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Table of Contents

The Story of Western Classical Music • xix
Introduction: Reading Music • xxvii

CHAPTER 1
The First Literate Repertory in Western Music: Gregorian Chant • 1


Theories of Music • 4
Historical Imagination • 5
Christian Beginnings, As Far As We Know Them • 6
The Legend of St. Gregory • 8
The Development of the Liturgy: The Offices • 10
The Order of the Mass • 11
Writing It Down: Neumes • 12
Guido of Arezzo • 14
Modal Theory • 19
Psalmody in Practice: The Office and the Mass • 21
The Layout of the Mass Service • 25
Frankish Additions to the Chant Repertory • 29
Hymns, Tropes, and Liturgical Drama • 32
Marian Antiphons • 35
How to Do Polyphony • 36
Symphonia and Its Modifications • 37
Organum and Discant • 40
Literate Music and the Persistence of Oral Traditions • 41
Summary • 43
Study Questions • 45
Key Terms • 45

CHAPTER 2
Secular and Cathedral Music in the High Middle Ages • 46


Troubadours • 47
Performance and Oral Culture • 50
Music for Elites: Trobar Clus • 52
Trouveres • 53
Adam de la Halle and the Formes Fixes • 55
Geographical Diffusion • 62
A Note on Instruments • 63
Polyphony in Aquitanian Monastic Centers • 65
The Cathedral-University Complex • 70
Piecing the Evidence Together • 72
Measured Music • 73
Organum with Another Voice • 76
Conductus at Notre Dame • 78
The Motet: Music for an Intellectual and Political Elite • 79
“Franconian” Notation • 82
A New Trobar Clus? • 85
The “Petronian” Motet • 87
Summary • 88
Study Questions • 89
Key Terms • 90

CHAPTER 3
The Ars Nova: Musical Developments in the Fourteenth Century • 91


Music from Mathematics • 92
Music about Music • 95
Establishing the Prototype: The Roman de Fauvel • 96
Isorhythm • 98
Guillaume de Machaut: Poet and Musician • 100
Musica Ficta • 102
Machaut and the Art of Courtly Song • 103
The Top-Down Style • 104
Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame • 107
Canons • 109
Subtilitas • 110
“A Pleasant Place”: Trecento Vernacular Music • 114
The “Wild Bird” Madrigals • 116
Landini and Ballata Culture • 118
The Motet As Political Show • 120
Guillaume Du Fay’s Nuper rosarum flores • 121
Periodization • 124
Summary • 127
Study Questions • 129
Key Terms • 129

CHAPTER 4
Island and Mainland: Toward a Pan-European Style • 130


Fragmentary Remains • 132
Kings and the Fortunes of War • 136
Dunstable and the Contenance Angloise • 138
Du Fay and Fauxbourdon • 140
Du Fay and Binchois • 142
The Internationalism of the Upper Crust • 144
The Cyclic Mass • 147
“Caput” and the Beginnings of Four-Part Harmony • 148
Patterns of Emulation • 150
The Man at Arms • 152
“Pervading Imitation” • 154
High, Middle, and Low • 157
The English Keep Things High • 159
The Milanese Go Lower Still • 160
Love Songs • 162
Instrumental Music Is Printed • 163
Summary • 165
Study Questions • 166
Key Terms • 167

CHAPTER 5
A Perfected Art: Church Polyphony in the Late Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries • 168


A Poet Born, Not Made • 170
Josquin’s Career • 171
A Model Masterpiece • 173
Imitations • 176
Facts and Myths • 178
All Is Known • 179
The “Post-Josquin” Generation • 181
Adrian Willaert • 182
The New Instrumental Music • 184
Palestrina and the Ecumenical Tradition • 186
Continuing the Tradition • 187
Palestrina’s Missa Papae Marcelli and the Bishops • 188
Freedom and Constraint • 191
“Stairway to Parnassus” • 193
Alternatives to Perfection • 195
The Recusant William Byrd • 196
The First English Cosmopolite • 198
The Music of Defiance • 199
The Peak (and Limit) of Stylistic Refinement • 201
Summary • 201
Study Questions • 203
Key Terms • 203

