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Cover

Living Philosophy

A Historical Introduction to Philosophical Ideas

Third Edition

Lewis Vaughn

October 2021

ISBN: 9780190081515

528 pages
Paperback
254x203mm

In Stock

Price: £68.00

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Description

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  • A comprehensive introductory chapter lays the groundwork for philosophical thinking
  • "Then and Now," "Details," and "Portrait" boxes throughout the text demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy
  • Additional pedagogical aids—chapter objectives and summaries, marginal critical thinking questions, essay/discussion questions, and a glossary—make the material even more engaging and accessible
  • In-depth coverage of philosophical writing includes step-by-step coaching in argument basics and multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking skills
  • Charts, tables, and color photos keep students visually engaged
  • A "How to Write a Philosophy Paper" appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay

About the Author(s)

Lewis Vaughn

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several textbooks, including Applying Critical Thinking to Modern Media (2020), Bioethics, Fourth Edition (2019), The Power of Critical Thinking, Sixth Edition (2018), Philosophy Here and Now, Third Edition (2018), and Writing Philosophy, Second Edition (2018).

Table of Contents

    *=New to this Edition
    Each chapter ends with Writing and Reasoning, Review Notes, Key Terms, Notes, For Further Reading, and Online Resources.
    Preface

    CHAPTER 1. WHY PHILOSOPHY
    1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for Understanding
    The Good of Philosophy
    Philosophical Terrain
    Details: Your Philosophical Beliefs
    Details: Main Divisions of Philosophy
    1.2 Socrates and the Examined Life
    Portrait: Plato
    Then and Now: Socrates Café
    1.3 Thinking Philosophically
    Reasons and Arguments
    Details: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms
    Reading Philosophy
    Portrait: Hypatia
    Fallacious Reasoning
    CHAPTER 2. THE PRE-SOCRATICS AND THE SOPHISTS
    2.1 Thales and Anaximander
    2.2 Heraclitus
    Then and Now: The (Ancient) Theory of Evolution
    Portrait: Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans
    2.3 Parmenides
    Details: Zeno's Paradoxes
    2.4 Democritus
    2.5 Protagoras and the Sophists
    Then and Now: Moral Relativism and Tolerance
    Readings
    Aristotle: Metaphysics
    Aristotle: On the Heavens
    Heraclitus: Fragment
    Parmenides: On Nature
    Plato: "Theaetetus"
    CHAPTER 3. SOCRATES: AN EXAMINED LIFE
    3.1 The Philosophical Gadfly
    3.2 The Socratic Method
    Portrait: Early Women Philosophers: Themistoclea, Arignote, and Theano
    3.3 Knowledge and Ignorance
    Details: Socrates in the Clouds
    3.4 Socrates' Trial and Death
    Details: Socrates' Last Minutes
    Then and Now: Your Examined/Unexamined Life
    Readings
    Xenophon: Symposium
    Plato: Symposium
    * Plato: Euthyphro
    Plato: The Republic
    Plato: Apology

    CHAPTER 4. PLATO: THE REALLY REAL
    4.1 Plato's Life and Times
    Portrait: Diotima of Mantinea
    4.2 Knowledge and Reality
    Believing and Knowing
    Reason and the Forms
    Details: Critiques of the Forms
    Plato's Rationalism
    Then and Now: Modern Platonism
    4.3 Allegory of the Cave
    4.4 Immortality, Morality, and the Soul
    The Immortal Soul
    The Three-Part Soul
    The Moral Soul
    Details: The Ring of Gyges
    4.5 The Individual and the State
    Readings
    Plato: Meno
    Plato: Phaedo
    Plato: The Republic
    G.M.A. Grube: Plato's Thought
    Julia Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic

    CHAPTER 5. ARISTOTLE: REASON AND NATURE
    5.1 The Life of Aristotle
    Portrait: Aristotle and Alexander
    5.2 Logic, Knowledge, and Truth
    Then and Now: Aristotle and Modern Science
    5.3 Physics and Metaphysics
    Substance
    Change
    Cause
    Purpose
    Details: Aristotle's God
    5.4 Happiness, Virtue, and the Good
    Details: Aristotle's Soul
    Readings
    J.L. Ackrill, Aristotle the Philosopher
    Diogenes Laertius: Lives of the Philosophers
    Anthony Gottlieb: The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance
    Aristotle: Metaphysics
    Aristotle: Posterior Analytics
    Aristotle: Physics
    Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics

