The History of humans from the time of Clovis and the Fertile Crescent:
a. Represents a mere 0.01 percent of the time from Toumai to the present.
b. Represents about 10 percent from the first Homo sapiens to the present.
c. Clearly illustrates the steps needed for human societies to develop.
d. Indicates that all human societies adapt and evolve at the same pace.
a. Seems to have shared many characteristics with the Ainu of Japan.
b. Was very short and small-boned.
c. Was remarkably free of injuries or other health problems.
d. Seems to have died after being trapped in an avalanche.
Adaptations to the new conditions seem to have included all
a. Domestication of dogs.
b. A spurt of technical innovation, such as boomerangs, better fishhooks, bird traps, etc.
c. Expanded trade networks to exchange goods across ecological zones.
d. Better nutrition and health because of the improved hunting techniques.
The oldest human ancestor:
a. Is a creature we call “Lucy,” after the Beatles’ song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.”
b. Has not been identified, and whose remains will probably never be located.
c. Has been definitely identified as Toumaï, found last year in Africa.
d. Is a creature known as “Spirit Cave Man,” found in the Americas.
The last Ice Age, ending about 13,500 years ago, had an impact on human develop in every aspect
a. Economic development (meaning the ways humans acquired the materials necessary for survival)
b. Migration, providing both a reason to leave an area and often the means to move.
c. Technological development.
d. Genetic uniformity; the impediments to contact between human societies caused isolated societies to maintain their original genetic composition
Gender as an aspect of social organization in early foraging societies:
a. These societies were clearly patriarchal because of the importance of males in hunting for meat and defending the tribe.
b. These societies were clearly matriarchal, as shown by their peaceful social organization and veneration of Earth Goddesses.
c. There is evidence of some division of labor between males and females, but not enough evidence to formulate any dependable global opinions about dominance.
d. Paleolithic pictures and symbols clearly show the power structure of pre-agrarian societies.
a. Are also known as “hunting and gathering” societies.
b. Had a short life span because of the uncertainty of being able to find sufficient food.
c. Generally lived in caves because they did not generally possess the skills to other shelters.
d. Are completely self-contained, never acquiring resources through trade or barter.
The pace of human cultural development:
a. Has been predictably consistent over the past 5 or 6 million years.
b. Accelerated dramatically about 100,000 years ago.
c. Was not an important factor until the time between Clovis and the Fertile Descent.
d. Has not been a significant factor since the widespread adoption of agriculture.
Migrations to the Americas
a. Appear to have ended when the ice bridge melted about 20,000 years ago.
b. Appears to have continued from about 80,000 years ago until almost 600 years ago.
c. Did not result in a uniform Native American population until after about 8000 BCE.
d. Let do remarkably uniformity in language across the Americas from modern-day Canada to the southernmost tip of Chile.
Early humans were able to expand their dietary resources to include a greater variety, such as meat from animal carcasses:
a. Because they moved to different areas.
b. After technological breakthroughs.
c. Because they had developed the ability to think in abstract terms.
d. Because their legs were long.
In the opinion of most scientists, the transition between hominins and modern humans:
a. Included both predictable and spontaneous occurrences.
b. Was accidental.
c. Was completely determined by anatomical factors and involved no intellectual components.
d. Required the physical movement of hominins from Africa to a more stimulating environment, such as Europe.
In traditional Australian Aboriginal society, most marriages:
a. Were monogamous.
b. Were polygamous
c. Were between members of the same clan.
d. Limited to men who were successful traders.
Other results of the Ice Age were:
a. An enhanced ability to migrate because areas formerly separated by seas became accessible over ice.
b. A great increase in the number of large animals because they could take refuge in areas too cold for humans.
c. Reduction in the genetic variations between human societies because they were no longer isolated.
d. Most archeologists believe that the improved techniques for hunting large animals resulted in dramatic increase in the total population of humans over the globe.
Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA suggests all of the following
a. The earliest migration to the Americas seems to have occurred by 40,000 to 30,000 years ago.
b. There are clearly Asian, Central Asian, and European ancestral groups present.
c. Very likely, migratory groups also included people related to the Ainu of Japan, Polynesians, and Aborigines of Australia.
d. Although there may have been several waves of migration, there were no new groups added after 25,000 thousand years ago.
The Ice Age in the Americas:
a. Made it easy for humans to migrate southward from Alaska.
b. Probably prevented southward migration over land until a pathway was cleared across the area of modern Alberta.
c. Prevented migration over water or by rafts, canoes, or boats because of the ice.
d. Resulted in the inhabitants of the Americas having remarkably similar languages and mitochondrial DNA.
