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VLSI Design

Second Edition

Debaprasad Das

18 February 2016

ISBN: 9780198094869

660 pages

Price: £15.99



The second edition of VLSI Design is a comprehensive textbook designed for undergraduate students of electrical, electronics, and electronics and communication engineering. It provides a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts and design of VLSI systems.

  • All the steps of VLSI design have been incorporated keeping in mind the industry perspective
  • Terminologies exclusively used in the real design process are used throughout the book
  • Connection between VLSI design and CAD tools is also drawn in this book
  • Different state-of-the-art electronic design automation (EDA) tools have been explained thoroughly
  • New chapters on MOS inverters, sub-system design, semiconductor memories, and low power logic circuits
  • Revised and expanded coverage of topics such as PLD, Elmore delay model, Domino and NORA CMOS logic, and gate and device sizing

About the Author(s)

Debaprasad Das, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Assam University, Silchar

Debaprasad Das is an Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Assam University, Silchar. Dr. Das obtained his PhD from School of VLSI Technology, Bengal Engineering and Science University (now Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, IIEST an institute of National importance), Shibpur. He has five years of industry experience and about ten years of teaching experience at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Dr. Das has published several research articles in reputed international journals and conferences.

Table of Contents

    Preface to the First Edition
    List of Colour Plates
    1 Introduction to VLSI Systems
    1.1 Historical Perspective
    1.2 Introduction to IC Technology
    1.3 Types of Integrated Circuits
    1.4 Design Methodology
    1.5 Design DomainsY-Chart
    1.6 Hierarchical Abstraction
    1.7 Design Flow
    1.8 Design Styles
    1.9 Computer-aided Design
    1.10 CMOS Integrated Circuit
    1.11 Issues with Integrated Circuits at the DSM Level
    1.12 Modelling and Simulation
    1.13 Design Metrics
    1.14 Cost of Integrated Circuits
    1.15 CAD Tools for VLSI Design
    1.16 VLSI Design using Computer-aided Design Tools
    1.17 Problems in VLSI CAD Domain
    1.18 IC Chip IndustryA Brief Outlook
    1.19 Recent Developments and Future Projections
    2 MOS Transistors
    2.1 Introduction to Semiconductor Devices
    2.2 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
    2.3 Parallel Plate Capacitor
    2.4 MOS Capacitor
    2.5 MOS Transistor
    2.6 MOSFET Threshold Voltage
    2.7 MOSFET Current Equation
    2.8 MOSFET V-I Characteristics
    2.9 MOSFET Scaling
    2.10 Small Geometry Effects
    2.11 MOSFET Capacitances
    2.12 MOSFET Modelling
    3 MOS Inverters
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristics
    3.3 Resistive Load Inverter
    3.4 Enhancement-type nMOS Load Inverter
    3.5 Depletion-type nMOS Load Inverter
    3.6 CMOS Inverter
    3.7 Design of Symmetric Inverter
    3.8 Transient Analysis of CMOS Inverter
    3.9 Power Supply Voltage Scaling in CMOS Inverter
    4 Standard Cell Library Design and Characterization
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Standard Cell Library
    4.3 Schematic Design
    4.4 Layout Design
    4.5 Layout versus Schematic
    4.6 Extraction from Layout
    4.7 Antenna Effect
    4.8 Standard Cell Library Data
    4.9 Library Characterization
    4.10 Cell Characterization
    4.11 Circuit Simulation
    4.12 Measuring the Propagation Delay
    4.13 Measuring Rise and Fall Time
    4.14 Ring Oscillator
    4.15 Load/Slew Characterization Table
    4.16 Power Characterization
