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Chapter Objectives

Enumerative Induction

  • Know what enumerative induction is and how it's used.
  • Learn the definitions of target population, sample, and relevant property.
  • Understand the two ways in which an enumerative induction can fail to be strong.
  • Understand the error known as hasty generalization and know how to avoid it.
  • Understand the basics of opinion polls and know the definitions of random sampling, self-selecting sample, margin of error, and confidence level.

Analogical Induction

  • Know how to formulate and evaluate an argument by analogy.
  • Know how to use the following criteria to evaluate arguments by analogy: relevant similarities, relevant dissimilarities, the number of instances compared, and diversity among cases.

Causal Arguments

  • Know what causal claims and arguments are.
  • Be able to apply Mill's methods to the evaluation of causal arguments.
  • Be aware of the ways in which people can make errors in causal reasoning.
  • Recognize and know how to avoid the post hoc fallacy.
  • Learn the definitions of necessary and sufficient conditions.
  • Be able to distinguish between necessary and sufficient conditions in everyday contexts.


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