    CHAPTER 6. EASTERN THOUGHT
    6.1 Hinduism
    Beginnings
    The Vedas
    Then and Now: The Caste System
    After the Vedas
    Hindu Philosophies
    Details: Hinduism and Modernity
    6.2 Buddhism
    Buddhist Complexities
    The Buddha's Teachings
    Portrait: The Buddha
    Then and Now: Buddhism and Science
    Details: Buddhism and Violence
    6.3 Daoism
    6.4 Confucianism
    Details: The Confucian Canon
    Readings
    Kalama Sutra
    Ajahn Sumedho
    Dhammacakapparattana Sutta
    Walpola Rahula: What the Buddha Thought
    The Chuang Tzu
    Tao-te Ching
    Analects
    John B. Noss: A History of the World's Religions

    CHAPTER 7. THE HELLENISTIC ERA
    7.1 Epicurus
    7.2 Epictetus
    Portrait: Lucretius
    7.3 Sextus Empiricus
    Then and Now: Stoicism Today
    Details: The Self-Destruction of Skepticism
    Readings
    Epicurus: Letter to Menoeceus
    A.A. Long: Hellenistic Philosophers: Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics
    Epictetus: Encheiridion
    * Donald Robertson: Stoicism and the Art of Happiness
    Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism
    CHAPTER 8. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
    8.1 Between Ancient and Modern
    8.2 Augustine
    Truth
    The Hierarchy of Being
    Good and Evil
    8.3 Anselm and Aquinas
    Anselm
    Aquinas
    Details: Science and the Uncaused Universe
    8.4 Avicenna and Maimonides
    Avicenna
    Maimonides
    Portrait: Averroës
    8.5 Hildegard of Bingen
    8.6 William of Ockham
    Then and Now: Modern Realism about Universals
    Readings
    Augustine: Confessions
    Augustine: On Free Will
    Anselm: Proslogium
    Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason
    Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica
    Hildegard: Causae et Curae
    Frederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy, Volume II: Medieval Philosophy: From Augustine to Duns Scotus
    9. DESCARTES: DOUBT AND CERTAINTY
    9.1 The Pursuit of Knowledge
    Then and Now: The Scientific (and Philosophical) Revolution
    9.2 Plato's Rationalism
    Details: Innate Ideas
    9.3 Descartes' Doubt
    Details: Living in the Matrix
    9.4 Descartes' Certainty
    Portrait: René Descartes
    Reading
    René Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy
    CHAPTER 10. FROM HOBBES TO HUME
    10.1 Hobbes
    10.2 Locke
    Then and Now: The Defeat of Relativism
    10.3 Berkeley
    10.4 Hume
    Portrait: David Hume
    10.5 Spinoza
    Details: Russell on Spinoza
    10.6 Leibniz
    Readings
    Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
    John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    George Berkeley: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge
    David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Discourse on Metaphysics

    CHAPTER 11. KANT'S REVOLUTION
    11.1 The Small-Town Genius
    11.2 The Knowledge Revolution
    Portrait: Copernicus
    Then and Now: Conceptualizing the World
    11.3 The Moral Law
    Ethics and Morality
    Details: Moral Relativism
    Kant's Theory
    Readings
    Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
    Immanuel Kant: Critique of Pure Reason
    Immanuel Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

    CHAPTER 12. JOHN STUART MILL AND UTILITARIANISM
    12.1 The Philosopher-Reformer
    12.2 Mill's Utilitarianism
    Portrait: Jeremy Bentham
    Details: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule
    Then and Now: Utilitarianism and the Death Penalty
    12.3 Critiques of the Theory
    Details: Mill's View of Personal Freedom
    Readings
    * Harriet Taylor: Champion of Liberty
    John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism

    CHAPTER 13. HEGEL AND MARX
    13.1 Hegel
    Portrait: Hegel
    13.2 Marx
    Details: Einstein on Socialism
    Then and Now: Is the United States a Socialist Country?
    Readings
    Hegel: Lectures on the History of Philosophy
    Marx: The Communist Manifesto

