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Cover

Solid State Electronic Devices

Second Edition

K. Bhattacharya and Rajnish Sharma

July 2014

ISBN: 9780198084570

568 pages
Paperback
234x156mm

Price: £17.99

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Description

The second edition of Solid State Electronic Devices serves as a textbook for an introductory course on solid state electronic devices.

  • Provides a thorough understanding of the basic principles of solid state physics which forms the basis of semiconductor device design
  • Elucidates the working of traditional as well as modern semiconductor devices
  • Includes pedagogical features such as review questions, solved problems, end-chapter review exercises, and a recapitulation of the topics covered
  • Includes appendices containing important physical and lattice constants, international system of units, and important properties of semiconductors

About the Author(s)

K. Bhattacharya, Solid State Physics Laboratory, New Delhi, and Rajnish Sharma, Chitkara University, HP

D.K. Bhattacharya currently heads the Ion Implantation Group, Microwave and Instrumentation Group, Hydrophone Group and Quality Promotion Group at the Solid State Physics Laboratory, New Delhi. He has over two decades of experience as a practicing semiconductor scientist including a long association with the MEMS Division , Solid State Physics Laboratory , New Delhi. Rajnish Sharma teaches subjects related to electronic devices at Chitkara University, HP. A PhD from Kurukshetra University and National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, he has served BITS , Pilani as a faculty for almost 6 years.