CHAPTER 6
After Perfection: Pressures for Change • 204


The Protestant Reformation • 206
The Lutheran Chorale • 208
The Catholic Response: The Counter-Reformation • 210
Polychoral and “Concerted” Music • 212
The Art of Orchestration Is Born • 214
Music Printers and Their Audiences • 216
Vernacular Song in Italy • 218
The “Parisian” Chanson and the Music of Description • 220
Lasso: The Cosmopolite Supreme • 222
The Literary Revolution and the Return of the Madrigal • 224
Paradox and Contradiction: Late Italian Madrigalists • 230
Music for the Eyes • 232
Back over the Mountains: The English Madrigal • 233
Summary • 236
Study Questions • 237
Key Terms • 238

CHAPTER 7
Humanism and the Birth of Opera • 239


The Pressure of Humanism • 240
The Representational Style • 243
Intermedii • 244
The Monodic Revolution • 245
Madrigals and Arias Revisited • 248
Favola in Musica • 252
Operatic Conventions: Heard and Unheard Music • 253
Monteverdi: From Court to Commerce • 254
Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo: The Quintessential Princely Spectacle • 257
Monteverdi in Venice • 260
Opera and Its Politics • 263
The Carnival Show: L’incoronazione di Poppea • 266
Summary • 270
Study Questions • 271
Key Terms • 271

CHAPTER 8
Music Travels: Trends in Italy, Germany, France, and England • 272


Master Organists: Frescobaldi, Sweelinck, and Others • 274
Lutheran Adaptations: The Chorale Partita and Chorale Concerto • 276
Ruin: Germany, the Thirty Years War, and Heinrich Schütz • 279
The “Luxuriant Style” • 281
Back to Germany at War • 282
Giacomo Carissimi: Oratorio and Cantata • 284
Barbara Strozzi: Performer and Composer • 285
The French Taste: Sense and Sensuousness • 287
Tragédie Lyrique: The Politics of Patronage • 288
Drama as Court Ritual • 290
Lully’s Atys, the King’s Opera • 291
Jean-Philippe Rameau • 293
Jacobean England: Masques and Consort Music • 295
Henry Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas and the Question of “English Opera” • 297
Summary • 300
Study Questions • 301
Key Terms • 302

CHAPTER 9
The Height of Italian Dominance: Opera Seria and the Italian Concerto Style • 303


Opera Seria and Its Makers • 304
Opera and Its Many Reforms: Neoclassicism • 306
Metastasio • 308
Metastasio’s Musicians • 310
Operatic Culture and Politics • 311
Arcangelo Corelli and New Tonal Practices • 313
Antonio Vivaldi’s Five Hundred • 317
Music Imitating Nature: Vivaldi’s The Four Seasons • 319
Summary • 322
Study Questions • 323
Key Terms • 324

CHAPTER 10
Class of 1685 (I): The Instrumental Music of Bach and Handel • 325


Careers and Lifestyles: Handel First • 327
Bach’s Career • 328
The Chorale Prelude • 331
The Fugue • 333
The Well-Tempered Keyboard • 335
Bach’s Imported Roots: Froberger and Others • 337
Bach’s Suites • 339
“Agréments” and “Doubles”: The Art of Ornamentation • 340
Stylistic Hybrids: Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos • 344
The Fifth Brandenburg Concerto • 346
Handel’s Instrumental Music • 350
Summary • 351
Study Questions • 352
Key Terms • 352

CHAPTER 11
Class of 1685 (II): The Vocal Music of Handel and Bach • 353


Lofty Entertainments • 357
Handel’s Messiah • 360
“Borrowing” • 361
Bach’s Cantatas • 364
Death Set to Music • 365
What Music Is For • 367
Bach’s “Testaments” • 373
Cursed Questions • 376
Domenico Scarlatti, at Last • 378
Summary • 380
Study Questions • 381
Key Terms • 382