    4.17 Reliability and Noise Characterization
    4.18 Interconnect Delay Modelling
    5 Analog CMOS Design
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 MOSFET Small Signal Model
    5.3 MOSFET as a Switch
    5.4 MOS Diode/Resistor
    5.5 Small Signal Analysis of Single Stage Amplifiers
    5.6 MOS Current Source and Sink
    5.7 Current Mirror
    5.8 Resistor Realization Using Switched Capacitor
    5.9 MOS Voltage and Current References
    5.10 CMOS Amplifier
    5.11 MOS Differential Amplifier
    5.12 Cascode Amplifier
    5.13 Current Amplifier
    5.14 Output Amplifier
    5.15 Source Follower
    5.16 Voltage Level Shifter
    5.17 CMOS Operational Amplifier
    5.18 Comparator
    5.19 Switched Capacitor Filter
    5.20 Digital-to-Analog Converter
    5.21 Analog-to-Digital Converter
    5.22 Phase-locked Loop
    5.23 Field Programmable Analog Array
    6 Digital CMOS Logic Design
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Digital Logic Design
    6.3 CMOS Logic Design
    6.4 CMOS Design Methodology
    6.5 Design of CMOS Inverter (NOT) Gate
    6.6 Design of Two-Input NAND Gate
    6.7 Design of Two-Input NOR Gate
    6.8 Classification of CMOS Digital Logic Circuit
    6.9 Combinational Logic Circuit
    6.10 Sequential Logic Circuit
    6.11 Pseudo-nMOS Logic
    6.12 CMOS Transmission Gate
    6.13 Dynamic CMOS Logic
    6.14 Domino CMOS Logic
    6.15 NORA CMOS Logic
    6.16 Zipper CMOS Logic
    6.17 True Single-phase Clock (TSPC) Dynamic CMOS Logic
    6.18 Pass Transistor Logic
    6.19 Complementary Pass Transistor Logic
    6.20 Voltage Bootstrapping
    6.21 Differential CMOS Logic
    6.22 Adiabatic Logic
    6.23 Dual-threshold CMOS Logic
    7 Semiconductor Memories
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Static RAM
    7.3 Dynamic RAM
    7.4 Read Only Memory
    7.5 Flash Memory
    7.6 Content Addressable Memory
    7.7 Design of CAM Architecture
    8 BiCMOS Technology and Circuits
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Comparison Between CMOS and BJTs
    8.3 BiCMOS Technology
    8.4 Bipolar Logic
    8.5 BiCMOS Logic Circuits
    8.6 BiCMOS Two-Inputs NAND Logic
    8.7 BiCMOS Two-inputs NOR Logic
    8.8 Complex Logic Using BiCMOS
    8.9 Applications of BiCMOS Circuits
    8.10 Disadvantages of BiCMOS
    8.11 SiliconGermanium BiCMOS Technology
    9 Logic Synthesis
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Introduction to Synthesis
    9.3 Transistor-level or Circuit-level Synthesis
    9.4 Logic-level Synthesis
    9.5 Block-level Synthesis or Datapath Synthesis
    9.6 Logic Synthesis
    9.7 Algorithms
    9.8 Boolean Space
    9.9 Binary Decision Diagram (BDD)
    9.10 Logic SynthesisAdvantages and Disadvantages
    9.11 How Does It Work?
    9.12 Sequential Logic Optimization
    9.13 Building Blocks for Logic Design
    10 Timing Analysis
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Delay in Any System
    10.3 Delay in VLSI Circuits
    10.4 Delay in CMOS Inverter
    10.5 Slew Balancing
    10.6 Transistor Equivalency
    10.7 Case Study: Effect of Transistor Size on Propagation Delay
    10.8 Design of Two-Inputs NAND Gate for Equal Rise and Fall Slew
    10.9 Design of Two-Inputs NOR Gate for Equal Rise and Fall Slew
    10.10 MOS Capacitances
    10.11 Dependency of Delay and Slew on Power Supply Voltage
    10.12 Design Techniques for Delay Reduction
    10.13 Intrinsic Delay of Inverter
    10.14 Inverter Sizing Effect on Propagation Delay
    10.15 Inverter Chain Design
    10.16 Effect of Input Slew on Propagation Delay
    10.17 Delay Dependence on Input Patterns
    10.18 Logical Effort
    10.19 Classification of Digital Systems
    10.20 Definitions of Timing Terms
    10.21 Timing Analysis
    10.22 Timing Models
