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Multiple Choice Quiz

  1. Inference to the best explanation is a form of inductive reasoning in which we reason from premises about a state of affairs to…
      a. A deductive conclusion
      b. An explanation for that state of affairs
      c. An enumerative induction
      d. An analogical induction
  2. Before evaluating a theory, we should make sure that it meets the minimum requirement of…
      a. Validity
      b. Cogency
      c. Conservatism
      d. Consistency
  3. An inference to the best explanation always goes “beyond the evidence”—it tries to explain facts but does so by...
      a. Positing a theory that is derived entirely from those facts
      b. Selecting a theory from a world of facts
      c. Positing a theory that is not derived entirely from those facts
      d. Positing tentative facts
  4. A theory that is internally consistent is free of…
      a. Additional hypotheses
      b. Content
      c. External data
      d. Contradictions
  5. The standards used to judge the worth of explanatory theories are known as…
      a. The criteria of adequacy
      b. The rules of consistency
      c. The criteria of evaluation
      d. The norms of theory
  6. If there is some way to determine whether a theory is true or false, it is said to be…
      a. Transparent
      b. Simple
      c. Fruitful
      d. Testable
  7. A theory with scope is one that explains or predicts phenomena…
      a. That it was introduced to explain in the first place
      b. Visible to the naked eye
      c. Other than that which it was introduced to explain
      d. That are unknown
  8. If a theory predicts something other than what it was introduced to explain, it is...
      a. Fruitful
      b. Conservative
      c. Testable
      d. Superfluous
  9. A theory that fits with our established beliefs is...
      a. Testable
      b. Simple
      c. Conservative
      d. Fruitful
  10. A theoretical explanation is a theory, or hypothesis, that tries to explain…
      a. How something is done or how an action is carried out
      b. The purpose of something, how it functions, or how it fits into a plan
      c. The meaning of terms or states of affairs
      d. Why something is the way it is, why something is the case, or why something happened
  11. The criteria of adequacy include...
      a. Testability, scope, conservatism
      b. Testability, scope, consistency
      c. Testability, complexity, conservatism
      d. Testability, scope, fruitlessness
  12. A theory with scope is one that explains or predicts phenomena…
      a. That it was introduced to explain in the first place
      b. Other than that which it was introduced to explain
      c. Visible to the naked eye
      d. That are unknown
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