Table of Contents

    Symbols
    Important Formulae and Expressions
    1:: Electron Dynamics
    Introduction 2
    1.1 Conduction of Electricity through Gases
    1.1.1 Glow Discharge
    1.2 Motion of Charged Particle in Electric Field
    1.2.1 Energy Acquired by Electron
    1.2.2 Electron Transit Time
    1.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in Magnetic Field
    1.4 Motion of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Field
    1.5 Cathode-ray Tube
    1.5.1 Focussing with Electric Fields
    1.5.2 Focussing with Magnetic Field
    1.5.3 Deflection Systems
    2:: Growth and Crystal Properties of Semiconductors
    Introduction
    2.1 Semiconductor Materials
    2.2 Types of Solids
    2.3 Crystal Lattices
    2.3.1 Unit Cell
    2.3.2 Cubic Lattices
    2.3.3 Crystal Planes and Directions
    2.3.4 Diamond Lattice
    2.4 Atomic Bonding
    2.4.1 Van der Waals Bond
    2.4.2 Ionic Bond
    2.4.3 Covalent Bond
    2.4.4 Metallic Bond
    2.5 Imperfections and Impurities in Solids
    2.5.1 Imperfections
    2.5.2 Impurities
    2.6 Bulk Crystal Growth
    2.6.1 Starting Material
    2.6.2 Single-crystal Ingots
    2.7 Epitaxial Growth
    2.7.1 Vapour-phase Epitaxy
    2.7.2 Liquid-phase Epitaxy
    2.7.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy
    3:: Energy Bands and Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
    Introduction
    3.1 Bonding Force and Formation of Energy Bands
    3.2 E-k Diagrams
    3.2.1 Band Structure Modification in Semiconductors
    3.4 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
    3.4.1 Electrons and Holes
    3.4.2 Intrinsic Semiconductor
    3.4.3 Extrinsic Semiconductor
    3.5 Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors
    3.5.1 Fermi Level
    3.5.2 Equilibrium Electron and Hole Concentrations
    3.5.3 Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations
    3.5.4 Compensation
    3.6 Carrier Drift
    3.6.1 Mobility and Conductivity
    3.6.2 High-field effect
    3.6.3 Hall Effect
    3.7 Carrier Diffusion
    3.7.1 Diffusion Current Density
    3.7.2 Total Current Density
    3.8 Graded Impurity Distribution
    3.8.1 Induced Field
    3.8.2 Einstein Relation
    4:: Excess Carriers in Semiconductors
    Introduction
    4.1 Semiconductor in Equilibrium
    4.2 Excess Carrier Generation and Recombination
    4.2.1 Optical Absorption
    4.2.2 Excess Minority Carrier Lifetime
    4.3 Carrier Lifetime (General Case)
    4.3.1 Shockley-Read-Hall Theory
    4.3.2 Low Injection
    4.4 Diffusion and Recombination
    4.4.1 Continuity Equation
    4.4.2 Haynes-Shockley Experiment
    4.5 Quasi-Fermi Energy Levels
    4.6 Surface Effects
    4.6.1 Surface States
    4.6.2 Surface Recombination Velocity
    5:: p-n Junction
    Introduction
    5.1 Fabrication of p-n Junctions
    5.1.1 p-n Junction Formation
    5.1.2 Thermal Oxidation
    5.1.3 Diffusion
    5.2 Basic p-n Junction
    5.2.1 Basic Structure
    5.2.2 No Applied Bias
    5.2.3 Built-in Electric Field
    5.2.4 Space-charge Region Width
    5.3 Reverse-biased p-n Junction
    5.3.1 Energy Band Diagram
    5.3.2 Space-charge Width and Electric Field
    5.3.2 Depletion Capacitance
    5.3.4 One-sided Abrupt Junction
    5.4 Junctions With Non-uniform Doping
    5.4.1 Linearly Graded Junctions
    5.4.2 Hyper-abrupt Junctions
    5.5 Varactor Diode
    5.6 Junction Breakdown
    5.6.1 Zener Breakdown
    5.6.2 Avalanche Breakdown
    5.7 Tunnel Diode
    6:: p-n Junction Current
    Introduction
    6.1 p-n Junction Current Flow
    6.1.1 Charge Flow in a p-n Junction
    6.1.2 Ideal Current-Voltage Characteristics
    6.1.3 Boundary Conditions
    6.1.4 Minority Carrier Distribution
    6.1.5 Junction Current in Ideal p-n Junction
    6.1.6 Short Diode
    6.2 Small-signal Model of p-n Junction
    6.2.1 Diffusion Resistance
    6.2.2 Diffusion Capacitance
    6.2.3 Equivalent Circuit
    6.3 Generation-Recombination Currents
    6.3.1 Reverse-bias Generation Current
    6.3.2 Forward-bias Recombination Current
    6.3.3 Net Forward-bias Current
    6.4 Junction Diode Switching Times
    7:: Metal-Semiconductor Junctions and Hetero-junctions
    Introduction
    7.1 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
    7.1.1 Schottky Model
    7.1.2 Space-charge Width and Junction Capacitance
    7.1.3 Characteristics Based on Emission Model
    7.1.4 Schottky Effect
    7.1.5 Tunnelling Current
    7.2 Effect of Surface States and Interface
    7.3 Metal-Semiconductor Ohmic Contacts
    7.3.1 Specific Contact Resistance
    7.4 Heterojunctions
    7.4.1 Energy Band Diagram
    7.4.2 Two-dimensional Electron Gas
    7.4.3 Quantum Confinement of Carriers
    8:: Bipolar Junction Transistors
    Introduction
    8.1 Fundamentals of Bipolar Junction Transistors
    8.2 Current Components and Relations
    8.3 Important Notations and Configurations
    8.4 BJT Characteristics
    8.5 Current Gains for Transistor
    8.6 Minority Carrier Distribution
