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Chapter 9

Figure 9.1.2.  The unfamiliar scales in the top staff simply apply the chords’ accidentals to the underlying C diatonic collection, and do not suggest particular attentiveness toward the resultant collection; by contrast, those on the second staff are quite familiar, and exhibit many of the virtues discussed in Chapter 4.

Figure 9.1.3. Scriabin's prelude, Op. 48 No. 1, in which efficient voice leading in the upper staff gives rise to a series of scales.

Figure 9.1.4. (1 of 2) The opening of Ravel’s “Ondine,” from Gaspard de la nuit, suggests a series of single-semitone voice leadings among familiar scales.  

Figure 9.1.4. (2 of 2) Ravel’s “Ondine.”

Figure 9.1.6. The Subset Technique.  In Debussy’s “Les collines d’Anacapri,” the pentatonic theme B-Fs-Cs-E-Gs-B acts as a fixed subset, and appears in the context of several different scales: B diatonic (a), E diatonic (b), and E acoustic (c).

Figure 9.1.7. Chord-first modulation in the transition from exposition to development of Schubert’s Bf major Sonata, D. 960, movement I.

Figure 9.1.8. The scale-first technique in Chopin’s Cs minor Mazurka, Op. 41 No. 1.  The theme, originally in Cs phrygian (a), returns in the Cs mode of Fs harmonic minor (b).

Figure 9.1.9. The subset technique in Chopin’s Gf major (“black key”) Etude, Op. 10 No. 5.  Throughout the piece, the right hand plays only black keys, which serve as a fixed subset common to the two primary keys in the piece.

Figure 9.2.1a. Grieg’s Lyric Piece “Drömmesyn” (Vision), Op. 62, No. 5.  The piece is built around a series of efficient voice leadings between four-note chords (a), which give rise to scales (b).

Figure 9.2.1b. Grieg’s Lyric Piece “Drömmesyn” (Vision), Op. 62, No. 5.  The piece is built around a series of efficient voice leadings between four-note chords (a), which give rise to scales (b).

Figure 9.2.2. Grieg's piece articulates an abstract counterpoint between the melody's starting note, the diatonic collection, and the root or bass.

Figure 9.2.3. Voice leadings in the middle section of “Fêtes.” Each measure represents four bars of music.

Figure 9.2.4. In the third phrase of the middle section of “Fêtes,” the opening  chords return, though now accompanied by scales articulating the movment’s main theme.

Figure 9.2.6. Efficient voice leadings between half-diminished and dominant seventh chords in Debussy’s Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun”: mm. 6–9 (a), 17–19 (b), and 44–46 (c).

Figure 9.2.7. Michael Nyman’s “The Mood that Passes Through You,” from the soundtrack to the movie The Piano.  The brackets indicate two instances of major-third juxtapositions: Bf minor→D major, and Gs minor→E minor.

Figure 9.2.8. Nyman’s left-hand arpeggios articulate a semitonal voice leading between major-third-related triads.

Figure 9.2.9. Chord-first voice leading in Adams’ Nixon in China, Act I, Scene I, mm. 141–148.

Figure 9.2.10. Major-third-related triads in Prokofiev’s Overture on Hebrew Themes, R42.

Figure 9.2.11. The major-third system in (a) the G minor prelude from Shostakovich’s Twenty-four Preludes and Fugues, (b) Philip Glass’ Einstein on the Beach, and (c) the opening credits of the 2004 television series Battlestar Galactica.

Figure 9.3.1. (1 of 2) Debussy’s “Des pas sur la neige.”  

Figure 9.3.1. (2 of 2) Debussy’s “Des pas sur la neige.”

Figure 9.3.3. (a) The transition between the tonic (D-centered) scalar region and the secondary (black-note) scalar region occurs by way of semitonal shift upward.  (b) The transition back occurs by way of the C whole-tone and Bf acoustic scales.

Figure 9.3.5. The opening of Janáček’s “On an Overgrown Path,” Series II, No. 1.

Figure 9.3.7. The middle section of JanàĄek’s “On an Overgrown Path,” Series II, No. 1.

Figure 9.3.9. Fs natural minor has four degrees that can be lowered by semitone, represented here by the closed noteheads.

Figure 9.3.11. Tonic-key passages in Shostakovich’s Fs minor Prelude and Fugue.  These involve a progressive sequence of lowerings, leading ultimately to the harmonized fugue theme.

Figure 9.3.12. Scales in Steve Reich’s New York Counterpoint.

Figure 9.3.13. Canons in the first movement of New York Counterpoint (a).  The canonic upper voices reorder the last three pitches, so that a different note is held in each part (b).

Figure 9.3.14. Canons in the second movement of New York Counterpoint.  The paired voices play almost exactly the same music, the one exception being starred at the end of the second measure of the second staff.

Figure 9.3.15. Canons in the third movement of New York Counterpoint.

Figure 9.3.17. Reich’s The Desert Music opens with a sequence of five chords in the chorus, each suggesting a variety of scales.

Figure 9.3.22. Scales in The Who’s “I Can’t Explain” (a) and Bob Seger’s “Turn the Page” (b).

Figure 9.4.1. The opening of Grieg’s Lyric Piece “Klokkeklang” (Bell Ringing), Op. 54 No. 6.

Figure 9.4.2. A reduction of the central section of “Klokkeklang.”

Figure 9.4.4. Scales in Stravinsky’s “Petit airs,” from Histoire du soldat.

Figure 9.4.6. A summary of Steve Reich’s City Life, movement 3.

Figure 9.4.8. The subset technique in its concrete (a) and abstract (b) forms.

Figure 9.4.9. The folk-like melody used in the “Dance of the Adolescents.”

Figure 9.4.10. Stravinsky presents his folk-like melody in five scalar contexts.

Figure 9.4.11. Excerpts from the solos in the Miles Davis Group’s version of “Freedom Jazz Dance.”  Miles Davis favors traditional Bf minor scales, Wayne Shorter makes heavy use of Bf acoustic, and Herbie Hancock uses even more exotic octatonic and harmonic minor scales.  (Asterisks indicate notes outside the scale.)

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