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# Review Quiz

1. A causal argument is an inductive argument whose conclusion contains a causal claim.
a. True
b. False
2. A strong enumerative induction must be based on a sample that is both large enough and representative.
a. True
b. False
3. Many opinion polls are untrustworthy because of the flaws in the way the questions are asked
a. True
b. False
4. A self-selecting sample is usually highly representative of the target population.
a. True
b. False
5. In national polling, samples need to be enormous to be accurate reflections of the larger target population.
a. True
b. False
6. In general, the larger the sample, the more likely it is to reliably reflect the nature of the larger group.
a. True
b. False
7. In enumerative induction we begin with observations about some members of the group and end with a generalization about all of them.
a. True
b. False
8. The rule of thumb for distinguishing coincidence from cause and effect is:
a. Don't assume that a causal connection exists unless you have good reason for doing so.
b. Don't assume that a causal connection exists unless your assumption is beyond doubt.
c. There is no such thing as coincidence.
d. Don't ever assume that a causal connection exists.
9. A necessary condition for the occurrence of an event is:
a. One that guarantees that the event occurs
b. One without which the event cannot occur
c. One that cannot guarantee that the event occurs
d. Unlikely
10. Given the ordinary laws of statistics, incredible coincidences are:
a. Always evidence of causal connections
b. Evidence of the paranormal
c. Impossible
d. Common and must occur
11. Mill's method of correlation says that when two events are correlated, they are:
a. Not causally related
b. Uncaused
c. Probably causally related
d. Unrelated
12. A representative sample must resemble the target group in:
a. All the ways that matter
b. At least two ways
c. Every respect
d. Some respects
13. We're guilty of hasty generalization whenever we draw a conclusion about a target group based on:
a. An irrelevant property
c. Enumerative induction
d. An opinion poll
14. The observed members of a target group are called:
a. The property in question
b. The relevant property
c. Agreement and difference
d. The sample members, or sample
15. A sufficient condition for the occurrence of an event is:
a. One that guarantees that the event occurs
b. One without which the event cannot occur
c. One that is improbable
d. One that cannot guarantee that the event occurs
16. The fallacy of reasoning that just because B followed A, A must have caused B is known as:
a. Hasty generalization.
b. Faulty analogy
c. Representative fallacy
d. Post hoc, ergo prompter hoc