CHAPTER 12
Mid-Eighteenth-Century Stylistic Changes: From Bach’s Sons to the Comic Style • 383


The Younger Bachs • 384
Empfindsamkeit: C. P. E. Bach • 386
Transcending Words—And Putting Them Back • 389
The London Bach: Johann Christian • 391
Sociability in Music • 393
Intermission Plays • 394
The “War of the Buffoons”—Giovanni Battista Pergolesi • 396
Novels Sung on Stage—Niccolo Piccinni • 399
Noble Simplicity—Christoph Willibald Gluck • 401
What Was the Enlightenment? • 406
Summary • 408
Study Questions • 409
Key Terms • 410

CHAPTER 13
Concert Life Lifts Off: Haydn • 411


Modern Concert Life Is Born • 413
The Mannheim Orchestra: “An Army of Generals” • 414
Haydn: The Perfect Career • 418
Haydn’s Years with the Esterházy Family • 420
Expectations and Deviations: Creating Musical Meaning • 422
String Quartets and Concertos • 426
The Symphony Composer • 427
Sonata Form • 428
The “London” Symphony No. 104 • 430
The Culminating Work: The Creation • 433
Summary • 436
Study Questions • 437
Key Terms • 437

CHAPTER 14
The Composer’s Voice: Mozart • 438


The Early Operas • 441
The “Da Ponte” Operas • 444
Mozart’s Two Last Operas • 447
Art for Art’s Sake?—Mozart’s Symphonies • 449
The “Symphonic” Concerto Is Born • 453
Mozart in the Marketplace: The Piano Concertos • 454
The Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453 • 456
Public and Private Genres • 460
Summary • 462
Study Questions • 463
Key Terms • 463

CHAPTER 15
The Emergence of Romanticism • 464


The Beautiful and the Sublime • 465
The Coming of Museum Culture • 467
Beethoven versus “Beethoven” • 469
The Sacralization of Music • 470
The Music Century • 472
Nationalism: I, We, and They • 474
German Musical Values as Universal Values • 476
Summary • 477
Study Questions • 477
Key Terms • 478

CHAPTER 16
Beethoven • 479


Life and Works, Periods and Styles • 480
Early Beethoven • 481
Disaster • 483
The Eroica • 486
Fidelio • 489
The Fifth Symphony and Fate • 490
“More Expression of Feeling Than Tone Painting”: The Pastoral Symphony • 495
Concert Life in Beethoven’s Vienna • 496
Struggle and Victory • 498
Rising Fame and Decreasing Productivity • 499
Late Beethoven • 501
The Ninth Symphony • 503
Inwardness: The Late String Quartets • 505
Summary • 509
Study Questions • 510
Key Terms • 510

CHAPTER 17
Opera in the Age of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Weber • 511


The Popularity of Rossini • 512
Rossinian Conventions: The Overture • 515
Imbroglio: The Comic Finale • 517
Heart Throbs: The Serious Aria • 518
Vincenzo Bellini and Bel Canto • 521
Gaetano Donizetti • 523
German Romantic Opera: Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz • 526
Summary • 530
Study Questions • 531
Key Terms • 531

CHAPTER 18
Private Art: Schubert and Inwardness • 532


The Lied Grows Up • 533
Herder, Language, and the Nation • 534
Folk Song, Folklore, and Folk Tales • 536
Lyric and Ballad • 537
Schubert and Goethe • 541
Salon Culture and Schubertiades • 543
Schubert: A Life in Art • 544
Disaster • 546
What Contemporaries Knew of Schubert’s Music • 548
Crossing the Edge • 551
Schubert’s “Unfinished” Symphony • 553
After Beethoven • 556
Schubert’s Last Two Songs • 559
Summary • 561
Study Questions • 562
Key Terms • 562

CHAPTER 19
Romantic Spectacles: From Virtuosos to Grand Opera • 563


The Devil’s Violinist: Niccolo Paganini • 563
“The Paganini of the Piano”: Franz Liszt • 567
Transforming Music Through Arrangements • 570
The Lisztian Concert • 571
Spectacle on the Parisian Stage • 574
Daniel-François-Esprit Auber’s La muette de Portici • 576
Opera and Revolution • 577
Bourgeois Kings • 579
Vagaries of Reception • 584
Summary • 585
Study Questions • 586
Key Terms • 587

