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Short Answer Questions

  1. What critical thinking principle should we follow when claims conflict?

  2. What is background information?

  3. What critical thinking principle should we follow when a claim conflicts with our background information?

  4. What should we do when confronted with a claim that is not quite dubious enough to summarily discard yet not worthy of complete acceptance?

  5. What is an expert?

  6. What principle should we observe when a claim conflicts with expert opinion?

  7. What principle should we observe when the experts disagree about a claim?

  8. What is the fallacious appeal to authority?

  9. According to the text, what has historically been the most prevalent form of the appeal to authority?

  10. What are the four main indicators that someone is an expert?

  11. What is the basic principle regarding evidence provided by personal experience?

  12. According to the text, what are three main factors that can give us good reason to doubt the reliability of personal experience?

  13. What is pareidolia?

  14. In general, are humans good at estimating probabilities?

  15. What is the gambler’s fallacy?



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