    8.6.1 Base Region
    8.6.2 Emitter Region
    8.6.3 Collector Region
    8.7 Models for Bipolar Junction Transistors
    8.7.1 Ebers-Moll Model
    8.7.2 Gummel-Poon Model
    8.7.3 Hybrid-pi Model
    8.7.4 h-parameter Equivalent Circuit Model
    8.8 Important Configuration of BJT
    8.8.1 Common-emitter Amplifier
    8.8.2 Common-base Amplifier
    8.8.3 Common-collector Amplifier
    8.9 Thermal Runaway
    8.10 Kirk Effect
    8.11 Frequency Limitation for Transistor
    8.12 Webster Effect
    8.13 High-frequency Transistors
    8.14 Switching Characteristics of BJT
    8.14.1 Schottky Transistor
    9:: Field-effect Transistor
    Introduction
    9.1 Junction-field-effect Transistor
    9.1.1 Operating Principle
    9.1.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
    9.2 Metal-semiconductor Field-effect Transistor
    9.2.1 Normally Off and Normally On MESFETs
    9.2.2 High-electron-mobility Transistor
    9.3 Basic MOS Structure
    9.3.1 Depletion Layer Thickness
    9.3.2 Work-function Difference
    9.4 Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of MOS Capacitor
    9.4.1 Interface Traps and Oxide Charge
    9.4.2 Effect of Oxide Charge on C-V Characteristics
    9.5 MOS Field-effect Transistor
    9.5.1 MOSFET Characteristics
    9.5.2 Short Channel Effect
    9.5.3 Control of Threshold Voltage
    9.5.4 Substrate Bias Effect
    9.5.5 Sub-threshold Characteristics
    9.5.6 Equivalent Circuit for MOSFET
    9.5.7 MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects
    9.5.8 Drain-induced Barrier Lowering
    9.5.9 Short Channel and Narrow Width Effect
    9.5.10 Gate-induced Drain Leakage
    9.5.11 Comparison of BJT with MOSFET
    9.5.12 Types of MOSFET
    10:: Opto-electronic Devices
    Introduction
    10.1 Optical Absorption
    10.1.1 Optical Absorption
    10.1.2 Excess Carrier Generation Rate
    10.2 Photovoltaic Cells
    10.2.1 p-n Junction Solar Cells
    10.2.2 Conversion Efficiency
    10.2.3 Effect of Series Resistance
    10.2.4 Heterojunction Solar Cells
    10.2.5 Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells
    10.3 Photodetectors
    10.3.1 Photoconductors
    10.3.2 Photodiodes
    10.3.3 Phototransistors
    10.4 Light-emitting Diodes
    10.4.1 LED Materials and Devices
    10.4.2 Loss Mechanisms and Structure
    10.5 Laser Diodes
    10.5.1 Materials and Structures
    10.5.2 Population Inversion
    11:: Power Devices
    Introduction
    11.1 Bipolar Power Transistors
    11.1.1 Current Crowding
    11.1.2 Vertical Transistor Structure
    11.1.3 Transistor Characteristics
    11.1.4 Darlington Pair Configuration
    11.2 Power MOSFETs
    11.2.1 Structures
    11.2.2 Power MOSFET Characteristics
    11.3 Heat Sink
    11.4 Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier
    11.4.1 Fundamental Characteristics
    11.4.2 Two-transistor Model
    11.4.3 Depletion Layer Width and Effect of Gate Current
    11.4.4 Bidirectional Thyristors
    11.5 Gate Turn-off Thyristor
    11.6 Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor
    11.7 Unijunction Transistor
    12:: Integrated Circuits and Micro-electromechanical Systems
    Introduction
    12.1 Photolithography
    12.2 Etching Techniques
    12.2.1 Wet Etching
    12.2.2 Dry Etching
    12.3 Passive Components
    12.3.1 Resistors
    12.3.2 Capacitors
    12.3.3 Inductors
    12.4 Bipolar Technology
    12.4.1 Basic Process
    12.4.2 Dielectric Isolation
    12.5 MOSFET Technology
    12.5.1 NMOS Process
    12.5.2 NMOS Memory Devices
    12.5.3 Charge-coupled Devices
    12.5.4 CMOS Technology
    12.6 MESFET Technology
    12.7 Micro-electromechanical Systems
    12.7.1 Basic Processes
    13:: Microwave Devices
    Introduction
    13.1 Types of Microwave Devices
    13.2 Working Principle of Gunn and IMPATT Diodes
    13.2.1 Gunn Diode
    13.2.2 IMPATT Diode
    13.3 Operation of TRAPATT and BARITT Diodes
    13.3.1 TRAPATT Diode
    13.3.2 BARITT Diode
    14:: Rectifiers and Power Supplies
    Introduction
    14.1 Single-phase Rectifiers
    14.1.1 Half-wave Rectifier
    14.1.2 Full-wave Rectifier
    14.1.3 Bridge Rectifier
    14.1.4 Ripple Factor
    14.2 Filter Circuits
    14.2.1 Shunt-capacitor Filter
    14.2.2 ? Filter
    14.2.3 RC Filter
    14.3 Voltage Regulators
    14.3.1 Zener Diode Regulator
    14.3.2 Series Voltage Regulator
    14.4 Switched-mode Power Supply
    Appendix A: Important Physical Constants
    Appendix B: Important Lattice Constants
    Appendix C: Properties of Some Common Semiconductors
    Appendix D: Bandgaps of Some Semiconductors Relative to the Optical Spectrum
    Appendix E: Properties of Silicon, Germanium and Gallium Arsenide at 300 K
    Appendix F: Important Properties of Si3N4 and SiO2 at 300 K
    Appendix G: Table of the Error Function
    Appendix H: The Periodic Table of Elements
    Appendix I: International System of Units
    References
    Index

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