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Short Answer Questions

  1. What is a deductive argument? An inductive argument?

  2. What is a valid argument? An invalid argument?

  3. What is a strong inductive argument? A weak one?

  4. What does it mean to say that an argument is sound or cogent?

  5. What are the four steps involved in determining whether an argument is deductive or inductive, sound or cogent?

  6. What are four indicator words or phrases that suggest an argument is probably deductive?

  7. What are four indicator words or phrases that suggest an argument is probably inductive?

  8. What is an implicit premise?

  9. Why is it often very important to make implicit premises explicit?

  10. What is the procedure for uncovering implicit premises?

  11. What is a conditional statement?

  12. What is the argument pattern for each of these: modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, denying the antecedent, affirming the consequent, and disjunctive syllogism?

  13. How is the counterexample method used to evaluate validity?

  14. How would you diagram the following argument:

If the unemployment rate goes up, then the president’s popularity will go down. If the president’s popularity goes down, then he will lose the election. So if the unemployment rates goes up, the president will lose the election.

  1. What three obstacles are you usually faced with when you try to evaluate an argument in a very long passage?



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