CHAPTER 20
Literary Musicians • 588


Berlioz’s Literary Trinity • 589
Berlioz’s Fantastic First Symphony • 590
Following the Idée Fixe • 595
Discriminating Romanticisms • 599
The Prodigious Mendelssohn • 601
Mendelssohn’s Paulus and Civic Nationalism • 604
Nationalism Takes a Racial Turn • 606
Schumann and Literature • 607
Music of Letters • 608
Schumann’s Fantasie, Op. 17 • 610
Schumann’s “Year of Song” • 613
Schumann’s Last Years • 615
Genius Restrained: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel and Clara Wieck Schumann • 616
Summary • 618
Study Questions • 619
Key Terms • 619

CHAPTER 21
Music Imported and Exported • 620


Chopin’s Career: From Warsaw to Paris • 622
The Pinnacle of Salon Music • 623
The Chopinesque Miniature • 624
Nationalism as a Medium • 626
America Joins In • 629
Art and Democracy • 632
Russia: The Newcomer • 633
National Markings and Folk Tunes • 635
Mikhail Glinka • 636
Acquiring Brains and Beauty • 638
How the Acorn Took Root • 643
Summary • 644
Study Questions • 646
Key Terms • 646

CHAPTER 22
Musical Politics at Mid-Century: Historicism and the New German School • 647


Historicism and the Hegelian Dialectic • 648
The New German School • 650
“The Music of the Future” • 653
Absolute Music • 654
Liszt’s Symphonic Poems • 655
But What Does It Really Mean? • 656
The Concerto Transformed • 659
Genre Trouble: Berlioz Again • 662
Summary • 663
Study Questions • 665
Key Terms • 665

CHAPTER 23
Class of 1813: Wagner and Verdi • 666


Art and Revolution: Wagner’s Early Career • 667
The Artwork of the Future, Modeled on the Imagined Past • 670
From Theory into Practice: The Ring of the Nibelung • 671
Wagnerian Leitmotifs • 673
Words, Orchestra, and Theater • 676
The Ultimate Experience: Tristan und Isolde • 678
How Far Can You Stretch a Dominant? • 679
Life and Art: Beyond Good and Evil • 681
The Last Opera: Parsifal • 682
Verdi: Upholding the Italian Tradition • 684
Early Verdi: The Galley Years • 685
“Viva Verdi!”: Risorgimento Politics • 687
The Popular Style: “Va, Pensiero” • 688
Tragicomedy in the Shakespearean Manner • 689
Il trovatore and La traviata • 690
Rigoletto: Opera as Modern Drama • 692
A Job Becomes a Calling • 695
Masterly Amusement: Falstaff • 696
Summary • 698
Study Questions • 699
Key Terms • 700

CHAPTER 24
Slavic Harmony and Disharmony • 701


A Czech Abroad • 702
Má vlast • 704
The Fate of a Tune: From Folk Song to Anthem • 707
Competing Reputations at Home and Abroad • 708
Slavic Disharmony • 710
Kuchka Music • 713
Modest Musorgsky’s Realism • 714
Art and Autocracy • 715
The Coronation Scene in Boris Godunov • 717
Revising Boris Godunov • 719
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky • 720
Russian Symphonies • 721
Autobiography in Music? • 725
Summary • 729
Study Questions • 730
Key Terms • 730

CHAPTER 25
The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony • 731


New Halls and New Orchestras • 732
The Triumph of Museum Culture • 733
New Paths: Johannes Brahms • 735
Symphonic Attempts • 736
Brahms’s Chamber Music and “Developing Variation” • 737
Choral Fame • 740
Inventing Tradition • 742
Victory Through Critique • 744
Reconciliation and Backlash • 748
The Symphony as Sacrament • 750
Antonín Dvořák • 752
Dvořák in the New World • 755
An American Response • 757
War Brings Symphonies to France • 759
Summary • 762
Study Questions • 763
Key Terms • 763