The most important physical ability in the transition from hominin to human:
a. The ability to climb trees to avoid predators.
b. Bipedialism, which allowed them to function effectively in both forest and savanna.
c. The ability to use knuckle-walking to move through forests quickly.
d. The combination of physical strength and speed.
All of the following were results of the last Ice Age
a. Northern zones were often covered with gigantic ice sheets
b. The area from southern France to Mongolia changing to frozen tundra in winter and semi-arid steppes in summer.
c. The increase in the size of African rain forests encouraged a temporary return to vegetarianism.
d. The deserts of the Sahara, Kalahari, and the interior of Australia expanded.
Did early humans express their experiences and how can we interpret those messages?
a. They left a record of drawings, paintings, and figurines that are easily interpreted based on a comparison with our own symbolic representations.
b. They left artifacts about which we can speculate.
c. They prove a keen awareness about the differences between humans and animals.
d. They give us a deep insight into their relationship with the life force.
Rock art and Cave art in Europe
a. Very often depict human hunters tracking prey.
b. Generally depict fanciful figures, such as a bison with a human head, or an owl with a human body.
c. Often depict animals such as reindeer, horses, cattle, bulls, mammoths, etc.
d. how clearly that human intellectual ability and symbolic thinking has evolved rapidly in the past 10,000 years.
The earliest hominin identified so far:
a. Orrorin tugenensis, dating from about 6 million years ago.
b. Is definitely of a tree-dwelling ape.
c. Has a skull more like modern humans than chimpanzees.
d. Could not be a part of the line that evolved into modern humans.
Symbolic thinking in Homo sapiens:
a. Is evident only in European caves and hidden places.
b. Is visible in art which shows evidence of the ability to conceptualize images by thinking abstractly.
c. Seems to have been absent from human societies until about 10,000 years ago
d. Clearly conveys the creators’ message or intention in creating art and clay sculptures.
Homo floresiensis, commonly called “hobbits”
a. Seem too primitive to have developed water-going capability.
b. It is well established that all of them died out before 12,000 years ago.
c. We know from their very small size that they could not have evolved from Homo erectus.
d. Had brains no larger than chimpanzees or australopiths, but evidently were capable of building rafts and functional tools.
a. Made simple tools, but did not yet walk upright.
b. Could not leave the tropics because they had not mastered the arts of making fire or tanning leather.
c. Had a brain size less than half that of modern humans.
d. Were fully stable on their feet, lived on the ground, could travel rather easily, and had mastered the use of fire.
The most important development in allowing human societies to respond effectively to challenges has been:
a. The forces of evolution
b. Genetic superiority to other primate lines.
d. Environmental pressures
The following is NOT evidence of the development of abstract thought in
b. Grave sites
c. Paintings or drawings in caves and on rocks
d. evidence that the use of fire was used by successive generations
At this time, the authors estimate that Toumaï, the oldest possible hominin fossil to date:
a. dates from about 5,600 years ago.
b. dates from at least 6–7 million years ago.
c. probably lived about 15 million years ago.
d. has left a DNA trail leading to modern humans.
a. All depicted obese female forms with exaggerated sexual characteristics.
b. Were scattered all over Western Europe.
c. Some were tiny, but many were so large it is difficult to imagine them being transported from campsite to campsite.
d. Were obviously designed for use in religious ceremonies.
The following chronological order is correct to the best of our knowledge:
a. End of last Ice Age, Beginning of Agriculture in Fertile Crescent, First evidence of rice cultivation in the Yangzi Valley.
b. Lapita Cultural Complex in western Pacific, First evidence of rice cultivation in the Yangzi Valley, beginning of Agriculture in Fertile Crescent.
c. End of last Ice Age, Homo sapiens emerge in the East Africa, First evidence of rice cultivation in the Yangzi Valley.
d. Beginning of Agriculture in Fertile Crescent, City-States appear in Greece and lonia, flourishing of Harappan culture along the Indus River.
The authors of the textbook believe that the principal reason for the slow pace of deep history was:
a. lives were very hard because collecting vegetal foods, fishing and hunting were not safe or dependable ways of securing nourishment.
b. foragers had more leisure time than farmers.
c. the conscious effort of foragers to limit population growth as well as the size of their groups.
d. that early humans retreated southward during ice ages.