    10.23 Timing Analysis Goals
    10.24 Timing Analysis at the Chip Level
    10.25 Static vs Dynamic Timing Verification
    10.26 Factors Impacting Timing Delay
    10.27 Static Timing AnalysisCase Study
    10.28 Fixed Delay Model
    10.29 Checking Timing Constraints
    10.30 Timing Verification in Sequential Synchronous Circuits
    10.31 Hierarchical Timing Specification and Verification
    10.32 Issues with Static Delay Modelling
    10.33 First-order Gate Delay Model
    10.34 Parasitic Extraction
    10.35 Timing Convergence Problem
    10.36 Timing-Driven Logic Synthesis
    10.37 Gate and Device Sizing
    10.38 Typical Delay-area Trade-off
    10.39 Timing-driven Layout Synthesis
    11 Physical DesignFloorplanning, Placement, and Routing
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Partitioning
    11.3 Floorplanning
    11.4 Placement
    11.5 Routing
    11.6 Types Of Routing
    11.7 Special Routing
    11.8 Multilevel Routing
    11.9 Physical Design EDA Tools
    11.10 Layout Database
    12 Verification and Reliability Analysis
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Verification Methodologies in VLSI Design Flow
    12.3 Logic Verification
    12.4 Physical Verification
    12.5 Design Rule Check
    12.6 Layout Versus Schematic (LVS) Check
    12.7 Electrical Rule Check
    12.8 Antenna Check
    12.9 Metal Density Check
    12.10 Layout Extraction
    12.11 Crosstalk Analysis
    12.12 Introduction to Reliability
    12.13 IC ReliabilityDefinitions
    12.14 Reliability Issues in ICs
    12.15 Electromigration
    12.16 Time-dependent Dielectric Breakdown
    12.17 Channel Hot Electron
    12.18 Negative-bias Temperature Instability
    12.19 IR Drop
    12.20 Latch-up
    12.21 Electrical Overstress and Electrostatic Discharge
    12.22 Soft Error
    13 IC Packaging
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Types of IC Packages
    13.3 Package Modelling
    13.4 Electrical Package Modelling
    13.5 IC Package Thermal Modelling
    13.6 IC Package Stress Modelling
    13.7 Package Models
    13.8 Package Simulation
    13.9 Flip-chip Package
    14 VLSI Testing
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Importance of Testing
    14.3 Fault Models
    14.4 Fault Simulation
    14.5 Design for Testability
    14.6 Ad Hoc Testing
    14.7 Scan Test
    14.8 Boundary Scan Test
    14.9 Built-in Self Test
    14.10 Automatic Test-pattern Generation
    14.11 IDDQ Test
    14.12 Design for Manufacturability (DMF)
    14.13 Design Economics
    14.14 Yield
    14.15 Probe Test
    15 Field Programmable Gate Array
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Programmable Logic Devices
    15.3 Sequential PLD
    15.4 Complex PLD
    15.5 Field Programmable Gate Array
    15.6 Xilinx SRAM-based FPGA
    15.7 Comparison between FPGA, ASIC, and CPLD
    15.8 FPGA-based System Design
    15.9 IRSIM
    15.10 Generalized Open Source Programmable Logic
    16 VLSI Process Technology
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Crystal Growth
    16.3 Photolithography
    16.4 CMOS Technology: n-well and p-well Process
    16.5 Oxidation
    16.6 Diffusion
    16.7 Ion Implantation
    16.8 Etching
    16.9 Epitaxial Growth
    16.10 Metallization
    16.11 Packaging
    17 Subsystem Design
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Adders
    17.3 Multipliers
    17.4 Drivers and Buffers
    18 Low Power Logic Circuits
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Power Dissipation in Logic Circuits
    18.3 Power Reduction Techniques
    18.4 Low Power Design Techniques
    Appendix A Digital Design Using VHDL
    Appendix B Digital Design Using Verilog
    Appendix C SPICE Tutorial
    Appendix D Answers to Objective-type Questions

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