    CHAPTER 14. EXISTENTIALISM
    14.1 The Existential Tone
    14.2 Kierkegaard
    14.3 Nietzsche
    Details: Nietzsche: Myths and Rumors
    Portrait: Schopenhauer
    14.4 Heidegger
    14.5 Sartre
    Portrait: Sartre
    Details: The Stir Caused by Sartre
    14.6 Camus
    Then and Now: Existentialism in Literature and Film
    Readings
    Patrick Gardiner: Kierkegaard: A Very Short Introduction
    Søren Kierkegaard: Either/Or
    Søren Kierkegaard: The Point of View
    Søren Kierkegaard: Journal
    Søren Kierkegaard: Concluding Unscientific Postscript
    Friedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
    Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil
    Friedrich Nietzsche: The Gay Science
    Martin Heidegger: The Basic Problems of Phenomenology
    Thomas R. Flynn: Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction
    Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism
    Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus
    CHAPTER 15. THE PRAGMATISTS: PEIRCE AND JAMES
    15.1 The Pragmatist Way
    15.2 Peirce
    Details: Four Ways to Fix Belief
    15.3 James
    Portrait: William James
    Then and Now: James and Indeterminism
    Readings
    William James: "Pragmatism"
    Charles Sanders Peirce: "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
    William James: "The Will to Believe"
    Michael Martin: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification

    CHAPTER 16. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHERS
    16.1 Mary Wollstonecraft
    Portrait: Wollstonecraft
    16.2 Simone de Beauvoir
    Then and Now: Innate Gender Differences?
    16.3 Feminist Ethics
    Details: Ethics Terminology
    16.4 Feminist Perspectives on Knowledge
    Readings
    Alison Ainley: "Feminist Philosophy"
    Louis M. Antony: "Embodiment and Epistemology"
    Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    Judith Thurman: Introduction to The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir
    Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex
    Alison Jaggar: "Feminist Ethics"
    Jan Crosthwaite: "Gender and Bioethics"
    Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
    Annette C. Baier: "The Need for More Than Justice"
    Elizabeth Anderson: "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science"
    Eve Browning Cole: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism
    17. THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
    * 17.1 Appiah: Cosmopolitanism
    * 17.2 Nussbaum: Religious Tolerance
    * 17.3 Blum: Racism
    * 17.4 Martin Luther King, Jr.: Civil Rights
    * 17.5 Chalmers: Consciousness and Zombies
    * 17.6 Gardiner: Climate Change
    * 17.7 Derrida and Cixous: Deconstruction
    Readings
    Kwame Anthony Appiah: Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers
    Martha Nussbaum: The New Religious Intolerance
    * Lawrence Blum: "I'm Not a Racist, But . . . "
    Martin Luther King, Jr., in A Testament of Hope
    Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Nonviolence and Racial Justice"
    Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
    * David Chalmer: The Conscious Mind
    * Stephen Gardiner: A Perfect Moral Storm
    Susan Sellers: The Hélène Cixous Reader
    CHAPTER 18. THE MEANING OF LIFE
    18.1 The Search for Meaning
    18.2 Pessimism: Life Has No Meaning
    18.3 Optimism: Life Can Have Meaning
    Meaning from Above
    Details: Is Religion Necessary for a Meaningful Life?
    Meaning from Below
    Details: What Can and Cannot Give Life Meaning
    Readings
    Leo Tolstoy: My Confession
    Arthur Schopenhauer: On the Sufferings of the World
    Julian Baggini: What's It All About?
    Paul Edwards: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    * Iddo Landau: Finding Meaning in an Imperfect World

    APPENDIX A: How to Write a Philosophy Paper
    APPENDIX B: Deductive and Inductive Arguments

    Glossary
    Credits
    Index of Marginal Quotations
    General Index

Reviews

"Living Philosophy is student-friendly, relevant, attractive, and visually rich." - Mary Angelec Cooksey, Indiana University East

"Living Philosophy is comprehensive, accessible, and well organized. It offers many resources that make the life of a professor easier. I have recommended it to several colleagues." - Erik Kostiuk, Chaffey College and Mt. San Antonio College