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  1. Acquiring culture through a learning process as individuals grow up as a member of their own cultural group is called
      a. Culture shock
      b. Ethnocentrism
      c. Acculturation
      d. Adaptation
      e. Enculturation
  2. Which of the following statements regarding culture as described in the text is not true?
      a. Culture depends on symbols
      b. Culture shapes the belief and behaviors of those who are members
      c. Culture is passed on genetically
      d. Culture is adaptive
      e. Culture is learned
  3. Which of the following statements about culture from the perspective of the evolution of our species is not true?
      a. Culture appeared with the arrival of Homo sapiens
      b. Our earliest hominin ancestors were likely no different from contemporary monkeys and apes, which exhibit simple cultural traditions
      c. Complex symbolic representation has been of adaptive value to our species
      d. Symbolic language distinguishes human language from the communication systems of nonhuman primates such as apes
      e. Culture and the human brain coevolved
  4. Holism is generally understood by anthropologists as a perspective on the human condition
      a. Where culture is seen as an independent domain
      b. In which human beings are seen as shaped by both biology and culture
      c. That understands that society is the sum of its individual members
      d. That holds that cultural traditions may be reduced to beliefs, values, and practices
      e. Where our genetic makeup is responsible for cultural differences
  5. The tendency to view one's own way of life as natural or correct is known by anthropologists as
      a. Cultural relativism
      b. Symbolic coding
      c. Ethnocentrism
      d. Human agency
      e. Coevolution
  6. Although anthropologists have varied in their definitions, a holistic view of cultural relativism suggests that we
      a. Judge these practices according to a universal standard
      b. See the behavior of people engaged in practices that we do not agree with as irrational
      c. Attempt to understand the behavior but not necessarily excuse it
      d. Cannot compare cultures because cultural values vary between them
      e. Rank the relative strengths of different beliefs and practices
  7. Which of the following statements about ethnocentrism is true?
      a. It is a trait of civilized people
      b. It is the tendency to view another's culture as superior and to use that culture's values to judge the behavior and beliefs of your own culture
      c. It is the argument that there is a universal moral standard
      d. It is the view that a given culture be understood in terms of local values
      e. It is the tendency to view your own culture as superior and to apply its values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people in other cultures
  8. Although for at least the past half-century many anthropologists have made the distinction between “Culture” and “cultures,” the plural use of cultures with a lowercase “c” has been challenged. Which of the following statements does not describe an element of the argument against this distinction?
      a. Instead of protecting vulnerable peoples, the usage seemed to limit them to their ancestral traditions
      b. The plural concept of culture emphasizes cultural differences between groups
      c. The plural concept of culture assumes that all members of a given culture accept cultural differences and want to preserve them
      d. The distinction ignores the fact that “Culture” deals exclusively with the arts and the elite of a given society
      e. It may have its origins in a nineteenth-century European struggle between supporters of the Enlightenment and those who supported what has been called the Romantic Counter-Enlightenment
  9. Which of the following statements best describes how the anthropologist Eric Luke Lassiter characterizes how the Kiowa people dealt with the influx of Christian missionaries?
      a. Kiowa Christian hymns demonstrate the extent to which the Kiowa language has been lost through conversion to Christianity
      b. The Kiowa “kiowanized” Christianity
      c. “Taking the Jesus Way” became code among Kiowa for those individuals who chose to give up ancient traditions
      d. They fought physically and symbolically against Western practices of cultural imperialism
      e. All of the above are true
  10. Karl Marx once wrote, “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted by the past.” Marx's assertion is taken as an expression of which of the following conditions?
      a. Our nature as a species may be attributed to a single causal force
      b. Humans, acting alone and in groups, have at least some capacity to exercise control over the course of their lives
      c. Human culture is learned, shared, patterned, adaptive, and symbolic
      d. Moral decisions are more difficult because many things must be taken into account before an individual can make up his or her mind
      e. None of the above
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