CHAPTER 26
Dramatic Alternatives: Exoticism, Operetta, and Verismo • 764


Stereotyping the Other: “Orientalism” • 765
Bizet’s Carmen • 767
Russian Orientalism • 768
Gounod’s Opéra Lyrique • 770
Jacques Offenbach and Opera About Opera • 771
Johann Strauss II—The Waltz King and Viennese Operetta • 773
England’s Gilbert and Sullivan • 775
Italian Verismo • 777
Innovation and Popularity—“Canon” versus “Repertory” • 778
Giacomo Puccini’s Ascent • 780
Summary • 784
Study Questions • 785
Key Terms • 785

CHAPTER 27
Early Austro-German Modernism: Mahler, Strauss, and Schoenberg • 786


The Modern Condition • 788
Maximalism • 790
Gustav Mahler: Conductor and Composer • 792
Mahler’s Lieder • 793
From Symphonic Poem to First Symphony • 794
Maximalizing the Symphony • 796
“Down with Programs!” • 798
The Late Works • 799
Richard Strauss • 801
Maximalizing Opera • 802
Arnold Schoenberg • 805
A New Synthesis • 807
Expression Becomes an “ism” • 808
“Emancipation of Dissonance” • 809
Atonality: “The Air of Another Planet” • 810
Erwartung • 812
At the Opposite Extreme: Atonal Miniatures • 813
Summary • 820
Study Questions • 821
Key Terms • 821

CHAPTER 28
Modernism in France • 822


Wagnerian Hommages and Exorcisms • 823
Getting Rid of the Glue: Erik Satie • 824
Claude Debussy’s Early Years • 825
Voiles: Sails and/or Veils • 828
Impressionism and Symbolism • 830
Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande • 832
“Essentially French”: Fauré and Mélodie • 835
Maurice Ravel • 838
New Possibilities for Women • 838
Ballet: A Missing Genre • 841
Ballet Finds Its Theorist • 842
Stravinsky’s The Firebird and Petrushka • 844
The Rite of Spring • 847
Scandalized Reactions • 849
Summary • 852
Study Questions • 853
Key Terms • 853

CHAPTER 29
National Monuments • 854


Jean Sibelius • 855
England • 858>
Spain • 861
Folk and Modernist Synthesis: Béla Bartók • 862
Folkways • 864
Karol Szymanowski and George Enescu • 868
The Oldest Modernist: Leoš Janáček • 868
Speech Tunelets • 870
Alexander Scriabin: From Expression to Revelation • 871
Mysterium and the Ultimate Aggregate Harmonies • 875
Charles Ives • 876
Terms of Reception • 878
“Manner” and “Substance”: The Concord Sonata • 880
Nostalgia • 881
Societal Commitments • 886
Summary • 886
Study Questions • 888
Key Terms • 888

CHAPTER 30
Neoclassicism and Twelve-Tone Music • 889


Neoclassicism • 890
Igor Stravinsky’s Neoclassical Path • 893
The Music of Stravinsky’s Octet • 896
Some Ideas about the Octet • 898
The Ivory Tower • 900
In Search of Utopia: Schoenberg and Twelve-Tone Technique • 902
Giving Music New Rules • 904
Back Again to Bach • 907
Alban Berg’s Twelve-Tone Romanticism • 909
Epitome: Anton Webern • 914
Summary • 919
Study Questions • 920
Key Terms • 920

CHAPTER 31
Interwar Currents: The Roaring Twenties • 921


European “Jazz”: Parisians in America • 923
In Search of the “Real” America: Americans in Paris • 925
Tin Pan Alley and Musicals • 927
Gershwin’s “Experiment in Modern Music” • 929
Surrealism: Satie’s Parade • 933
New Fashions: Les Six • 935
From Subject to Style: Surrealist “Classicism” • 936
American Surrealism • 938
Music in the Weimar Republic • 941
Alban Berg’s Wozzeck • 942
Music for Political Action • 946
From Vienna to Hollywood: The Death of Opera? • 949
Summary • 951
Study Questions • 953
Key Terms • 953

