance ranges from about 4 feet to 12 feet.
      6. Public distance runs outward from 12 feet.
    5. Territoriality

      1. Territory is the area that serves as an extension of our physical being and is stationary
      2. How we respond to violations of territory depends on who enters, why they enter, and what territory is entered.
    6. Time

      1. Chronemics is the study of how humans use and structure time.
      2. Our use of time can express both intentional and unintentional messages.

    7. Physical attractiveness affects interaction between people and is something we can control.
    8. Clothing is a means of nonverbal communication and can convey at least 10 messages to others, such as economic and educational level.
    9. Physical environment can shape the kind of interaction that occurs.

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