CHAPTER 32
Music and Totalitarianism in the Soviet Union and Western Europe • 954


The Rise of the Soviet Union • 955
Music in the Soviet Union • 957
The Doctrine of Socialist Realism • 958
Dmitry Shostakovich • 959
Contested Readings: The Fifth Symphony • 962
Back in the USSR: Sergey Prokofiev • 965
Italian Fascism • 967
Arturo Toscanini and Music Making in the New Italy • 969
Music in Nazi Germany • 971
Varieties of Emigration • 972
Youth Culture • 974
Shades of Gray: Hartmann, Webern, and Strauss • 977
Summary • 979
Study Questions • 980
Key Terms • 981

CHAPTER 33
Music and Politics in America and Allied Europe • 982


Edgard Varese • 985
Microtones: Splitting the Semitone • 986
New Sounds, New Instruments, New Tunings • 987
Ferment on the American Left • 989
Aaron Copland and Politics • 990
American Patriotic Works • 992
The Great American Symphony • 995
Accessible Alternatives • 998
Opera in Midcentury • 999
Benjamin Britten • 999
A Modern Antihero: Britten’s Peter Grimes • 1000
“The Composer’s Duty” • 1004
Olivier Messiaen: “The Charm of Impossibilities” • 1005
Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time • 1006
Faith, Nature, Color, and Rhythm • 1010
Summary • 1011
Study Questions • 1012
Key Terms • 1013

CHAPTER 34
Starting from Scratch: Music in the Aftermath of World War II • 1014


Zero Hour: The Impact on the Arts • 1016
Toward Total Serialism: Olivier Messiaen’s Mode de valeurs et d’intensités • 1018
Darmstadt • 1020
Indeterminacy: John Cage and the “New York School” • 1021
Music for Prepared Piano • 1022
Silence • 1026
“Permission”: Cage’s Influence • 1027
Preserving the Sacrosanct: Morton Feldman • 1029
Conversions • 1031
Academicism, American Style • 1033
Electronics: An Old Dream Comes True • 1036
Musique Concrète, Versus Elektronische Musik • 1038
The New Technology Spreads • 1039
Electronics and Live Music • 1042
Music in History: Elliott Carter • 1045
Carter’s Later Career • 1049
“Who Cares if You Listen?” • 1051
Summary • 1052
Study Questions • 1053
Key Terms • 1054

CHAPTER 35
Change in the Sixties and Seventies • 1055


The Music of Youth: Rock ’n’ Roll • 1057
The British Invasion: The Beatles • 1059
A New Challenge • 1061
Rock ’n’ Roll Becomes Rock • 1063
The Rise of Minimalism • 1066
La Monte Young • 1067
Terry Riley’s In C • 1070
“Classical” Minimalism: Steve Reich • 1072
Phase Music • 1074
Reich’s Music for 18 Musicians • 1075
Philip Glass • 1077
Einstein on the Beach • 1079
Game Changer • 1081
The Holy Minimalists • 1082
Summary • 1085
Study Questions • 1086
Key Terms • 1087

CHAPTER 36
“Many Streams”: Millennium’s End • 1088


Competing Visions • 1089
The Cold War Ends • 1091
The Postmodern Condition • 1093
Collage and Pastiche • 1095
Aesthetics of Pastiche • 1098
Across Time and Space: George Crumb • 1100
Conversions in Reverse • 1102
The End of Soviet Music • 1104
Senior Statesmen • 1106
The Digital Revolution • 1109
Performance Art • 1111
The Alleged Death of Classical Music • 1115
John Adams and Nixon in China • 1117
A New Spirituality • 1118
Summary • 1121
Study Questions • 1123
Key Terms • 1123

Notes • 1125
Glossary • 1143
Further Reading • 1161
Art Credits • 1169
Index • 1175

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